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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Save More Later? The Effect Of The Option To Choose Delayed Savings Rate Increases On Retirement Wealth, John Beshears, Hengchen Dai, Katherine L. Milkman, Shlomo Benartzi Sep 2019

Save More Later? The Effect Of The Option To Choose Delayed Savings Rate Increases On Retirement Wealth, John Beshears, Hengchen Dai, Katherine L. Milkman, Shlomo Benartzi

Wharton Pension Research Council Working Papers

Prior research in economics and psychology has documented that individuals exhibit time-inconsistent preferences when faced with the opportunity to take an action that involves immediate costs in return for future benefits – the notion of implementing such an action now is unappealing, but the notion of implementing the same action later is attractive. Because increasing contributions to a retirement savings plan requires a reduction in current consumption (an immediate cost) in order to increase consumption in old age (a future benefit), individuals may be more likely to agree to a contribution rate increase if they have the option to have the ...


Social Group Work In Action: A Sociometry, Psychodrama, And Experiential Trauma Group Therapy Curriculum, Scott Giacomucci Jun 2019

Social Group Work In Action: A Sociometry, Psychodrama, And Experiential Trauma Group Therapy Curriculum, Scott Giacomucci

Doctorate in Social Work (DSW) Dissertations

The demand for group work in social work practice has steadily increased while the group work education provided in social work programs has exponentially declined. Social work education and social work practice are intimately linked – one cannot be examined without considering the other. The historical, theoretical, and clinical intersections of social work with groups and the triadic system of J.L. Moreno (sociometry, psychodrama, and group psychotherapy) will be explored. Moreno’s work will be framed through a social work lens with primary concepts defined. Two trauma-specific psychodrama models (Therapeutic Spiral Model and Relational Trauma Repair Model) will be outlined ...


The U.S. Needs A National Vision For Housing Policy, Vincent Reina Jun 2019

The U.S. Needs A National Vision For Housing Policy, Vincent Reina

Penn Wharton Public Policy Initiative

Recent demographic changes—the sharp increase in single-person households, especially among single individuals over the age of 65, as well as racial disparities in homeownership and the increasing cost burden of home rentals—are underscoring the need for a new vision with respect to U.S. housing policy. This Issue Brief

lays out several policy prescriptions for improving housing affordability and fairness, both for renters and owners: modifying the federal Housing Choice Voucher program as well as local and state land-use regulations; investing in the maintenance of existing affordable housing stock; making good on HUD’s Affirmatively Furthering Fair Housing ...


Preferred Pharmacy Networks: Health Care Savings On The Margins, Ashley Swanson May 2019

Preferred Pharmacy Networks: Health Care Savings On The Margins, Ashley Swanson

Penn Wharton Public Policy Initiative

While policymakers have talked a lot recently about finding a comprehensive fix for escalating health care costs, such as Medicare-for-all, many economists have been exploring the possibility that the answer for excessive health care spending may rest instead in series of smaller adjustments. This issue brief presents research on one such small fix: preferred pharmacy networks. This is a relatively new tool whereby health insurers aim to steer consumers to lower cost “preferred” pharmacies, where insurers are able to negotiate lower drug prices. The research concludes that preferred pharmacy contracting results in a roughly 1 percent decrease in Medicare Part ...


Situational Risk Factors Associated With Child Sexual Abuse In The Black Church And The Interventions To Keep Black Children Safe, Ebony M. Speakes-Hall May 2019

Situational Risk Factors Associated With Child Sexual Abuse In The Black Church And The Interventions To Keep Black Children Safe, Ebony M. Speakes-Hall

Doctorate in Social Work (DSW) Dissertations

This dissertation explores the problem of Child Sexual Abuse within the Black Church by applying a situational crime prevention (SCP) lens to this issue in four stages. First, this dissertation traces the origins and application of situational crime prevention by criminologists in order to explore situational indicators that put children at risk within institutions. Second, this dissertation traces the emergence of the Black Church as a protective factor from historical trauma experienced by African Americans. Third, it identifies how some of these same protective factors have become situational risk factors within the Black Church that pose serious threats to children ...


