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Dissertations and Theses

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Articles 1 - 30 of 2030

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Urbanicity As A Moderator Of The Relationship Between Stigma And Well-Being Outcomes For Individuals With Serious Mental Illnesses, Emily Leickly Oct 2019

Urbanicity As A Moderator Of The Relationship Between Stigma And Well-Being Outcomes For Individuals With Serious Mental Illnesses, Emily Leickly

Dissertations and Theses

During the deinstitutionalization movement in the 1960s, community mental health centers and supportive and affordable housing for people with serious mental illnesses (SMI) was concentrated in economically disadvantaged urban centers. Today, these urban centers are becoming increasingly gentrified and unaffordable for people with SMI. Affordability is no longer synonymous with urban living, and supportive housing for people with SMI is increasingly found in non-urban areas. Given this shift, it is important to understand the potential impacts of non-urban living on people with SMI. Non-urban environments provide potential benefits for the general population, including reduced traffic and increased proximity to the ...


The Influence Of Age At Migration On Criminal Offending Among Foreign-Born Immigrants, Omar Melchor-Ayala Sep 2019

The Influence Of Age At Migration On Criminal Offending Among Foreign-Born Immigrants, Omar Melchor-Ayala

Dissertations and Theses

Domestic and international events -- such as the recent migrant caravans from Central and South America, and the records number of migrant children detained at the border -- have brought renewed attention to the adaptation of immigrants in the United States. More specifically, questions regarding whether the population of immigrants is driving the "crime problem," have taken center stage (Light 2017). Immigrants vary significantly in terms of when they migrate into the country. According to the Current Population Survey (CPS) (2012), the population of approximately 12 million foreign-born immigrant children living in the United States is split in terms of their age ...


Manufacturing In Place: Industrial Preservation In The Us, Jamaal William Green Sep 2019

Manufacturing In Place: Industrial Preservation In The Us, Jamaal William Green

Dissertations and Theses

In the face of growing economic inequality and population growth, several large cities in the US have started to proactively protect vital industrial lands from conversion to non-industrial uses. These new policies signal a potentially dramatic shift in both land-use and economic development practices.

In the first essay of this dissertation I present a typology of existing industrial land protective policies after reviewing the comprehensive plans and zoning codes of the United States' fifty largest cities. I identify 11 cities with protective policies and highlight the variance of these policies by offering a simple two part typology based upon a ...


Patient And Provider Perspectives On Sexual History Taking During Gynecological Care: A Pilot Study In An Academic Family Medical Setting In New York City, Ashley M. Chastain Sep 2019

Patient And Provider Perspectives On Sexual History Taking During Gynecological Care: A Pilot Study In An Academic Family Medical Setting In New York City, Ashley M. Chastain

Dissertations and Theses

Background: In the United States (US), women face a number of serious issues concerning sexual health. Current surveillance data indicates that overall rates of bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are increasing rapidly. While rates of new diagnoses have decreased, the risks of acquiring HIV are still relatively high for some females, specifically Black/African-American women. In New York City (NYC), where this dissertation research was conducted, similar HIV/STI rates exist among females of reproductive age (aged 15-44). Among women in the US, there are also high estimated rates of other sexual health problems, such as sexual anxiety, sexual dysfunction ...


Modeling Surface Roughness As An Indicator Of Age And Landslide Susceptibility, And The Spatial Inventory Of Prehistoric Landslides: Green River Valley, Washington, Rebecca Naomi Garriss Aug 2019

Modeling Surface Roughness As An Indicator Of Age And Landslide Susceptibility, And The Spatial Inventory Of Prehistoric Landslides: Green River Valley, Washington, Rebecca Naomi Garriss

Dissertations and Theses

Developing detailed landslide inventory maps of prehistoric landslides is essential to interpret the frequency and conditions under which slopes have failed. When coupled with age estimates, landslide inventories can yield better predictions for future slope failures, thereby improving hazard assessments and increasing chances for mitigation. Developing proxies for landslide age is an important area of research, but age dating prehistoric landslides can be challenging due to sparse datable organic material within landslide deposits, and to time or access constraints. In this thesis, surface roughness of the landslide deposit is used to construct a best-fit age-roughness model that quantitatively assigns age ...


