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Dissertations and Theses

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Articles 1 - 30 of 1945

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Gentrification And Student Achievement: A Quantitative Analysis Of Student Performance On Standardized Tests In Portland's Gentrifying Neighborhoods, Justin Ward Apr 2019

Gentrification And Student Achievement: A Quantitative Analysis Of Student Performance On Standardized Tests In Portland's Gentrifying Neighborhoods, Justin Ward

Dissertations and Theses

Across the United States one would be hard pressed to find an urban center that has been unaffected by the phenomenon known as gentrification. From substantial economic growth to the displacement of long-term residents, the benefits and criticisms of the process of gentrification are wide ranging and extend over a thorough body of literature. Commonly associated with increasing levels of education and higher resident incomes, gentrification should be a boon to struggling public schools that are continually plagued by generational poverty. Unfortunately, the continued widening of the education gap and increasing racial segregation in our public schools (G. J. Duncan ...


Arctic Security: The Race For The Arctic Through The Prism Of International Relations Theory, Michael Gregory Morgan Trujillo Mar 2019

Arctic Security: The Race For The Arctic Through The Prism Of International Relations Theory, Michael Gregory Morgan Trujillo

Dissertations and Theses

The purpose of the thesis is to examine future international relations in the Arctic as a theoretical exercise based on realism and liberalism. As the ice cap shrinks, and the region's environment changes, developing costs will decrease allowing for resource-extraction while new transit routes emerge. The opportunities to develop resources and ship via the Arctic are economic and strategically valuable, altering the geopolitics of the region. This thesis seeks to explore how resource development and new transit routes will affect regional politics through the lens of two theories. The two theoretical approaches will examine states and actors' interests and ...


Stratospheric Polar Vortex Variability In The Northern Hemisphere: The Effects Of Climate Change On Polar Vortex Trends And Future Projections, John Earl Rogers Mar 2019

Stratospheric Polar Vortex Variability In The Northern Hemisphere: The Effects Of Climate Change On Polar Vortex Trends And Future Projections, John Earl Rogers

Dissertations and Theses

Regions that have experienced recent successive cold winters such as the Northeast of North America and Siberia have endured critical social and economic impacts from anomalous low temperatures in recent years, despite warming global temperatures. It is well known that the Tropospheric Polar Vortex (TPV), or jet stream, is a primary influence on many mid-latitude winter weather patterns. However, the strong circumpolar westerlies that maximize at around 60° latitude just above the tropopause, known as the Stratospheric Polar Vortex (SPV), can affect tropospheric circulation and thus winter weather in the Northern Hemisphere. Strong upward propagating waves can affect the geographic ...


Physical And Emotional Sibling Violence And Child Welfare: A Critical Realist Exploratory Study, Katherine Elizabeth Winters Mar 2019

Physical And Emotional Sibling Violence And Child Welfare: A Critical Realist Exploratory Study, Katherine Elizabeth Winters

Dissertations and Theses

Sibling violence is a pervasive, yet poorly understood and substantially underreported phenomenon. Currently recognized as the most common form of intra-familial abuse, various estimates suggest that 30 percent or more of children in the general population experience severe acts of violence inflicted by a sibling each year.

Given that many young people in the child welfare system experience the family conditions associated with abusive sibling violence, recent publications have implored child welfare to embrace the notion that it is a form of child maltreatment. Practitioners and policymakers have yet to reach agreement on what constitutes physical or emotional abuse between ...


Racial Disparities In A State Based Workers' Compensation System, Caroline Kristine Smith Mar 2019

Racial Disparities In A State Based Workers' Compensation System, Caroline Kristine Smith

Dissertations and Theses

Racial, ethnic, and linguistic minority workers suffer higher rates of work-related injuries and illnesses in the United States compared to their White counterparts. Explanations for these higher rates include potential socioeconomic causes (education, income, and wealth) and occupational segregation into more dangerous occupations. What is less studied are the post-injury sequelae for minority workers, which is their experiences in the workers' compensation system, as well as their health and return to paid employment. What is known comes primarily from qualitative literature, which includes themes of racial discrimination (from employers, health care providers, and workers' compensation employees), a lack of information ...