Impact Of Disclosure Of Military Service History On Diagnosis Of Ptsd, Crystal Shelton May 2019

Impact Of Disclosure Of Military Service History On Diagnosis Of Ptsd, Crystal Shelton

Doctorate in Social Work (DSW) Dissertations

Objective Variability in how clinicians diagnose PTSD has been studied across treatment settings. Research shows several factors impact diagnostic variability. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the extent to which disclosure of military service leads to an increase in diagnosis of PTSD when considering an otherwise vague symptom profile. We hypothesize veteran status will increase the likelihood of a PTSD diagnosis than status as a teacher. Methods Clinician were recruited online through professional message boards and listservs. Participants were randomly assigned a vignette (veteran or teacher status) and subsequently asked to make diagnostic judgments. Two vignettes, identical with ...


The Efficacy Of Supportive Services In The Early Stages Of Outpatient Methadone Maintenance Treatment, Zachary M. Holtzman-Conston May 2019

The Efficacy Of Supportive Services In The Early Stages Of Outpatient Methadone Maintenance Treatment, Zachary M. Holtzman-Conston

Doctorate in Social Work (DSW) Dissertations

Background

Over the past 25 years, the United States has experienced an opioid epidemic that has cost hundreds of thousands of lives and which now constitutes as the worst drug overdose epidemic in U.S. history. Increases in opioid use and abuse have been found among men and women, most age groups, and all income levels (CDC, 2017). Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT) is one the most effective forms of treatment for opioid addiction, and has been found to reduce substance use, the risk of HIV, overdose, and criminal behaviors (Joseph et al., 2000; Mattick, Breen, Kimber, & Davoli, 2009). Both clinical ...


Attachment To The Social Construct Of Success And The Myth Of The "Good College": Effects Of Toxic Stress On Affluent Adolescents, Corey Hirsch May 2019

Attachment To The Social Construct Of Success And The Myth Of The "Good College": Effects Of Toxic Stress On Affluent Adolescents, Corey Hirsch

Doctorate in Social Work (DSW) Dissertations

The demands and expectations placed on many high school students in affluent communities require almost impossible performance levels, or even perfection, and parents, peers, high school teachers, counselors, and administrators, as well as others in affluent communities, become increasingly invested in the quest for success demonstrated by high level performance and achievement. As a result, students in affluent communities are vulnerable to experiencing extreme pressure to succeed as demonstrated by gaining admittance to a “good college.” This dissertation utilizes the foundational aspects of attachment theory to provide a framework for understanding how individuals in affluent communities develop a strong attachment ...


Expanding The Mind And Body: Educating Social Work Students On Yoga As A Complementary Practice To Traditional Therapeutic Approaches, Nicole Grossman May 2019

Expanding The Mind And Body: Educating Social Work Students On Yoga As A Complementary Practice To Traditional Therapeutic Approaches, Nicole Grossman

Doctorate in Social Work (DSW) Dissertations

Social work practice has prided itself in supporting a holistic approach to treatment which considers the dynamic interactions between the biological, psychological, and social aspects of human discourse. Despite being grounded in this theoretical approach, literature has revealed that formal social work education and practice have insufficiently incorporated complementary and alternative approaches to treatment. In response to the growing demand to consider and incorporate complementary and alternative methods with more traditional treatment approaches, and the potential efficacy of these methods, this dissertation seeks to develop a graduate level social work course that integrates yoga as a complementary therapy for treating ...


When Cancer Hits Home: Providing A Theoretical Foundation For Defining Self-Disclosure Of Personal Cancer Coping Experience In Oncology Social Workers’ Helping Relationships, Kimberly A. Lawson May 2019

When Cancer Hits Home: Providing A Theoretical Foundation For Defining Self-Disclosure Of Personal Cancer Coping Experience In Oncology Social Workers’ Helping Relationships, Kimberly A. Lawson

Doctorate in Social Work (DSW) Dissertations

The American Cancer Society estimates that by 2020 cancer survivors in the United States will increase by 31%, rising from 13.7 million in 2012 to nearly 18 million, if cancer incidence and survival rates remain stable. This does not include others indirectly impacted by a diagnosis, such as family caregivers. Health care workers, including oncology social workers, are also increasingly finding themselves among those diagnosed with and / or caring for someone who has cancer. As cancer increasingly “hits home”, oncology social workers in such situations are also acquiring potentially valuable personal cancer coping experience. This theoretical dissertation explored how ...