Differences In Syntactic Complexity In The Writing Of El1 And Ell Civil Engineering Students, Santiago Gustin Aug 2019

Differences In Syntactic Complexity In The Writing Of El1 And Ell Civil Engineering Students, Santiago Gustin

Dissertations and Theses

Traditional studies in syntactic complexity consider increased clausal complexity to be characteristic of development, proficiency and growth in written language production. However, this stereotypical view ignores two important facts. First, complexity differs by register (i.e. daily speech versus formal writing). Second, as the proficiency of writers increases, their complexity in formal writing changes from clausal complexity to phrasal complexity (i.e. lower-proficiency writers have more subordinate clauses whereas higher-proficiency writers tend to have more noun phrases). Therefore, in this study, I argue for the need to consider not just clausal complexity but also phrasal complexity measures when assessing development ...


Reproduciendo Otros Mundos: Indigenous Women's Struggles Against Neo-Extractivism And The Bolivian State, Gisela Victoria Rodriguez Fernandez Aug 2019

Reproduciendo Otros Mundos: Indigenous Women's Struggles Against Neo-Extractivism And The Bolivian State, Gisela Victoria Rodriguez Fernandez

Dissertations and Theses

Latin America is in a political crisis, yet Bolivia is still widely recognized as a beacon of hope for progressive change. The radical movements at the beginning of the 21st century against neoliberalism that paved the road for the election of Bolivia's first indigenous president, Evo Morales, beckoned a change from colonial rule towards a more just society. Paradoxically, in pursuing progress through economic growth, the Bolivian state led by President Morales has replicated the colonial division of labor through a development model known as neo-extractivism. Deeply rooted tensions have also emerged between indigenous communities and the Bolivian state ...


Drinking On A Work Night: A Comparison Of Day And Person-Level Associations With Workplace Outcomes, Brittnie Renae Shepherd Aug 2019

Drinking On A Work Night: A Comparison Of Day And Person-Level Associations With Workplace Outcomes, Brittnie Renae Shepherd

Dissertations and Theses

Alcohol use and misuse is costly for U.S. employers, primarily due to health care expenses and lost work productivity. Despite high costs for organizations, employee alcohol use is understudied within the organizational literature. The scant research conducted largely utilized cross-sectional designs examining differences across individuals, despite prevailing theoretical frameworks describing primarily within-person processes. This study examined the simultaneous within-person and between-person relationships between employee alcohol use and work and well-being outcomes. The separation and comparison of within-person and between-person effects is essential for the evaluation of key theoretical frameworks around employee alcohol use. Additionally, this study investigates one mechanism ...


The Fate Of Atmospherically Deposited Mercury In Mountain Lake Food Webs, And Implications For Fisheries Management, Ariana Martos Chiapella Aug 2019

The Fate Of Atmospherically Deposited Mercury In Mountain Lake Food Webs, And Implications For Fisheries Management, Ariana Martos Chiapella

Dissertations and Theses

Mountain lakes are an iconic feature of the landscape in the Mountain West. They hold significant ecological and cultural value, and are important sentinels of environmental change. Despite their pristine image, these remote waterbodies are subjected to numerous anthropogenic stressors. Mountain lakes are naturally fishless systems, but historical fish stocking has led to major changes in mountain lake food web structure, including declines of resident amphibians, large-bodied zooplankton, and emergent insect populations. Atmospherically deposited contaminants, such as mercury, can accumulate in mountain lake food webs, leading to relatively high levels in the fish relative to the water. Managing for these ...


