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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Professional Ethics-Responsible Conduct Of Research Training: Making Sense Of Complex Problems, Michael D. Mumford, Shane Connelly, Ryan P. Brown, Lynn D. Devenport, Stephen T. Murphy, Alison L. Antes Sep 2009

Professional Ethics-Responsible Conduct Of Research Training: Making Sense Of Complex Problems, Michael D. Mumford, Shane Connelly, Ryan P. Brown, Lynn D. Devenport, Stephen T. Murphy, Alison L. Antes

Ethics in Science and Engineering National Clearinghouse

General Course Abstract

This two-day seminar format course exposes students to the complexities involved in real-world ethical decision-making. It provides students with strategies, or tools, for understanding and thinking through ethical problems to arrive at a decision. Students practice working with these strategies by applying them to realistic, complex cases.

Day 1 Abstract

During the first day of the course, guidelines and principles for ethical research practices are discussed. It is emphasized that students must apply guidelines in a context to arrive at a decision, and the course provides guidance on this decision-making process. Next, students learn about the personal ...


Federal Register: National Science Foundation, Responsible Conduct Of Research, National Science Foundation Aug 2009

Federal Register: National Science Foundation, Responsible Conduct Of Research, National Science Foundation

Ethics in Science and Engineering National Clearinghouse

The National Science Foundation (NSF) is announcing its implementation of Section 7009 of the America Creating Opportunities to Meaningfully Promote Excellence in Technology, Education, and Science (COMPETES) Act (42 U.S.C. 1862o–1). This section of the Act requires that ‘‘each institution that applies for financial assistance from the Foundation for science and engineering research or education describe in its grant proposal a plan to provide appropriate training and oversight in the responsible and ethical conduct of research to undergraduate students, graduate students, and postdoctoral researchers participating in the proposed research project.’’

[Abstract by author]


Responsible Conduct Of Research Role-Plays: Conflict Of Interest, C. K. Gunsalus, M. C. Loui, C. K. Gunsalus, M. C. Loui, And Their Students At The University Of Illinois At Urbana-Champaign May 2009

Responsible Conduct Of Research Role-Plays: Conflict Of Interest, C. K. Gunsalus, M. C. Loui, C. K. Gunsalus, M. C. Loui, And Their Students At The University Of Illinois At Urbana-Champaign

Ethics in Science and Engineering National Clearinghouse

This faculty adviser in this role-play has a major conflict of interest, which puts the student in an awkward situation. If the conflict oversight committee hasn’t contacted the student already (an unfortunately common situation), they should have. In an ideal situation, every student affected by a potential conflict of interest should have some written guidance about what to expect and how to get advice if concerns arise.

One useful step is to find out if there are any written policies or guidelines about what students can expect in situations like this: for example, is there a meeting annually or ...


Role-Play Scenarios For Teaching Responsible Conduct Of Research: Assessment Of Outcomes, Stephanie N. Seiler, Michael C. Loui, Kerri L. Kristich, Kyoung Jin Kim, C. K. Gunsalus, Bradley J. Brummel May 2009

Role-Play Scenarios For Teaching Responsible Conduct Of Research: Assessment Of Outcomes, Stephanie N. Seiler, Michael C. Loui, Kerri L. Kristich, Kyoung Jin Kim, C. K. Gunsalus, Bradley J. Brummel

Ethics in Science and Engineering National Clearinghouse

No abstract provided.


Federal Register: National Science Foundation, Responsible Conduct Of Research, National Science Foundation Feb 2009

Federal Register: National Science Foundation, Responsible Conduct Of Research, National Science Foundation

Ethics in Science and Engineering National Clearinghouse

The National Science Foundation (NSF) is soliciting public comment on the agency’s proposed implementation of Section 7009 of the America Creating Opportunities to Meaningfully Promote Excellence in Technology, Education, and Science (COMPETES) Act (42 U.S.C. 1862o–1). This section of the Act requires that ‘‘each institution that applies for financial assistance from the Foundation for science and engineering research or education describe in its grant proposal a plan to provide appropriate training and oversight in the responsible and ethical conduct of research to undergraduate students, graduate students, and postdoctoral researchers participating in the proposed research project.’’