From The Voices Of Domestic Sex Trafficking Survivors: Experiences Of Complex Trauma & Posttraumatic Growth, Heather R. Evans Dsw May 2019

From The Voices Of Domestic Sex Trafficking Survivors: Experiences Of Complex Trauma & Posttraumatic Growth, Heather R. Evans Dsw

Doctorate in Social Work (DSW) Dissertations

Human sex trafficking is an ongoing global rights violation formally recognized since 2000 through the Trafficking Victims Protection Act (Department of State Trafficking in Persons Report, 2016). Using ecological and trauma-informed lenses, this qualitative, retrospective study used participant-centered methods to explore identity, sexuality, relationships, and factors that facilitate/ hindered community reintegration for 15 adult female survivors. Interview transcripts, Photovoice captioned images, and focus groups were analyzed using multi-level conceptual and thematic coding. Participants identified with all aspects of complex trauma, including: dissociation, self-perception/identity, relations with others and systems of meaning. Key themes included losing and regaining power, shame, and ...


Provider-Identified Implementation Barriers To Providing Cognitive Processing Therapy In Va: A Review Of The Literature And Changes Over Time, Stephanie M. Renno May 2019

Provider-Identified Implementation Barriers To Providing Cognitive Processing Therapy In Va: A Review Of The Literature And Changes Over Time, Stephanie M. Renno

Doctorate in Social Work (DSW) Dissertations

Incidents of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) are high, especially in veterans exposed to combat. Strongly supported, efficacious treatment options exist, including Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT) to treat the disorder and improve outcomes for patients. CPT has been trained widely in the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). Despite national dissemination and training, utilization rates have been low. Using data from the 2008, 2011, 2014, and 2016 VA Cognitive Processing Therapy Practice Survey, the present study examined the trajectory of provider reported barriers to implementation of CPT across the four survey distributions. The sample was analyzed using frequencies within and across survey ...


Barriers To Attaining Higher Education Among Substance Abuse Counselors, Steven Dawson May 2019

Barriers To Attaining Higher Education Among Substance Abuse Counselors, Steven Dawson

Doctorate in Social Work (DSW) Dissertations

Twenty-three million people over the age of 12 meet criteria for a substance use disorder. Drug overdose is currently the number one cause of injury-related death in the US. From 1999 to 2017, almost 218,000 people died from overdoses related to opioids. In 2017, opioid overdoses were five times higher than they were in 1999. The financial cost of substance abuse in the US is estimated at $700 billion annually. Evidence-based approaches have been shown to improve outcomes, yet substance use treatment has the lowest rates of utilization of evidence-based practices of any health care discipline.

Graduate level education ...


Towards A Better Understanding Of Religious Priming: An Experiment Proposal, Leah Hess, Timur Almazov May 2019

Towards A Better Understanding Of Religious Priming: An Experiment Proposal, Leah Hess, Timur Almazov

SPICE: Student Perspectives on Institutions, Choices and Ethics

No abstract provided.


Furman V. Georgia And The Supreme Court's Failure To Apply It, Callie Maslowsky May 2019

Furman V. Georgia And The Supreme Court's Failure To Apply It, Callie Maslowsky

SPICE: Student Perspectives on Institutions, Choices and Ethics

In the case of Furman v. Georgia (1972), the Supreme Court outlawed the death penalty on the grounds that its use constituted cruel and unusual punishment in violation of the Eighth Amendment. No majority opinion was written, but the plurality opinions all agreed that the amount of discretion in death penalty sentencing left too much room for the death penalty to be given arbitrarily. When the death penalty was reinstated in Gregg v. Georgia (1976), the Court approved schemes that limited the discretion of sentencing bodies by providing sentencing guidelines, automatically appealing all death penalty cases for review, or taking ...


Death Is Different. Death Sentencing Is Not., Simone Unwalla May 2019

Death Is Different. Death Sentencing Is Not., Simone Unwalla

SPICE: Student Perspectives on Institutions, Choices and Ethics

This paper investigates the conditional demands of Death-Is-Different jurisprudence in the United States criminal justice system and argues that the dissonance between the need for heightened protections in capital sentencing and the reality of our capital-sentencing institutions ultimately renders the death penalty, as it currently exists in our society, impermissible. This claim is substantiated in three parts: first, through an analysis of foundational death penalty decisions from the Supreme Course, which condemn the arbitrary nature of capital juries while simultaneously justifying their constitutional necessity as sentencing agents; second, through an examination of the development of Death-Is-Different jurisprudence and its conceptual ...