Our Vision Of Health For Future Generations: An Exploration Of Proximal And Intermediary Motivations With Women Of The Choctaw Nation Of Oklahoma, Danica Love Brown Mar 2019

Our Vision Of Health For Future Generations: An Exploration Of Proximal And Intermediary Motivations With Women Of The Choctaw Nation Of Oklahoma, Danica Love Brown

Dissertations and Theses

Health disparities and substance misuse are increasingly prevalent, costly, and deadly in Indian Country. Although women historically held positions of influence in pre-colonial Tribal societies and shared in optimum health, their current health is relegated to some of the worst outcomes across all racial groups in the United States. Women of the Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma (CNO) have some of the highest prevalence estimates in physical inactivity and excessive drinking in the United States. Building on the Indigenous Stress Coping model of indigenous health, "Our Vision of Health for Future Generations" explores the intersection of a historical event, the Trail ...


Grappling With The African E-Waste Pandemic: Contributing Factors And Future Deterrence, Brittany Nicole Wideman Mar 2019

Grappling With The African E-Waste Pandemic: Contributing Factors And Future Deterrence, Brittany Nicole Wideman

Dissertations and Theses

Electronic waste is the fastest growing waste stream worldwide. Illegal methods of transport, indifference in legislative response, and public ignorance of what to do in response, all influence e-waste proliferation. This dirty industry of e-waste is hazardous to human health and well-being as well as the environment. Since this dirty industry has ballooned over the last few decades, two major questions arise: What are the primary and secondary factors that influence the proliferation of e-waste dumping in developing countries; and what structures are emerging to combat the e-waste problem in developing countries in Africa? The following pages will investigate the ...


Scientists, Uncertainty And Nature, An Analysis Of The Development, Implementation And Unintended Consequences Of The Northwest Forest Plan, Gilbert David Miller Feb 2019

Scientists, Uncertainty And Nature, An Analysis Of The Development, Implementation And Unintended Consequences Of The Northwest Forest Plan, Gilbert David Miller

Dissertations and Theses

The conflict in the Pacific Northwest between competing visions of how federal forests should be managed resulted in a political stalemate in the early 1990s. The Northwest Forest Plan (NWFP) was initiated to resolve the demands for maintaining ecosystem processes and biological diversity with the social and economic needs for timber harvest. The foundation for the plan rested with the development of ecosystem management. The intent of this research is to explore the events which led up to the adoption of the NWFP, how it was implemented by the US Forest Service and Bureau of Land Management and the subsequent ...


Relational Thriving In Context: Examining The Roles Of Gratitude, Affectionate Touch, And Positive Affective Variability In Health And Well-Being, Alicia Rochelle Starkey Feb 2019

Relational Thriving In Context: Examining The Roles Of Gratitude, Affectionate Touch, And Positive Affective Variability In Health And Well-Being, Alicia Rochelle Starkey

Dissertations and Theses

Social connection is important to one's health and longevity. However, not only do people need others to survive, we need others to thrive. Researchers call for deeper examination of the functions and processes through which our social partners help us to prosper and thrive, such as through increased physical health and well-being (Feeney & Collins, 2015; Pietromonaco & Collins, 2017). Over three studies, I examined phenomena theorized to contribute to long-term thriving including positive emotions (i.e., gratitude and positive affect fluctuation), responsive support, affectionate touch, and physical health (i.e., sleep) within the context of nursing work (Study 1) and military relationships (Study 2 & 3). Study 1 provides support for the benefits of received gratitude expressions, an understudied component of gratitude interactions. Specifically, nurses receiving more thanks within their work week were associated with feeling more satisfied with their patient care and in turn positive physical health outcomes including higher sleep quality, for example. Thus, not only is feeling grateful important to well-being but receiving thanks from others benefits one's physical health as well. Study 2 extended research describing the impact of the dynamic and fluctuating nature of emotion and physical health to close relationships by examining how positive affect variability (intra-individual standard deviation) and instability (differences between each successive day's mood) promotes or hinders intimacy. The second study found that greater fluctuations in positive affect over time were associated with greater reports of closeness within military couples. Recent research indicates that variability in positive and negative mood contributes to reduced psychological and physical well-being; however, when applied to the study of close relationships, Study 2 suggests that variation in positive mood may instead benefit military couples. Finally, Study 3 investigated the degree to which affectionate touch enhances the interrelationships among negative event support, gratitude, and sleep within Veterans and ...