[Abstract ...


Ethical Issues In Peer Review Of Research, Michael C. Loui Feb 2009

Ethical Issues In Peer Review Of Research, Michael C. Loui

Ethics in Science and Engineering National Clearinghouse

No abstract provided.


Responsible Conduct Of Research Role-Plays: Peer Review, C. K. Gunsalus, M. C. Loui, C. K. Gunsalus, M. C. Loui, And Their Students At The University Of Illinois At Urbana-Champaign Feb 2009

Responsible Conduct Of Research Role-Plays: Peer Review, C. K. Gunsalus, M. C. Loui, C. K. Gunsalus, M. C. Loui, And Their Students At The University Of Illinois At Urbana-Champaign

Ethics in Science and Engineering National Clearinghouse

This scenario is based on “What is Responsible Peer Review?” http://ccnmtl.columbia.edu/projects/rcr/rcr_authorship/case/index.html#2, which is based on the “Confidentiality vs. Mentor Responsibilities: A Conflict of Obligations” scenario, http://onlineethics.org/reseth/appe/vol3/conflictobligations.html, which is based on a real incident.

This scenario highlights several issues in the peer review of manuscripts submitted for publication:

• Conflict of interest in the role of the reviewer

• Confidentiality of information in the manuscript

• Role of the adviser in the professional development of a graduate student

Although this scenario is not based on a single ...


Responsible Conduct Of Research Role-Plays: Human Subjects, C. K. Gunsalus, M. C. Loui, C. K. Gunsalus, M. C. Loui, And Their Students At The University Of Illinois At Urbana-Champaign Feb 2009

Responsible Conduct Of Research Role-Plays: Human Subjects, C. K. Gunsalus, M. C. Loui, C. K. Gunsalus, M. C. Loui, And Their Students At The University Of Illinois At Urbana-Champaign

Ethics in Science and Engineering National Clearinghouse

This role-play addresses issues involved with human subject research and working with an Institutional Review Board (IRB).

The Belmont Report (1979) identifies three basic ethical principles that underlie all human subject research. These principles are Respect for persons, Beneficence, and Justice. Respect for persons requires us to treat individuals as autonomous human beings and not to use people as a means to an end. We must allow people to choose for themselves and provide extra protection to those with limited ability to choose, such as children. Rules derived from the principle of respect for persons include the requirements to obtain ...


Responsible Conduct Of Research Role-Plays: Whistle-Blowing And Professional Relationships, C. K. Gunsalus, M. C. Loui, C. K. Gunsalus, M. C. Loui, And Their Students At The University Of Illinois At Urbana-Champaign Feb 2009

Responsible Conduct Of Research Role-Plays: Whistle-Blowing And Professional Relationships, C. K. Gunsalus, M. C. Loui, C. K. Gunsalus, M. C. Loui, And Their Students At The University Of Illinois At Urbana-Champaign

Ethics in Science and Engineering National Clearinghouse

This role-play focuses on a whistle-blowing scenario involving data management issues in a research lab, complicated by uncomfortable personal relationships. Whistle-blowing involves raising concerns or allegations of wrongdoing or misconduct. There is an obligation for whistle-blowers to do so in good faith, which means based on reasonable belief or facts. Suspecting that someone has engaged in research misconduct is one of the most difficult situations researchers face. This is especially true when relationships are strained for other reasons.

If you have the suspicion of research misconduct, the possible consequences for all involved can be serious. To handle the situation responsibly ...