Cross-National Differences In Gain-Domain Risk Preferences Among Older Populations: Judgment And Decision-Making Behaviors In Rapidly Aging Countries, Samuel Joo, Suyoung Baek May 2019

Cross-National Differences In Gain-Domain Risk Preferences Among Older Populations: Judgment And Decision-Making Behaviors In Rapidly Aging Countries, Samuel Joo, Suyoung Baek

SPICE: Student Perspectives on Institutions, Choices and Ethics

This research explores the systematic, cross-national differences in choice-inferred risk preferences between American and South Korean ("Korean") elders. A total of four different same groups--American elders, Korean elders, American young adults, and Korean young adults--were surveyed. All four groups were asked to partake in a two-part questionnaire: one pertaining to their background information and the other consisting of a set of gain-domain choice questions based on hypothetical lottery situations. The result of the study highlights three statistically significant (a=0.05) findings among the groups surveyed: (1) The Korean elderly group tends to be more risk-averse than the American elderly ...


Using Positive Psychology To Grow Through Grief, Courtney Daly, Elizabeth Blaum, Laryssa Kundanmal, Jessica Massa May 2019

Using Positive Psychology To Grow Through Grief, Courtney Daly, Elizabeth Blaum, Laryssa Kundanmal, Jessica Massa

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Service Learning Projects

Grief does not discriminate; most individuals in this world, regardless of background or life circumstance, will eventually experience the loss of someone close to them. Children’s Bereavement Center, based in Miami, Florida, offers no-cost peer-support groups to grieving children, adolescents, and adults. The following paper presents an overview of the organization as well as a customized application plan for how positive psychology can be further integrated into Children’s Bereavement Center’s services. We include a situation analysis of the grief sector, looking specifically at Children’s Bereavement Center’s influence in southern Florida, a literature review of positive ...


Character Strengths Are Superpowers: Using Positive Psychology To Help Children Realize Their Potential, Courtney Bigony, Alaina Cowley, Amanda Carreiro, Stephanie Florez May 2019

Character Strengths Are Superpowers: Using Positive Psychology To Help Children Realize Their Potential, Courtney Bigony, Alaina Cowley, Amanda Carreiro, Stephanie Florez

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Service Learning Projects

Big Brothers Big Sisters (BBBS) is a national non-profit organization that facilitates one-on-one mentoring between at-risk youth and adults in order to build developmental assets and promote the well-being of youth. The organization utilizes mentoring to facilitate strong, caring relationships that help marginalized youth realize their potential. The Great Lakes Bay Chapter of BBBS (Midland, Michigan) seeks to expand positive psychology resources and curriculum to: (a) bring together staff, mentors, mentees, and parents with a common language; (b) build and support strong relationships; and (c) enhance well-being in youth. This project provides a character strengths curriculum to support these goals ...


Enhancing The Good In “Doing Good”: Research And Interventions To Support A Leadership Development After-School Program, Rephael Houston, Jennifer Overall, Katy Sine, Liz Sutton, Sari Wilson May 2019

Enhancing The Good In “Doing Good”: Research And Interventions To Support A Leadership Development After-School Program, Rephael Houston, Jennifer Overall, Katy Sine, Liz Sutton, Sari Wilson

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Service Learning Projects

Project 440 aims to help young musicians develop their skillset by cultivating strengths of character that will contribute to overall resilience. Strategic cultivation of resilience leads to development of patterns of positive change during or following challenging circumstances, both significant and small. These individual characteristics include self-efficacy, optimism, hope, grit, and character strengths. Each of these characteristics can be measured and is supported by a strong body of scientific literature demonstrating positive outcomes, including among students. Weaving these concepts into an already effective curriculum through research-based annotations, measurements, and interventions is intended to fortify resiliency in young musicians and will ...


