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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Interrogating Discourses Of Global Education: Reconceptualizing Education As A Common Good?, Prachi Srivastava Oct 2019

Interrogating Discourses Of Global Education: Reconceptualizing Education As A Common Good?, Prachi Srivastava

Education Publications

This contribution analyses UNESCO's framework of education as a common good in the context of the Global South. It argues that dominant conceptions view education in a narrow, instrumentalist perspective. Despite its promise to reorient education as a broader social endeavour towards human wellbeing to lead meaningful lives (Sen, 1999), UNESCO's framework has failed to gain significant traction. I argue this is linked to challenges associated with: education and unemployment; global mobility and learning assessment systems; citizenship education; and the global governance of education policymaking.


Excavating Feminist Phenomenology: Lived-Experiences And Wellbeing Of Indigenous Students At Western University, Eva Lynn Cupchik Sep 2019

Excavating Feminist Phenomenology: Lived-Experiences And Wellbeing Of Indigenous Students At Western University, Eva Lynn Cupchik

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The Truth and Reconciliation Commission underscores the need to incorporate narrative accounts of Indigenous students’ experiences as part of wide-scale de-colonizing efforts. This dissertation asks; how do Indigenous students experience their identities at Western University? What is at stake for phenomenology, feminist methods, and Indigenous theory, in the post Truth and Reconciliation era?

There is a gap between theories centering on reflective cognition in philosophy and the embodiment of land, prevalent across Indigenous cultures. However, phenomenology can provide a method to facilitate dialogues with discourses outside Eurocentric domains that empathize with marginalized communities’ struggles, through an understanding of location-based knowledge ...


The Impact Of Statistical Learning On Language And Social Competency In Asd And Adhd: Divergent Findings, Kaitlyn M.A Parks Sep 2019

The Impact Of Statistical Learning On Language And Social Competency In Asd And Adhd: Divergent Findings, Kaitlyn M.A Parks

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Statistical learning is a process that allows individuals to extract regularities from the environment and plays an important role in language acquisition, speech segmentation, and aspects of social behaviour. Little is known about the contribution of statistical learning impairments on Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) related traits. The current study examined whether impairments in auditory and visual statistical learning are related to ASD and ADHD traits, language, and social competency. Decreased auditory, but not visual statistical learning abilities was related to increased autism traits and visual statistical learning and social competency abilities were mediated by language ...


Ceos Don't Wear Afros: Exploring The Justification-Suppression Of Prejudice Against Black Women In The Workplace, Bukun F. Adegbembo Sep 2019

Ceos Don't Wear Afros: Exploring The Justification-Suppression Of Prejudice Against Black Women In The Workplace, Bukun F. Adegbembo

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

There have been numerous cases where Black women have been disparaged for wearing their natural hair or Afrocentric hairstyles in the workplace. While some have argued that such mistreatment was due to racism, others have stated that it was a case of not adhering to a professional dress code. In line with the justification-suppression model of prejudice, this research investigated whether prejudice against Black women in the workplace is expressed when they wear Afrocentric hairstyles as this allows the bias to be justified under the guise of normative standards of professionalism. Our pilot and main study showed that the Black ...


Who I Am Is Shaped By My Past And Impacts My Future: Exploring Antecedents And Outcomes Of Self-Views Across International, Immigrant, And Canadian Born Undergraduate Students, Anjana Balakrishnan Sep 2019

Who I Am Is Shaped By My Past And Impacts My Future: Exploring Antecedents And Outcomes Of Self-Views Across International, Immigrant, And Canadian Born Undergraduate Students, Anjana Balakrishnan

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This dissertation focused on how various self-views variables (self-esteem, self-concept, and self-concept clarity) differ across and within groups of university students, are influenced by internal and external factors, and predict academic and non-academic variables. Key models of self and group perceptions were used in deriving hypotheses (i.e., Shavelson, Hubner & Stanton, 1976; Bosson & Swann Jr, 2009; Stephan, Ybarra, & Morrison, 2009). Across the four studies, self-report questionnaires were used. Studies 1 and 4 were completed online by international, immigrant, and Canadian born students. Studies 2 and 3 examined only international students, involved an experimental manipulation, and were conducted in-lab. The aim of Study 1 was to ...