The Role Of Teacher Autonomy Support Across The Transition To Middle School: Its Components, Reach, And Developmental Effects, Julia Sara Dancis Jan 2019

The Role Of Teacher Autonomy Support Across The Transition To Middle School: Its Components, Reach, And Developmental Effects, Julia Sara Dancis

Dissertations and Theses

Building upon self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985; 2000), this study sought to ascertain the reach of teacher autonomy support beyond its well-documented impact on student autonomy and engagement to include student competence and relatedness, as well as to parse apart specific teacher behaviors that comprise autonomy support (i.e., respect, choice, relevance, coercion) and their unique influences on the multiple motivational outcomes, surrounding the transition to middle school. These questions were examined using information from 224 fifth graders, 339 sixth graders, and 345 seventh graders attending elementary and middle schools in a predominantly Caucasian working and middle class school district.

Regression analyses ...


Evaluating The Impact And Distribution Of Stormwater Green Infrastructure On Watershed Outflow, Benjamin Fahy Jan 2019

Evaluating The Impact And Distribution Of Stormwater Green Infrastructure On Watershed Outflow, Benjamin Fahy

Dissertations and Theses

Green Stormwater Infrastructure (GSI) has become a popular method for flood mitigation as it can prevent runoff from entering streams during heavy precipitation. In this study, a recently developed neighborhood in Gresham, Oregon hosts a comparison of various GSI projects on runoff dynamics. The study site includes dispersed GSI (rain gardens, retention chambers, green streets) and centralized GSI (bioswales, detention ponds, detention pipes). For the 2017-2018 water year, hourly rainfall and observed discharge data is used to calibrate the EPA's Stormwater Management Model to simulate rainfall-runoff dynamics, achieving a Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency of 0.75 and Probability Bias statistic of ...


Affordances On Facebook, Stress, And Emotional Support, Caitlin Rose Rethwish Dec 2018

Affordances On Facebook, Stress, And Emotional Support, Caitlin Rose Rethwish

Dissertations and Theses

This study discusses Facebook as a social network site and a social media application. It compares perceived emotional support, general life stress, and media affordance-based stress from two participant samples - one that reported using the Facebook desktop site most frequently to reach out for emotional support, and one that reported using the mobile application

The media affordance measure asked participants if perceiving a media affordance was more likely to increase or decrease their stress. In both samples, persistence was more likely to decrease stress, and personalization was more likely to increase stress. On the Facebook Desktop site, searchability was more ...


Consciousness Against Commodifcation: The Potential For A Radical Housing Movement In The Cully Neighborhood, Cameron Hart Herrington Dec 2018

Consciousness Against Commodifcation: The Potential For A Radical Housing Movement In The Cully Neighborhood, Cameron Hart Herrington

Dissertations and Theses

A right to housing is a central iteration of the broader demand for a democratic right to the city. The perpetual housing crisis for lower-income people results from a commodified system in which access to housing is based on the exchange value interests of property owners, rather than a universal right to a decent, affordable home. This system is a pillar of neoliberal urban governance and justified by a hegemonic ideology that equates speculative homeownership with the American Dream. Achieving a right to housing, even at the local scale, requires a radical movement that cultivates individual and collective consciousness, discredits ...


Long-Term Variation Of Summer Phytoplankton Communities In An Urban Lake In Relation To Lake Management And Climate Conditions, Yuan Xiao Grund Dec 2018

Long-Term Variation Of Summer Phytoplankton Communities In An Urban Lake In Relation To Lake Management And Climate Conditions, Yuan Xiao Grund

Dissertations and Theses

Eutrophication is one of the primary factors causing harmful cyanobacteria blooms in freshwater lakes; climate change such as warmer temperature can potentially further increase both frequency and intensity of blooms. This study investigated the long-term changes in water quality and summer phytoplankton assemblages in Oswego Lake, OR, in relation to lake management practices (e.g., hypolimnetic aeration and alum treatments), as well as climatic and regional meteorological conditions. Both water quality and phytoplankton assemblages were sampled biweekly during summer seasons between 2001 and 2013. The concentrations of total phosphorus (TP), soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) and total nitrogen (TN) decreased 66 ...