The Bridge To Inclusion: An Appreciative Strategic Planning Process For The Cultural Awareness Coalition Of Midland, Michigan, Joel Treisman, Anna Lucas, Owen Harrison, Sydney Kastner May 2019

The Bridge To Inclusion: An Appreciative Strategic Planning Process For The Cultural Awareness Coalition Of Midland, Michigan, Joel Treisman, Anna Lucas, Owen Harrison, Sydney Kastner

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Service Learning Projects

Inclusive communities are places where all citizens feel a sense of acceptance and belonging. In Midland, MI, a dedicated group of citizens has made a community-wide culture of inclusion their priority. These are the members of the Midland Cultural Awareness Coalition (CAC), a community-based initiative which has attracted a diverse group of stakeholders from a broad cross-section of Midland County. This spring, CAC leaders have collaborated with a team of graduate students (Team Black) enrolled in the University of Pennsylvania’s Master of Applied Positive Psychology program (MAPP). As part of their semester-long course in Applying Positive Interventions in Institutions ...


Pulling It All Together: Managing The Syriac Galen Palimpsest Project, Michael Toth May 2019

Pulling It All Together: Managing The Syriac Galen Palimpsest Project, Michael Toth

Manuscript Studies

During a two-year period, from 2009 to 2010, a multidisciplinary team conducted multispectral imaging, digital processing and data management of the Syriac Galen Palimpsest. This contractor-led team applied the turnkey multispectral imaging techniques developed in earlier advanced imaging projects to this palimpsest. This required new management techniques and work processes to provide useful results efficiently and quickly, while minimizing risk. In the initial risk-mitigation study phase, the team first imaged several leaves of the bound SGP in 2009 to characterize the imaging and processing challenges. Building on the findings from this first phase, they then imaged all the disbound leaves ...


No Sympathy For The Folk Devil: How Presidential Speechmaking In The War On Terror And The War On Drugs Utilized Threat And Anxiety To Manipulate And Persuade The American Public, Erin E. Farrell May 2019

No Sympathy For The Folk Devil: How Presidential Speechmaking In The War On Terror And The War On Drugs Utilized Threat And Anxiety To Manipulate And Persuade The American Public, Erin E. Farrell

CUREJ - College Undergraduate Research Electronic Journal

This thesis analyzes how presidential speeches in the War on Terror (2001 through the present) and the War on Drugs (1964 through the present) defined the out-group, characterized a righteous American in-group, and aided in the creation of atmospheres of escalating fear and anxiety to gain support for specific policy ends. To observe and quantify these trends of fear and crisis, out-group isolation, and in-group emphasis, the author uses quantitative and qualitative content analysis. The results reflect a higher concentration of rhetoric espousing punitive policymaking, characterization of the out-group in each era as immoral, violent, and ubiquitous, and a definition ...


Salvation Or Suffering? Analyzing The Impact Of Un Peacekeeping Operations On Health And Safety Of Women In Post-Conflict Environments, Alicia Y. Hariri May 2019

Salvation Or Suffering? Analyzing The Impact Of Un Peacekeeping Operations On Health And Safety Of Women In Post-Conflict Environments, Alicia Y. Hariri

CUREJ - College Undergraduate Research Electronic Journal

Drawing from the experiences of the United Nations Peacekeeping Mission in Liberia (UNMIL) and United Nations Peacekeeping Mission in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL), this study examines the impact of UN peacekeeping operations on the health and safety of women and girls in post-conflict environments. By combining findings from the four indicators of access to the provision of health care, state of maternal health, disarmament of women and girls, and the prevalence of sexual exploitation and abuse, this study will illustrate that neither mission led to disproportionately better outcomes for women and girls following mission deployment.


Ms. Coll. 251: Literary Models, Religion, And Romantic Science In John Syng Dorsey’S Poems, 1805-1818 (Expanded), Samantha Destefano May 2019

Ms. Coll. 251: Literary Models, Religion, And Romantic Science In John Syng Dorsey’S Poems, 1805-1818 (Expanded), Samantha Destefano

Transcription Collection

John Syng Dorsey (1783-1818) was a Philadelphia surgeon and the author of The Elements of Surgery (1813), the first American textbook of surgery. He was also the author of Poems, 1805-1818 (UPenn Ms. Coll. 251), a forty-page collection that reveals his interests in spirituality, the history of science and medicine, and classical and eighteenth-century British poetry. Decades after Dorsey’s death, his son Robert Ralston Dorsey (1808-1869) revised his father’s poems, identified classical sources with Latin and Italian quotations, and completed Dorsey’s final, unfinished poem. This project analyzes Dorsey’s literary, scientific, and biblical allusions and contextualizes his ...