Licensing And ‘Big Deal’ Analysis At Western : Provost’S Task Force On Open Access & Scholarly Communications, Samuel Cassady, Shawn Hendrikx Sep 2019

Licensing And ‘Big Deal’ Analysis At Western : Provost’S Task Force On Open Access & Scholarly Communications, Samuel Cassady, Shawn Hendrikx

Western Libraries Presentations

No abstract provided.


The Relations Between Newcomer Integration Processes And Youth Athletes’ Perceptions Of The Group Environment In Competitive Ice Hockey, Jeffrey J. Chamberlain Aug 2019

The Relations Between Newcomer Integration Processes And Youth Athletes’ Perceptions Of The Group Environment In Competitive Ice Hockey, Jeffrey J. Chamberlain

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Abstract

The ways in which new members are integrated into a particular group environment—also known as organizational socialization processes—have been shown to be a powerful predictor of newcomer adjustment in the workplace. Yet, there is a scarcity of research on how sport teams manage the integration of new team members, and the consequences of different tactics. The current research uses the recently developed Sport Team Socialization Tactics Questionnaire (STSTQ) to evaluate how socialization processes are systematically related to youth athletes’ perceptions of their group environment. Across two time points, 202 competitive adolescent ice hockey players (Mage = 14 ...


Does Higher Education Make A Difference? The Influence Of Educational Attainment On Women’S And Men’S Employment Outcomes, Katelyn Mitri Aug 2019

Does Higher Education Make A Difference? The Influence Of Educational Attainment On Women’S And Men’S Employment Outcomes, Katelyn Mitri

MA Research Paper

Scholars agree that precarious employment is growing across and within all occupations and industries, but little is known on the educational attainment of precarious workers. Some studies suggest that recent graduates, women, and the less educated are more likely to be employed in precarious work. Other research contends that involuntary precarious employment is rising among all groups and educational levels. Using the May 2018 Labour Force Survey, this study explores whether higher education protects men and women from precarious employment, and if higher education has a protective effect on men’s and women’s wages within precarious employment. Findings suggest ...


Out Of The Closet And Into Sport: An Analysis Of Openly Lesbian Athletes, Rachel Fazzari Aug 2019

Out Of The Closet And Into Sport: An Analysis Of Openly Lesbian Athletes, Rachel Fazzari

MA Research Paper

ABSTRACT. Coming out refers to lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals disclosure of their sexual orientation. Coming out literature has often focused on the implications of coming out to family. Although there has been some research conducted on being out in sport, much of the research conducted on LGBT athletes has either been conducted before the twenty-first century or has been conducted solely on gay men. As a result, very little is known about the coming out experiences of lesbian athletes today. Since sport is rooted in masculine ideals and heterosexuality, it would be likely that lesbian athletes face ...


Living Arrangements, Proximity To Child/Parent And Depressive Symptoms Among Older Adults, Haemi Chung Aug 2019

Living Arrangements, Proximity To Child/Parent And Depressive Symptoms Among Older Adults, Haemi Chung

MA Research Paper

Studies have demonstrated the links between living arrangements and depressive symptoms among older adults. Yet, little is known about how these associations may differ among foreign- and native-born older adults who have different needs and expectations for family relations. Using the Health and Retirement Study, I examine predictors of living arrangements among native- and foreign-born adults over the age of 50 using multinomial logistic regressions. I also run a series of logistic regressions to examine the association between living arrangements and risk of high depressive symptoms. The results show that nativity and immigration characteristics are significant predictors of living arrangements ...