Characterizing Temperature Variability States Across Southern South America And Associated Synoptic-Scale Meteorological Patterns, Judah Adam Detzer Dec 2018

Characterizing Temperature Variability States Across Southern South America And Associated Synoptic-Scale Meteorological Patterns, Judah Adam Detzer

Dissertations and Theses

The aim of this thesis is to understand spatiotemporal temperature variability in southern South America by identifying overarching temperature variability states and their associated synoptic-scale meteorological patterns. Further, the temporal frequency of occurrence of those temperature variability states is investigated as is the role of recurrent low-frequency modes of climate variability (El Niño Southern Oscillation and the Southern Annular Mode) on temperature variability. K-means cluster analysis is used to group all months during the period 1980-2015 into four primary categories for summer and winter separately. Monthly maps of temperature anomalies are provided as input to the k-means algorithm and the ...


The Role Of The Academic Analyst In Shared Governance, Rebecca Ann Mathern Nov 2018

The Role Of The Academic Analyst In Shared Governance, Rebecca Ann Mathern

Dissertations and Theses

This research explores the roles of academic professionals in higher education, specific to how they engage in decision-making processes. Academic professionals provide important functions in higher education work but there is little in the literature about these actors and their contributions to leadership and governance. A literature review triangulated role theory, organization theory, and the shared-governance field of study to bring together actors within higher education and compare their involvement based on the shared-governance model in operation at different institutions. The researcher introduced the hypothesis that when registrars are not involved in curriculum management, there may be negative effects on ...


Investigating Time During Residential Program Until Transition For Adjudicated Youth: A Mixed Methods Study Using Event History Analysis With Follow-Up Interviews, Emily Carol Lott Nov 2018

Investigating Time During Residential Program Until Transition For Adjudicated Youth: A Mixed Methods Study Using Event History Analysis With Follow-Up Interviews, Emily Carol Lott

Dissertations and Theses

Residential placement is considered the most severe sanction for adjudicated youth, yet there is little consensus on best practices and interventions in residential settings. Demographic trends in the juvenile justice system further exacerbate challenges in studying residential placements. Disparities among minority youth, diverging state definitions of juvenile sex offenses, discrepancies in recidivism measures, and variations in local and state juvenile courts have contributed to a convoluted system that has struggled to identify the meaning of "success" in residential settings.

Building on theories of engagement in residential care and program theory of change, this mixed methods study explores how various components ...


Studying The Effects Of Motivated Reasoning On Appraisals Of Message Strength, Aric Christopher Powell Nov 2018

Studying The Effects Of Motivated Reasoning On Appraisals Of Message Strength, Aric Christopher Powell

Dissertations and Theses

This study was designed to investigate decision-making as it relates to message appraisal, and determine what effect, if any, identification with the message source has on those appraisals. For the purpose of study, message appraisal was operationalized as message strength ratings. Furthermore, the study investigated how the political ideology of message receivers and the perceived partisanship of message senders might influence identification, and message appraisal by extension. The study used the theory of motivated reasoning to explain the role of identification in the process of message appraisal. The results indicate that there is a relationship between identification and message strength ...


Judgments Of Lethal Risk: A Comparison Of Visual And Narrative Stimuli, Derek Anthony Bonniksen Nov 2018

Judgments Of Lethal Risk: A Comparison Of Visual And Narrative Stimuli, Derek Anthony Bonniksen

Dissertations and Theses

The nature of how we make judgments has received a great deal of attention in the last few decades. Risk communication research has indicated that risk-related messages can elicit affective responses in audiences, which can then have a significant impact on how such audiences judge risk in general. Using a 2 x 2 between-subjects factorial design, this study found that, contrary to Johnson and Tversky's (1983) findings, presenting narratives about lethal risk does not influence readers' judgments about the frequency that risks occur, nor do such narratives influence participant worry levels about the lethal risks, more generally. Additionally, the ...


Assessing Ppgis Usability And Its Relationship To Spatial Data Production: A Case Study, Timothy Michael Hitchins Sep 2018

Assessing Ppgis Usability And Its Relationship To Spatial Data Production: A Case Study, Timothy Michael Hitchins

Dissertations and Theses

Modern Geoweb-enabled PPGIS methodologies incorporate interactive map applications as the main driver for public engagement and data collection. However, little research explores exactly how the public interact with these applications to produce spatial data, a fact that contributes to criticisms of final data quality. Usability evaluation offers a solution for developing better PPGIS data production systems by identifying problems in the application interface for which the public engage. Drawing on a case study example of a PPGIS application developed to collect socio-spatial data from members of a random public, this paper addresses usability in a three-stage approach. First, controlled experimentation ...