"What About The Men? Investigating Alcohol Consumption, Masculinities, And Risky Sex In Peri-Urban Eswatini, Aaron Jackson Levine Aug 2019

"What About The Men? Investigating Alcohol Consumption, Masculinities, And Risky Sex In Peri-Urban Eswatini, Aaron Jackson Levine

Dissertations and Theses

This study focuses on the narratives Swazi men create around drinking, masculinity, and sexual behavior. Alcohol myopia theory, motivational-expectation theory of drinking, and Connell's theory of masculinities were used to create research that details how alcohol and the cultural environment of gendered social drinking intertwine and interact with each other to form the gender structure of eSwatini. Twenty Swazi men were sampled by convenience, given semi-structured interviews, and questioned about their perceived and internal reasoning for the drinking of themselves and others, the observed drinking behaviors of others, their own drinking behaviors, how they viewed women in and accepted ...


Blocks' Network: Redesign Architecture Based On Blockchain Technology, Moataz Hanif Aug 2019

Blocks' Network: Redesign Architecture Based On Blockchain Technology, Moataz Hanif

Dissertations and Theses

The Internet is a global network that uses communication protocols. It is considered the most important system reached by humanity, which no one can abandon. However, this technology has become a weapon that threatens the privacy of users, especially in the client-server model, where data is stored and managed privately. Additionally, users have no power over their data that store in a private server, which means users’ data may interrupt by government or might be sold via service provider for-profit purposes. Furthermore, blockchain is a technology that we can rely on to solve issues related to client-server model if appropriately ...


Interrogating The Construction And Representations Of Criminalized Women In The Academic Social Work Literature: A Critical Discourse Analysis, Sandra Marie Leotti Jul 2019

Interrogating The Construction And Representations Of Criminalized Women In The Academic Social Work Literature: A Critical Discourse Analysis, Sandra Marie Leotti

Dissertations and Theses

In the United States today, there are 2.3 million people behind bars in jails and prisons. Mass incarceration has swept up the United States to such a degree that we are known globally for holding more people in correctional facilities than any other country in the world. Although women have always, and still do, reflect a smaller proportion of the correctional population, over the last 40 years, their rates of criminalization and imprisonment have far outpaced that of men's. Drastic increases in the criminalization of women are intimately connected to the entrenchment of social disadvantage enabled under neoliberal ...


Finding Common Ground: Relationship Building And Communication Between Po And Client Within A Community Supervision Setting, Carl Eugene Appleton Jul 2019

Finding Common Ground: Relationship Building And Communication Between Po And Client Within A Community Supervision Setting, Carl Eugene Appleton

Dissertations and Theses

Previous research on the community supervision model entitled Effective Practices in Community Supervision (EPICS) focuses on the increased attention trained probation officers (POs), as opposed to non-trained POs, pay to using core correctional practices (Smith et al. 2012). While studies like this present a picture of what POs do during face-to-face interactions, there is little focus on PO perceptions of these day-to-day practices. Furthermore, still less studies center the clients on supervision in order to better understand topics such as ideal PO, ideal relationship, and perceptions of common community supervision strategies. To address these gaps, this study uses 30 semi-structured ...


Situational Context Of Police Use Of Deadly Force: A Comparison Of Black And White Subjects Of Fatal Police Shootings, Shana Lynn Meaney Ruess Jul 2019

Situational Context Of Police Use Of Deadly Force: A Comparison Of Black And White Subjects Of Fatal Police Shootings, Shana Lynn Meaney Ruess

Dissertations and Theses

Police use of deadly force is an understudied yet deeply important issue in our society. Recent years have seen a dramatic increase in public concern over use of deadly force, particularly when that force is used against people of color. Due to the relative low frequency of deadly force incidents, little is known about when such force is used, or who it is used on. Recent studies have found a racial disparity between white and black subjects of deadly force, with black subjects significantly over represented as a proportion of the population. This study further expands our understanding of police ...


Closure Or Censure?: Examining The Determinants Of Disclosure Of Sexual Assault Among College Students, Whitney Head-Burgess Jul 2019

Closure Or Censure?: Examining The Determinants Of Disclosure Of Sexual Assault Among College Students, Whitney Head-Burgess

Dissertations and Theses

Sexual assault is an ongoing problem on college campuses, with some projections indicating that one in four college women has experienced some sexual coercion or assault during her time at university. Recent national policy has strove to address the problem through legislation like the 2013 Campus Sexual Violence Elimination Act. Nonetheless, the crime remains the most underreported in the nation despite policy and law which explicitly defines what constitutes sexual assault. However, most victims of sexual assault will disclose what happened to someone else, even if they choose not to report.