The Interrelated Nature Of Trauma: Exploring The Narratives Of Persons Living With A Family Member Who Has Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Emily Johnson Aug 2019

The Interrelated Nature Of Trauma: Exploring The Narratives Of Persons Living With A Family Member Who Has Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Emily Johnson

MA Research Paper

The study of the relationship between work-related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and the family has commonly been approached from both a psychological and psychiatric perspective. Moreover, these studies have primarily focused on how PTSD impacts familial relationships from the perspective of the individual who has PTSD, while little attention has been placed on the viewpoint of family members. By using data obtained from Beyond Blue and Reddit, the current study aims to redress this gap by directly exploring the perceptions of family members living with an emergency service worker who has PTSD. A qualitative content analysis was conducted using a ...


Living Alone: Five Decades Of Change, And Its Implications For Health, Xiangnan Chai Aug 2019

Living Alone: Five Decades Of Change, And Its Implications For Health, Xiangnan Chai

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The percentage of Canada’s one-person households has increased consistently between 1971 and 2016. One-person households occupy the largest share among all household types as of 2016. However, limited attention has been paid to the increase in Canadians’ living alone and its implications for older people’s health and well-being, due to which I develop three studies to fill the gaps in the literature.

In Chapter 2, I pool the 1971, 1981, 1991, 2001, and 2016 Canadian censuses, and the 2011 National Household Survey to explore the increase in the percentages of living alone among young, middle-aged, and older women ...


Capturing The Diversity Within Canadian Families, Kathya Aathavan Aug 2019

Capturing The Diversity Within Canadian Families, Kathya Aathavan

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Mixed partnerships are unions between two people that cross socially constructed boundaries between groups, particularly race and ethnicity and they are an aspect of diversity within Canadian society. Using the 2006 and 2016 Canadian long-form censuses, I examine mixed unions, measured as partnerships across different visible minority categories and places of birth. I find that there is more diversity within unions than what is captured just using visible minority status. Being highly educated, living in census metropolitan areas, and in same-sex partnerships are predictors of mixed unions indicative of barriers to mixed partnerships possibly being less salient among these groups ...


Understanding The Development Of A Logic Model In A Multi-Agency Resource Centre, Alexandra M. Boston Aug 2019

Understanding The Development Of A Logic Model In A Multi-Agency Resource Centre, Alexandra M. Boston

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

In response to social and economic decline in the downtown area of Sault Ste Marie, Ontario, over thirty diverse community organizations collaborate to deliver services out of the Neighbourhood Resource Centre (NRC). This study seeks to uncover how the objectives of the NRC are being interpreted and enacted by community organizations, and how the organizations navigate diverse desired outcomes to create a logic model. Through participatory action research, the study sought to answer the research questions through field observation, semi-structured interviews, and focus groups. An analysis of the data yields that, through collaboration and engagement the NRC has strengthened the ...


'I Honoured Him Until The End': Storytelling Of Indigenous Female Caregivers And Care Providers Focused On Alzheimer's Disease And Other Dementias (Adod), Danielle E. Alcock Aug 2019

'I Honoured Him Until The End': Storytelling Of Indigenous Female Caregivers And Care Providers Focused On Alzheimer's Disease And Other Dementias (Adod), Danielle E. Alcock

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Focused on the experiences of Indigenous female caregivers for a loved one diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias (ADOD); this study uses Indigenous methodology of oral storytelling to examine systemic barriers of navigating the Canadian healthcare system. Non-Indigenous healthcare providers who care for families and individuals affected by dementia also share their experiences to give insight to culturally safe care and what institutional supports are needed for frontline staff to achieve this.

Indigenous caregivers were all Anishanaabe and Métis who share stories about caring for their male loved ones. Through their stories of strength and resiliency, the importance ...