Identifying Criteria To Predict Army Rifle Marksmanship Proficiency, Katlin Makina Anglin Sep 2018

Identifying Criteria To Predict Army Rifle Marksmanship Proficiency, Katlin Makina Anglin

Dissertations and Theses

The United States Army requires each Soldier to develop marksmanship proficiency in an effort to achieve combat readiness. Soldiers currently develop marksmanship proficiency through Basic Rifle Marksmanship (BRM) training, but significant skill deficiencies are apparent at the end of training. These skill deficiencies remain throughout training because instructors rarely assess Soldiers objectively before the final qualification, reducing the opportunity for instructors to diagnose skill deficiencies until it is too late. Therefore, the goal of the current research is to identify individual differences and sensor-based performance measures for inclusion in a formative assessment during BRM training. The results of the current ...


How Can Community Engagement In The Local Past And Archaeological Research Be Mutually Beneficial? A Case Study In Community Archaeology From Sauvie Island, Oregon, Martin John Plumer Aug 2018

How Can Community Engagement In The Local Past And Archaeological Research Be Mutually Beneficial? A Case Study In Community Archaeology From Sauvie Island, Oregon, Martin John Plumer

Dissertations and Theses

Community archaeology's broader objectives include increasing public understanding of archaeology and making archaeology more relevant to people's day to day lives. Fulfilling these goals could be beneficial to the public in terms of their gaining more agency in, and more access to, archaeology; and it could be beneficial to archaeologists in terms of increasing public support for archaeological work. While many community archaeologists report success, few authors critically evaluate the experience and outcomes of community archaeology. As a result, little data-based understanding exists about what is gained through community archaeology. This project explores that question through three primary ...


The Impact Of Leader Race And Gender On Perceptions Of Organizations In Response To Corporate Error, Nicolas Derek Brown Aug 2018

The Impact Of Leader Race And Gender On Perceptions Of Organizations In Response To Corporate Error, Nicolas Derek Brown

Dissertations and Theses

Prior research has demonstrated that CEO behavior influences how people perceive corporations and that CEOs associated with controversy can damage corporate reputations. Research also illustrates that attitudes based on prescribed racial and gender characteristics render Black and female CEOs as incongruent with leadership positions. The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of two different corporate errors as justification factors leading to prejudicial evaluations of leaders with stigmatized identities (e.g., race and gender), with a particular emphasis on the intersection of race and gender on leader- and organization-based evaluations. Participants were randomly assigned to one of 12 ...


Our Town: Articulating Place Meanings And Attachments In St. Johns Using Resident-Employed Photography, Lauren Elizabeth Morrow Everett Aug 2018

Our Town: Articulating Place Meanings And Attachments In St. Johns Using Resident-Employed Photography, Lauren Elizabeth Morrow Everett

Dissertations and Theses

The St. Johns neighborhood of North Portland is known for its strong regional identity, working class character, and diversity. Portland as a whole has experienced a major socioeconomic shift in the last ten years, and these changes are hitting St. Johns particularly hard. My research seeks to identify the place meanings that underpin sense of place, place attachment, and processes of attachment formation, among residents of the neighborhood. My research questions are: What are the objects of attachment? Why (the place meanings that underpin attachment)? And how (through what processes are attachments formed)? In what ways are the "why" and ...


Assessing Spatiotemporal Stream Temperature Trends And Drivers Through Integrated Longitudinal Thermal Profiling And Stationary Data Logger Methodology On The Upper Chehalis River, Wa, Whitney Vonada Aug 2018

Assessing Spatiotemporal Stream Temperature Trends And Drivers Through Integrated Longitudinal Thermal Profiling And Stationary Data Logger Methodology On The Upper Chehalis River, Wa, Whitney Vonada

Dissertations and Theses

This study encompasses 25 kilometers of the Chehalis River in Washington, USA that currently has sections under a Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) plan for stream temperature impairments that exceed 18°C, a regulatory standard set at the time of the listing to protect salmonid spawning, rearing, and migration. Using information integrated from stationary data loggers (n=22) that collected stream temperature information from August 4-September 10, 2017, and longitudinal thermal profiling performed on July 29-30, August 4-5, and September 9-10, 2017, this study aimed to quantify the spatial distribution of stream temperature, evaluate relative consistencies of the riverine thermal ...