This research examines sexual assault disclosure practices on a ...


Gender And The Voir Dire Process, Tasha Ann Lane Jul 2019

Gender And The Voir Dire Process, Tasha Ann Lane

Dissertations and Theses

The jury selection process (also known as voir dire) has been examined previously in many ways, including racial impacts. Previous research suggests the need for more examination of how and if gender impacts the voir dire process. The lack of knowledge about how gender impacts voir dire might also have implications for public respect and trust in the court system. For example, theories of procedural justice suggest that individual experiences with the legal system affect whether they view the entire legal system as being legitimate. This is important because this perception then impacts how the public interact with the system ...


An Evaluation Of Clackamas County's Transition Center Using Propensity Score Modeling, Alicia Mckay Jul 2019

An Evaluation Of Clackamas County's Transition Center Using Propensity Score Modeling, Alicia Mckay

Dissertations and Theses

Part of the purpose of Justice Reinvestment Initiatives (JRIs) involve a focus of funds and effort toward implementing practices that increase the chances of successful reintegration of people recently released from incarceration. Similar to other jurisdictions, Oregon's JRI has taken a number of forms of reintegrative efforts. In 2016, JRI funding opened a services hub and reintegration/reentry center in a rural county. The Center offers a central location for reentry services, such as employment and housing assistance, but is not a requirement of an offender's supervision. Relying on the risk-need-responsivity framework, this program aims to reduce recidivism ...


Effects Of Regulation Intensity On Marijuana Black Market After Legalization, Sikang Song Jul 2019

Effects Of Regulation Intensity On Marijuana Black Market After Legalization, Sikang Song

Dissertations and Theses

Since 2012, many states and Canada have legalized the use and sale of recreational marijuana. One of the expected benefits of the legalization is that the establishment of a legal cannabis market would eliminate the black market which has been the main form of marijuana trade for decades. Even though legal options are available for marijuana producers and consumers, the black market is still thriving in states where recreational marijuana has been legalized. The reasons behind the persistence of the marijuana black market are complex. One of the main arguments is that the legalized states have failed to establish a ...


Spatial Analysis Of Burglary And Robbery Crime Concentration Near Mass-Transit In Portland, Bryce Edward Barthuly Jun 2019

Spatial Analysis Of Burglary And Robbery Crime Concentration Near Mass-Transit In Portland, Bryce Edward Barthuly

Dissertations and Theses

The relationship between mass-transit and the concentration of burglary and robbery crimes is inconsistent within the available literature in environmental criminology. A number of studies have provided evidence of crime concentration at and near mass transit locations where paths intersect, referred to as a node. These empirical studies bring in environmental criminology theory with the idea that crime is clustered, and the pattern of the concentrations is substantially influenced by how and why people travel and move in a city. It is suggested that public transit allows for a large proportion of the population to move around the community along ...


Convivial Clothing: Engagement With Decommodified Fashion In Portland, Or, Sarah Guldenbrein Jun 2019

Convivial Clothing: Engagement With Decommodified Fashion In Portland, Or, Sarah Guldenbrein

Dissertations and Theses

In a capitalist system demanding perpetual accumulation, producers invest significant resources into proving the superiority of new products over existing ones. When the normative concept is "better" rather than "good" consumers can never reach a sense of sufficiency. One countermovement is that of degrowth. Degrowth scholars advocate for a voluntary and democratic transition to a post-growth future. This thesis contributes to the emerging literature on degrowth by examining alternatives to "fast fashion," an industry with a huge environmental impact and notoriously high turnover. Drawing on participant observation and semi-structured interviews with participants in Portland, Oregon's clothing swaps and Repair ...