Timely Access To Maternal, Neonatal And Child Healthcare For Rural Communities In Rwanda: The Role Of Community Health Workers, Jean Bosco Bigirimana Aug 2019

Timely Access To Maternal, Neonatal And Child Healthcare For Rural Communities In Rwanda: The Role Of Community Health Workers, Jean Bosco Bigirimana

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Abstract

Introduction: In Rwanda, although there has been some progress in health care delivery as expressed in the reduction in maternal and child mortality, rates are still high and geographically variable. Improving equitable access to quality healthcare services for maternal, neonatal and child healthcare (MNCH), community-based maternal, neonatal and child healthcare (CBMNCH) depends upon using “community health workers” (CHWs). Yet CHWs program faces difficulties that upset delivery of the quality of the comprehensive package of services. Unfortunately, little is known about CHWs` performance and job satisfaction in the provision of CBMNCH.

Goal: The study aimed to provide insight into the ...


The Effect Of Perceived Role Suitability On Prestige, Dominance, Performance, And Communication., Lynden Jensen Aug 2019

The Effect Of Perceived Role Suitability On Prestige, Dominance, Performance, And Communication., Lynden Jensen

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The pursuit of social rank is pervasive across societies and cultures. Previous studies have identified two distinct avenues for attaining social rank: prestige and dominance. While prestige (communication of skill/ability) and dominance (communication of superiority) are crucial to interpersonal interactions, it is unclear how people communicate prestige or dominance and how such communication affects team performance. To investigate these ideas, 206 individuals participated in a cooperative dyadic building task. A computer randomly assigned dyad members to one of two roles—builder (who handled and placed model pieces) and instructor (who directed the builder's actions). Additionally, using a false ...


Forms Of Capital In Immigrants’ Social And Economic Integration, Georgina Chuatico Aug 2019

Forms Of Capital In Immigrants’ Social And Economic Integration, Georgina Chuatico

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Immigrants’ social and economic integration in Canada are explored using the 2001 census, the Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Canada (LSIC) and the Longitudinal Immigration Database (IMDB). I analyze how immigrants’ ethnicity as well as education level relative to their ethnic group, affect their social tie formation with co-ethnic members. Visible minority groups are more likely to make co-ethnic ties than the white population groups. Additionally, those who have similar or lower levels of education than their group are likely to make intra-ethnic networks two years after arrival. Next, I examine the income trajectories of immigrants by taking into account ...


Post-Secondary Students’ Perceptions Of Mental Health Messages Conveyed By Video Storytelling And Informational Approaches, Hung Quang Huynh Aug 2019

Post-Secondary Students’ Perceptions Of Mental Health Messages Conveyed By Video Storytelling And Informational Approaches, Hung Quang Huynh

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This study’s aim was to examine how Western students perceive mental health messages conveyed by video storytelling and informational approaches. In focus group discussions, participants’ perceptions of help seeking behaviors were unchanged by either approach. However, discussions suggested that messages enhanced understanding and awareness, which potentially reduced stigma. Participants who watched the storytelling videos asserted that they were open and receptive to the messages and expressed perceptual changes. Four facilitators appeared to contribute to effective mental health messages: diversity; explicit instructions; shift toward understanding societal and biological causes of mental health conditions; and a combination of storytelling and information ...


Childhood Stress At Rinconada Alta (Ad 1470-1532): An Examination Of Linear Hypoplastic Enamel Defects On The Central Coast Of Peru, Jessica Lacerte Aug 2019

Childhood Stress At Rinconada Alta (Ad 1470-1532): An Examination Of Linear Hypoplastic Enamel Defects On The Central Coast Of Peru, Jessica Lacerte

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This MA thesis investigates non-specific childhood stress at Rinconada Alta through the analysis of linear enamel hypoplastic defects (LEH). Dental casts were taken from a sample of teeth from predominantly Inca-period, Yschma remains (with some admixture of the Late Intermediate period burials). The sample consists of 10 adult females, 11 adult males, and 5 adolescents of indeterminate sex with fully occluded adult teeth (with the exception of the third molars). This thesis employs Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), which increases the visibility of linear defects, to determine the frequency, age, and duration at which metabolic disruption affected enamel growth of the ...