Developing A Mixed-Methods Method To Model Elderly Health Technology Adoption With Fuzzy Cognitive Map, And Its Application In Adoption Of Remote Health Monitoring Technologies By Elderly Women, Noshad Rahimi Aug 2018

Developing A Mixed-Methods Method To Model Elderly Health Technology Adoption With Fuzzy Cognitive Map, And Its Application In Adoption Of Remote Health Monitoring Technologies By Elderly Women, Noshad Rahimi

Dissertations and Theses

Providing healthcare to the ever-rising elderly population has become a severe challenge and a top priority. Emerging innovations in healthcare, such as remote health monitoring technologies, promise to provide a better quality of care and reduce the cost of healthcare. However, many elderly people reject healthcare innovations. This lack of adoption constitutes a big practical problem because it keeps the elderly from benefiting from technology advances. The phenomenon is even more pronounced among elderly women, who represent the majority of the elderly population.

A plethora of studies in the field of technology adoption resulted in sound, but highly generalized theories ...


Soft Skills Influence In Project Managers In The Cloud Space, Katherine Silva Aug 2018

Soft Skills Influence In Project Managers In The Cloud Space, Katherine Silva

Dissertations and Theses

In technology companies, Project Managers (PM) are being required to develop a set of soft skills, in addition to their technical expertise, in order to positively influence project’s outcomes and succeed in their professional careers. New technologies known as “Cloud”, “Cloud computing”, and “Cloud technology” are being adopted by companies to organize their projects with top technology, and their people with the skills required to work with them. The present work examines academic research and available literature associated to the soft skills related to project management and project managers in the Cloud space in order to identify the top ...


Bim And Project Management In Aec Industry, Nazanin Kamyab Aug 2018

Bim And Project Management In Aec Industry, Nazanin Kamyab

Dissertations and Theses

Building Information Modeling has altered project managers’ role in architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) industry. In theory Building Information Modeling (BIM) has promised the project managers to enhance communication and collaboration aspect of managing their projects, thus increasing the efficiency and success rate of the AEC industry projects. However, in real world application, project managers had challenges and barriers with BIM implementation into their processes. This study intends to highlight the main characteristics of the BIM, its benefits, barriers and risk management capabilities to elaborate on why BIM adoption has been slower than anticipated. Based on quantitative data collection through ...


Applying The Agile Mechanism In The Clinical Trails Domain For Drug Development, Jitendrakumar Narola Aug 2018

Applying The Agile Mechanism In The Clinical Trails Domain For Drug Development, Jitendrakumar Narola

Dissertations and Theses

The current speed of economic growth has greatly affected the means of pharmaceutical organizational operations in the establishment of clinical trials. Pharmaceutical organizations are looking for ways to increase customer experience and reduce costs of production in the process. The customer experiences can be increased by creating a forum for active participation during the processes of the establishment. Equally, the costs of production and conducting research study can be ensured through the reduction of reworking chances. Through the creation of this experience, the effectiveness of the clinical trials needs to be properly created. Traditionally, organizations used waterfall methodology in the ...


Internet Of Things (Iot) And Changing Face Of Project Management, Vikram Singh Prasher Aug 2018

Internet Of Things (Iot) And Changing Face Of Project Management, Vikram Singh Prasher

Dissertations and Theses

Internet of Things (IoT) or Industrial Internet is a modern day catchword, which over the past few years has tremendously impacted numerous aspects of almost-all the advanced technology fields. IoT framework envisions transforming the everyday objects into intelligent systems, while working under a common infrastructure and by connecting the global network of devices and machines over the internet. Based on many underlying interdisciplinary ecosystems, like sensor network, embedded systems, big data platforms, cloud computing and service-oriented architecture; IoT projects are non-traditional in many ways. Such projects involve research and development phase, more technical work, are lengthy, require advanced skill sets ...