Forest Structure, Composition, And Regeneration After High-Severity And Rapidly Repeated Wildfires In The Central Cascade Range, Sebastian Upton Busby Jun 2019

Forest Structure, Composition, And Regeneration After High-Severity And Rapidly Repeated Wildfires In The Central Cascade Range, Sebastian Upton Busby

Dissertations and Theses

Within mid-to-high elevation conifer forests in the Cascade Range, wildfire extent, severity, and frequency are expected to rise due to increasingly drier forest fuels under climate change. Considering dominant species composition, existing forests may be poorly adapted to absorb stress and recover following altered wildfire patterns. We tested the hypothesis that increased fire activity may disrupt the recovery of upper-montane and subalpine forest types by quantifying post-fire forest structure and conifer regeneration after spatially large, severe, and rapidly repeated wildfires in the Central Cascade Range. A stratified random sampling design was used to select field plots (n=122) and drivers ...


Politics In The San Clemente Dam Removal, Aylan Matthew Lee Jun 2019

Politics In The San Clemente Dam Removal, Aylan Matthew Lee

Dissertations and Theses

This study examines the role of politics in the removal of the 106-foot tall San Clemente Dam. The removal project and negotiations provide a case study of the contemporary phenomenon of dam removal. My analysis joins a growing body of social science literature on the social, political, and human dimensions of removal. The San Clemente Dam, which impounded the Carmel River near Monterey, California, was removed in 2015, the largest such project completed in California. Drawing on political ecology and science and technology studies, and using a mixed qualitative approach, I assess both the role of politics in shaping the ...


Evaluating Project Assessment Techniques For High-Profile Transportation Projects Development And Delivery: Case Of State Departments Of Transportation (Dots) In The United States, Rafaa Ibrahim Khalifa Jun 2019

Evaluating Project Assessment Techniques For High-Profile Transportation Projects Development And Delivery: Case Of State Departments Of Transportation (Dots) In The United States, Rafaa Ibrahim Khalifa

Dissertations and Theses

Time delays and cost overruns in construction projects are generally due to factors such as inappropriate planning, design errors, unexpected site conditions, inadvisable tools selection, change scope, weather conditions, lack of resources, and other project changes. Time delays and cost overruns are of concern to most project managers, owners, and governments. These elements of time and cost are two of the critical defects that impact the construction project delivery. These defects can lead to project failures and to various negative issues like increasing in disagreements among the project team, the contractor, suppliers, and the owner.

State Departments of Transportation (DOTs ...


Family Linked Workplace Resources And Contextual Factors As Important Predictors Of Job And Individual Well-Being For Employees And Families, Jacquelyn Marie Brady Jun 2019

Family Linked Workplace Resources And Contextual Factors As Important Predictors Of Job And Individual Well-Being For Employees And Families, Jacquelyn Marie Brady

Dissertations and Theses

The inextricable ties between work and family have been extensively studied, however, with both societal and organizational change there is a continuing need for organizational research to elucidate the effects work can have on family, individual, and job well-being. Through three studies, this body of work demonstrates the role of supervisors, psychological contextual factors, and workplace work-family resources for improving employee and spouse family well-being and employee psychological and job well-being. This dissertation drew upon data from the Study for Employment Retention of Veterans (SERVe) and the Work-family Health Network (WFHN). Study 1 investigated the link between a supportive supervisor ...


Impactful Care: Addressing Social Determinants Of Health Across Health Systems, Nicole Lisa Friedman Jun 2019

Impactful Care: Addressing Social Determinants Of Health Across Health Systems, Nicole Lisa Friedman

Dissertations and Theses

There is emerging evidence that addressing health-related social needs through enhanced clinical-community linkages can improve health outcomes and reduce costs. Unmet health-related social needs, such as food insecurity, inadequate or unstable housing, and lack of access to transportation may increase the risk of developing chronic conditions, reduce an individual's ability to manage these conditions, increase health care costs, and lead to avoidable health care utilization. In response, work on social needs is happening across large health systems in the United States, but the pace of progress is slow and accountability is diffuse.

The goal of this applied research project ...