Pattern Separation In The Ventral Visual Stream, Kayla Ferko Aug 2019

Pattern Separation In The Ventral Visual Stream, Kayla Ferko

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Pattern separation is a neural computation thought to underlie our ability to form distinct memories of similar events. It involves transforming overlapping inputs into less overlapping outputs. In the ventral visual stream (VVS) there is considerable evidence for hierarchical transformation from feature-based visual representations to conjunctive whole-object representations, with the latter allowing for distinct coding even when objects have significant feature overlap. In the current study, we asked whether this transformation can be understood as pattern separation, and whether pattern separation can be observed even outside the context of classic recognition-memory tasks. To investigate pattern separation in the VVS, we ...


Double Jeopardy: What Is Mentorship And Diversity-Valuing On Perceived Competence?, T. Eva Kwan Aug 2019

Double Jeopardy: What Is Mentorship And Diversity-Valuing On Perceived Competence?, T. Eva Kwan

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Previous research has found that female managers and those who might benefit from diversity initiatives receive lower perceived competence ratings when they engage in activities that support or value diversity. Theoretically, this is supported by the role congruity theory, expectation states theory, and stereotype content model. This study sought to replicate these findings in the context of highly competent non-managerial employees and to examine the impact of mentorship on perceived competence ratings. The demerit to perceived competence from gender and using one’s voice to support diversity was not replicated in this study. However, mentorship had a modest positive effect ...


Improving Stimulus Realism: The Effect Of Visual Dimension On Affective Responding, Shannon Compton Aug 2019

Improving Stimulus Realism: The Effect Of Visual Dimension On Affective Responding, Shannon Compton

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

For decades researchers have used 2D stimuli under the assumption that they accurately represent real objects. This assumption has been challenged by recent vision and neuroeconomics research which has found that 2D images can evoke different neural and behavioural responses than real objects. The current study continues this line of research in the field of affective cognitive neuroscience; a field where small effect sizes are common and rapid habituation to affective stimuli used in the lab often occurs. The present study uses realistic 2D and 3D emotional images to determine the impact of visual dimension on affective responding. Subjective ratings ...


Strategic And Subversive: The Case Of The Disappearing Diaphragm And Women’S Information Practices, Sherilyn M. Williams Aug 2019

Strategic And Subversive: The Case Of The Disappearing Diaphragm And Women’S Information Practices, Sherilyn M. Williams

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Birth control options for women have advanced significantly over the past century. Barrier methods such as diaphragms became readily available in the first half of the 20th century, while hormonal contraceptives such as the birth control pill have defined advances in the latter half. While the diaphragm is still contextualized in modern sexual health discourse as an accessible birth control option, women in North America, and across the globe, are finding it increasingly difficult to obtain. This is partly because the skill of fitting a diaphragm is disappearing in medical practice, and also due to pharmaceutical influence on medicine ...


Not In My Occupation: An Examination Of Occupational Identification And Unethical Pro-Organizational Behaviour, Trevor Thomas Coppins Aug 2019

Not In My Occupation: An Examination Of Occupational Identification And Unethical Pro-Organizational Behaviour, Trevor Thomas Coppins

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Workplace identification has been investigated as a predictor of unethical pro-organizational behaviour (UPB), a form of unethical behaviour that primarily benefits the organization. While there have been fruitful findings for organizational identification, there is currently a lack of understanding for how other sources of identification influence this relationship. I sought to investigate whether occupational identification, defining oneself as a member of an occupation, would negatively moderate the relationship between organizational identification and UPB in an ethical decision-making study utilizing a sample of 193 accountants. Similarly, to past research, I hypothesized that moral disengagement would be a mediator in the model ...