Responsible Conduct Of Research Role-Plays: Mentoring, C. K. Gunsalus, M. C. Loui, C. K. Gunsalus, M. C. Loui, And Their Students At The University Of Illinois At Urbana-Champaign Feb 2009

Responsible Conduct Of Research Role-Plays: Mentoring, C. K. Gunsalus, M. C. Loui, C. K. Gunsalus, M. C. Loui, And Their Students At The University Of Illinois At Urbana-Champaign

Ethics in Science and Engineering National Clearinghouse

This scenario highlights the mismatch of expectations that can arise in a mentoring relationship between a graduate student and a research adviser. The adviser wants a solely professional relationship, but the student seeks a more personal relationship. Their inconsistent desires lead to inconsistent expectations about how long they should meet and what they should discuss, and subsequently to misunderstandings about the preliminary results.

Some of the problems in this scenario could have been avoided had the adviser and student negotiated mutual expectations and responsibilities when they first began working together. In general, a professor and student should agree on expectations ...


Responsible Conduct Of Research Role-Plays: Whistleblowing Data Management, C. K. Gunsalus, M. C. Loui, C. K. Gunsalus, M. C. Loui, And Their Students At The University Of Illinois At Urbana-Champaign Feb 2009

Responsible Conduct Of Research Role-Plays: Whistleblowing Data Management, C. K. Gunsalus, M. C. Loui, C. K. Gunsalus, M. C. Loui, And Their Students At The University Of Illinois At Urbana-Champaign

Ethics in Science and Engineering National Clearinghouse

This role-play involves data mismanagement in a research lab. The graduate students suspects that the post-doc fabricated experimental results, which is a form of research misconduct. The realization or suspicion that someone has engaged in research misconduct is one of the most difficult situations researchers face. However, someone who has witnessed misconduct has an obligation to act and report this behavior. Reporting the misconduct, which also known as whistle-blowing, should be done in a cautious and responsible way. Ideally, whistle-blowers should never be afraid to come forward with questions of misconduct, as they should be supported by their institutions and ...


Responsible Conduct Of Research Role-Plays: Authorship, C. K. Gunsalus, M. C. Loui, C. K. Gunsalus, M. C. Loui, And Their Students At The University Of Illinois At Urbana-Champaign Feb 2009

Responsible Conduct Of Research Role-Plays: Authorship, C. K. Gunsalus, M. C. Loui, C. K. Gunsalus, M. C. Loui, And Their Students At The University Of Illinois At Urbana-Champaign

Ethics in Science and Engineering National Clearinghouse

This role-play deals with issues concerning authorship credit. Concerns about authorship raise the ethical principle of fairness because people should receive credit for their contributions. Authors of a scientific work must have made substantial or significant contributions to the project because they are taking public responsibility for its content. Authors must also be willing and able to respond to questions about the work. The hard part of authorship is deciding what kind of intellectual contribution counts as substantial or significant and therefore warrants authorship. Despite the availability of guidelines, there are differences of opinions within and between scientific disciplines. Broad ...


Responsible Conduct Of Research Role-Plays: Hazardous Substances, C. K. Gunsalus, M. C. Loui, C. K. Gunsalus, M. C. Loui, And Their Students At The University Of Illinois At Urbana-Champaign Feb 2009

Responsible Conduct Of Research Role-Plays: Hazardous Substances, C. K. Gunsalus, M. C. Loui, C. K. Gunsalus, M. C. Loui, And Their Students At The University Of Illinois At Urbana-Champaign

Ethics in Science and Engineering National Clearinghouse

This role-play focuses on the dilemmas in balancing regulatory requirements, personal relationships and a natural reluctance to “cause trouble.” These dilemmas arise in many settings, and can be particularly acute in laboratories that handle hazardous substances because of the serious safety implications of violations. In addition, violations can carry fines and penalties for laboratories and universities where they occur. The worries of the graduate student in the role-play about potential laboratory shut-downs and corresponding research delays are all too real. Specifics of regulations vary according to the materials being handled. The underlying principles regarding human and environmental safety stay the ...