Evaluating The Utility Of Theories Of Social Integration In Understanding Areal Suicide Rates In The United States, Nathan Finch Parsons Jun 2019

Evaluating The Utility Of Theories Of Social Integration In Understanding Areal Suicide Rates In The United States, Nathan Finch Parsons

Dissertations and Theses

Despite over a century's worth of study, areal variations in suicide rate remain largely unexplained. In order to better understand these regional differences, this analysis aggregates county-level National Center for Health Statistics Multiple Cause of Death data with data from the US Census, the Association of Statisticians of American Religious Bodies, and the Penn State Northeast Regional Center for Rural Development to test the three leading conceptualizations of social integration (i.e. demographic, compositional, ecological) against US suicide rates. Results of negative binomial regression models indicate that an ecological measure, social capital, is substantially associated with suicide rate, while ...


Tree Canopy Cover And Potential In Portland, Or: A Spatial Analysis Of The Urban Forest And Capacity For Growth, Jeff Ramsey Jun 2019

Tree Canopy Cover And Potential In Portland, Or: A Spatial Analysis Of The Urban Forest And Capacity For Growth, Jeff Ramsey

Dissertations and Theses

Urban forests have positive impacts on human and ecosystem health, reduce stress on aging stormwater infrastructure, increase property values, and reduce energy consumption. The scale of these benefits ranges from the hyper-local to the global. While the benefits of urban forests can extend well beyond the boundaries of cities, they often do not reach all residents of the city equally. Urban forest policies do not adequately address environmental equity or employ planting strategies with knowledge of the social and political factors that determine the spatial variations of tree canopy extent in cities. Chapter I analyzes the determinants of current canopy ...


Making Imaginaries: Identity, Value, And Place In The Maker Movement In Detroit And Portland, Stephen Joseph Marotta Jun 2019

Making Imaginaries: Identity, Value, And Place In The Maker Movement In Detroit And Portland, Stephen Joseph Marotta

Dissertations and Theses

This dissertation explores the maker economy and culture in Detroit, MI and Portland, OR and queries the "Made in Place" branding strategy that relies so heavily on a shared imagination of cities, identities, and values. Bridging the gap between urban economic development, political economy, and affect theory, this dissertation is centrally concerned with how imagination works as a commons and how such "imaginaries" shape each city's milieu of small, entrepreneurial, artisanal producers ("makers"). The constituent elements of "Made in" branding "made" and "place" suggest common understandings of each; this sense of coherence is critical for how value is added ...


Simultaneous Bilingual Middle School Students Becoming Biliterate: What Do Students Think About Their Biliteracy As Taught Through The "Bridge" Strategy In A Humanities Dual Language/Immersion Class?, Alma Lucinda Diaz-Philipp May 2019

Simultaneous Bilingual Middle School Students Becoming Biliterate: What Do Students Think About Their Biliteracy As Taught Through The "Bridge" Strategy In A Humanities Dual Language/Immersion Class?, Alma Lucinda Diaz-Philipp

Dissertations and Theses

In response to the increasing number of United States school students from diverse linguistic and cultural backgrounds at all grade levels, often called "simultaneous bilinguals," the U.S. school districts are opening schools that offer bilingual instruction. One instructional strategy that seems promising is the "Bridge," where students contrast and connect the literacy skills learned in one language to the literacy skills in their other language. An underlying component of learning a language is student attitude and motivation to learn. Research also seems to indicate that student attitude and motivation toward biliteracy can affect their achievement. There seems to be ...


Examining Human Behavior And Tool Use Through Experimental Replications And A Technological Analysis Of Ground Stone In The Lower Columbia, Kelley Prince Martinez May 2019

Examining Human Behavior And Tool Use Through Experimental Replications And A Technological Analysis Of Ground Stone In The Lower Columbia, Kelley Prince Martinez

Dissertations and Theses

While ground stone tools represent diverse activities, the technology is analyzed at a coarse level in the Pacific Northwest. Conducting more detailed analyses of ground stone assemblages can inform on regional Indigenous raw material knowledge, resource use, and tool manufacturing and maintenance practices.

In this thesis I addressed questions regarding ground stone technology, including manufacturing time investments, tool recycling, and how ground stone tools were used through the application of experimental tool replication, use studies, and in depth analyses. I replicated tools that are common in the region, including a banded and notched net weight, a maul, two bowls, and ...