Examining The Neural Correlates Of Vocabulary And Grammar Learning Using Fnirs, Leah Brainin Aug 2019

Examining The Neural Correlates Of Vocabulary And Grammar Learning Using Fnirs, Leah Brainin

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Adults struggle with learning language components involving categorical relations such as grammar while achieving higher proficiency in vocabulary. The cognitive and neural mechanisms modulating this learning difference remain unclear. The present thesis investigated behavioural and neural differences between vocabulary and grammar processing in adults using functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS). Participants took part in an artificial language learning paradigm consisting of novel singular and plural words paired with images of common objects. Findings revealed higher accuracy scores and faster response times on semantic vocabulary judgement trials compared to grammar judgement trials. Singular vocabulary judgement was associated with neural activity in part ...


Who Should Defend Victims Of Bullying? The Effects Of Relative Status On Defender And Victim Outcomes, Kunio Hessel Aug 2019

Who Should Defend Victims Of Bullying? The Effects Of Relative Status On Defender And Victim Outcomes, Kunio Hessel

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Although children often are encouraged to defend victims of bullying, social consequences for defenders are relatively unknown. The present study examined the protective effects of defender and bully status on social and victimization outcomes after defending. Participants (N = 222, 118 male, age 10-14, Mage = 12.28 years) from six schools in South-western Ontario completed a 44-item questionnaire in which they reported on bully-victim-defender relationships in their classroom. Polynomial regression with response surface analysis indicated that the status effects of multiple bullying roles provided information beyond the status effects of each individual role. When defender popularity exceeded bully popularity, bullies ...


Optimizing Gait Outcomes In Parkinson's Disease With Auditory Cues: The Effects Of Synchronization, Groove, And Beat Perception Ability, Emily A. Ready Jul 2019

Optimizing Gait Outcomes In Parkinson's Disease With Auditory Cues: The Effects Of Synchronization, Groove, And Beat Perception Ability, Emily A. Ready

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This dissertation explores a common, rehabilitative strategy for mitigating gait impairments in Parkinson’s disease (PD) called Rhythmic Auditory Stimulation (RAS). The effects of this intervention on gait in PD are well documented but highly variable, which poses difficulty for appropriate therapeutic application. Part of this variability may be related to individual musical abilities, such as beat perception accuracy, as most RAS interventions involve synchronizing with a beat. However, music is complex and variable. Therefore, factors inherent in the music itself may play a role in these differences, such as how much the music makes you want to move (groove ...


The Myths That Make Us: An Examination Of Canadian National Identity, Shannon Lodoen Jul 2019

The Myths That Make Us: An Examination Of Canadian National Identity, Shannon Lodoen

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This thesis uses Barthes’ Mythologies as a framework to examine the ways in which the Canadian nation has been mythologized, exploring how this mythologization affects our sense of national identity. Because, as Barthes says, the ultimate goal of myth is to transform history into nature, it is necessary to delve into Canada’s past in order to understand when, why, and how it has become the nation it is today. This will involve tracing some key aspects of Canadian history, society, and pop culture from Canada’s earliest days to current times to uncover the “true origins” of the naturalized ...


"A Deadly Game Of Russian Roulette": Exploring The Framing Of The Opioid Crisis In Canadian News Media, Lorna Ferguson Jul 2019

"A Deadly Game Of Russian Roulette": Exploring The Framing Of The Opioid Crisis In Canadian News Media, Lorna Ferguson

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The purpose of this study is to investigate the framing of the opioid crisis in Canadian news media. Using a 'frame analysis' approach (Entman 1993), the following questions are addressed: (1) How has the opioid crisis been framed in recent Canadian news articles?; (2) How often (frequency) are each of the frames documented in recent Canadian news articles?; and (3) What is the dominant frame? To answer these questions, this study draws on the results of a content analysis of 314 news articles published between January 2018 to December 2018. Data collected through systematic searches of the Canadian Major Dailies ...