Responsible Conduct Of Research Role-Plays: Animals, C. K. Gunsalus, M. C. Loui, C. K. Gunsalus, M. C. Loui, And Their Students At The University Of Illinois At Urbana-Champaign Feb 2009

Responsible Conduct Of Research Role-Plays: Animals, C. K. Gunsalus, M. C. Loui, C. K. Gunsalus, M. C. Loui, And Their Students At The University Of Illinois At Urbana-Champaign

Ethics in Science and Engineering National Clearinghouse

This scenario highlights ethical issues in reporting violations in a situation where extensive federal regulations and guidance apply. Specifically, the lab was using animals in ways that violated its own protocol and included making unauthorized purchases of animals.

The driving issue in this scenario is how to handle the discovery that another lab might have violated these regulations. Labs often have a great deal of autonomy and faculty members may feel uncomfortable questioning the conduct of their colleagues. Professor Prenlen appears to be violating animal care regulations, and involving students in those violations. This creates a difficult situation for the ...


America Competes Act Excerpt And Nsf Implementation Plan From The Federal Register, Ethics In Science And Engineering National Clearinghouse Jan 2009

America Competes Act Excerpt And Nsf Implementation Plan From The Federal Register, Ethics In Science And Engineering National Clearinghouse

Ethics in Science and Engineering National Clearinghouse

This document excerpts relevant RCR and mentoring sections from the America COMPETES Act and the National Science Foundation’s Implementation Plan posted in the Federal Register on August 20, 2009 (Vol. 74, No. 160).


Role-Play Scenarios For Teaching Responsible Conduct Of Research, Bradley J. Brummel, C. K. Gunsalus, Kerri L. Kristich, Michael C. Loui, Stephanie N. Seiler Jan 2009

Role-Play Scenarios For Teaching Responsible Conduct Of Research, Bradley J. Brummel, C. K. Gunsalus, Kerri L. Kristich, Michael C. Loui, Stephanie N. Seiler

Ethics in Science and Engineering National Clearinghouse

No abstract provided.


Development And Assessment Of Role-Play Scenarios For Teaching Rcr, Michael C. Loui, Bradley J. Brummel, C. K. Gunsalus, Kerri L. Kristich Apr 2008

Development And Assessment Of Role-Play Scenarios For Teaching Rcr, Michael C. Loui, Bradley J. Brummel, C. K. Gunsalus, Kerri L. Kristich

Ethics in Science and Engineering National Clearinghouse

No abstract provided.


Data Management And Whistle-Blowing, Michael C. Loui Feb 2008

Data Management And Whistle-Blowing, Michael C. Loui

Ethics in Science and Engineering National Clearinghouse

No abstract provided.


Text As Property / Property As Text, Christopher Kelty, Alfred Housman, Scott Mcgill Jan 2008

Text As Property / Property As Text, Christopher Kelty, Alfred Housman, Scott Mcgill

Ethics in Science and Engineering National Clearinghouse

Ownership, authorship, plagiarism, intellectual property, parody, critique, re-use, credit, reputation, allusion, imitation, patronage, payment, piracy, creativity, originality, borrowing, lending, stealing, quoting, citing, lifting, re-writing, translating, acting, performing, impersonating, collaborating, re-creating, editing, sampling, sharing.

If you can distinguish between all these activities, legally, morally, culturally and historically, then you don't need our class. If on the other hand, you want to know why ancient Romans sampled Virgil so often, or why some plagiarism is art and some is crime, or what could happen to manuscripts in antiquity when they circulated, or why the RIAA is suing thousands of college students ...


America Competes Act, United States Aug 2007

America Competes Act, United States

Ethics in Science and Engineering National Clearinghouse

The full text of the America COMPETES Act. See Sec. 7008. Postdoctoral Research Fellows, and Sec. 7009. Responsible Conduct of Research.