Asean’S Human Rights Conundrum: An Analysis Of The Failures Of The Asean System For Promoting Human Rights, Dakota Jones May 2019

Asean’S Human Rights Conundrum: An Analysis Of The Failures Of The Asean System For Promoting Human Rights, Dakota Jones

Honors Theses (PPE)

The ASEAN human rights system consists of a network of formal institutions such as the ASEAN Intergovernmental Commission Human Rights, documents such as the ASEAN Human Rights Declaration, and efforts to interact with regional civil society organizations. This system, which emerged in 2009, has come under intense scrutiny because the region’s human rights record has worsened since its inception. This paper examines the complex network of institutions, documents, and interactions between ASEAN member states and civil society organizations to determine the overall effectiveness of the organization’s efforts to safeguard human rights throughout the region. The paper begins with ...


The Cost Of The Cup: A Case Study On The Political And Economic Impacts Of Hosting Mega Sporting Events, George J. Avdellas Apr 2019

The Cost Of The Cup: A Case Study On The Political And Economic Impacts Of Hosting Mega Sporting Events, George J. Avdellas

CUREJ - College Undergraduate Research Electronic Journal

In the modern world, sports have become a new form of geopolitical signaling. Countries who are entrusted with hosting mega sporting events, from the Olympic Games to the World Cup are seen as capable and competent nations. For developing nations, these games can bring political legitimacy, as it shows that their respective teams can not only compete in global events, but their governments can host safe, secure, and well run events.

In this thesis, I will be examining South Africa’s process in bidding, building and hosting the 2010 World Cup and the subsequent political and economic effects. South Africa ...


Ain’T We Women? Assessing The Place Of Women Of Color In Campaign Training Programs, Catherine Monk Apr 2019

Ain’T We Women? Assessing The Place Of Women Of Color In Campaign Training Programs, Catherine Monk

CUREJ - College Undergraduate Research Electronic Journal

While descriptive representatives enhance democratic legitimacy and deliver substantive results to their constituents, women remain underrepresented in American politics. Recent literature regarding electoral politics has concluded that this is because women do not run for office. Scholars identify many reasons for this candidacy gap including the lack of an institutional support structure and barriers on the campaign trail. In this thesis, I argue that women of color face additional barriers not addressed by traditional literature. I use in-depth interviews with the founder of a campaign training program, and a review of their recruitment and training materials, to examine how the ...


Partisan Issue Linkages In Presidential Campaign Speeches: A Case Study Of Abortion, Ashutosh Mishra Apr 2019

Partisan Issue Linkages In Presidential Campaign Speeches: A Case Study Of Abortion, Ashutosh Mishra

CUREJ - College Undergraduate Research Electronic Journal

This study examined how presidential candidates used partisan issue linkages to discuss their abortion views over the 2008, 2012, and 2016 elections. It qualitatively examined 64 speeches, town halls, and interviews in which candidates spoke about abortion to identify trends in their rhetoric. It also measured the frequencies with which candidates used partisan messages, specific vocabulary, and issue linkages. As candidates employed stronger and more partisan issue linkages across these three elections, they transformed abortion from a stand-alone issue to one entrenched in a partisan policy package. The development of Planned Parenthood as a symbol for pro-choice positions in 2012 ...


Rifles And Reinforcement: The National Rifle Association’S Partisan Approach To Gun Ownership, August Gebhard-Koenigstein Mar 2019

Rifles And Reinforcement: The National Rifle Association’S Partisan Approach To Gun Ownership, August Gebhard-Koenigstein

CUREJ - College Undergraduate Research Electronic Journal

The NRA has long been the dominant player in the battle over gun control. Scholars have attributed this dominance in large part to the NRA’s ability to mobilize its membership when necessary. Lacombe (2018) has written of the NRA’s cultivation of a politicized social identity around gun ownership that assists it in doing so. In this thesis, I show that the NRA has tied this gun owner identity to conservatism and to the Republican party. I find that the NRA’s homogenous membership composition advantages it in its strategy of developing a partisan politicized gun-owner identity among its ...