Proposal To The Ethics Education In Science And Engineering Program, National Science Foundation: Role-Play Scenarios For Teaching Responsible Conduct Of Research, Michael C. Loui, C. K. Gunsalus Mar 2006

Proposal To The Ethics Education In Science And Engineering Program, National Science Foundation: Role-Play Scenarios For Teaching Responsible Conduct Of Research, Michael C. Loui, C. K. Gunsalus

Ethics in Science and Engineering National Clearinghouse

We propose to develop and assess role-play scenarios to teach central topics in the responsible conduct of research (RCR) to graduate students in science and engineering. Together the scenarios will cover plagiarism, authorship, conflict of interest, interpersonal conflicts in mentoring, and concerns about compliance with research regulations on human participants in research, animal subjects, or hazardous substances. Two scenarios will present potential whistleblowing situations.

Intellectual merit: Few previous studies have carefully assessed the effectiveness of role-play in teaching ethics. We will conduct a rigorous, systematic assessment of role-play, using multiple methods, with a diverse group of graduate students. We will ...


Mentoring Guide: A Guide For Mentors, Center For Health Leadership & Practice Nov 2003

Mentoring Guide: A Guide For Mentors, Center For Health Leadership & Practice

Ethics in Science and Engineering National Clearinghouse

No abstract provided.


Guía De Mentoría: Guía Para Mentores, Center For Health Leadership & Practice Nov 2003

Guía De Mentoría: Guía Para Mentores, Center For Health Leadership & Practice

Ethics in Science and Engineering National Clearinghouse

No abstract provided.


Guía De Mentoría: Guía De Los Protegidos, Center For Health Leadership & Practice Nov 2003

Guía De Mentoría: Guía De Los Protegidos, Center For Health Leadership & Practice

Ethics in Science and Engineering National Clearinghouse

No abstract provided.


Mentoring Guide A Guide For Protégés, The Center For Health Leadership & Practice Nov 2003

Mentoring Guide A Guide For Protégés, The Center For Health Leadership & Practice

Ethics in Science and Engineering National Clearinghouse

No abstract provided.


Research Ethics: An Introduction, Tom Regan Apr 2000

Research Ethics: An Introduction, Tom Regan

Ethics in Science and Engineering National Clearinghouse

Research Ethics: an Introduction focuses both on how Responsible Conduct of Research (RCR) fits into the field of applied ethics and on procedures for making decisions that have a moral component. Tom Regan presents “Morally Relevant Questions: A Check List” with the central theme of balancing conflicting obligations. We expand this discussion with several classic resources by well known experts in research ethics that articulate critical topics. We present a Case Study from The Association for Practical and Professional Ethics. We consider the question of professional codes and think about the toll of making the right decision. In the Additional ...


Human Subjects In Research, Matt Ronning Apr 2000

Human Subjects In Research, Matt Ronning

Ethics in Science and Engineering National Clearinghouse

Human Subjects in Research presents basic ethical issues that face researchers when doing work with human participants. Matt Ronning, Assistant Vice Chancellor for Research Administration Sponsored Programs and Regulatory Compliance, (SPARCS) is our guide for this module. In the Overview section we review chapters from two well known textbooks on Research Ethics. In the Applied Ethics section we focus on the consent form as a contract and comment upon the recurring topics of Justice and Honesty as they apply particularly to human subjects. In the Central Theme section we review institutional guidelines, both at the national and institutional level, utilizing ...


Science And The Media: Ethics Issues, Joann Burkholder Apr 2000

Science And The Media: Ethics Issues, Joann Burkholder

Ethics in Science and Engineering National Clearinghouse

This module addresses the complex interface of research and the media; this interface necessarily involves issues of public policy, however, for the purposes of this module we will focus on media issues and touch on public policy in the Thinking Outside the Box section. For simplicity, when we refer to “media” we are speaking of journalists covering the science beat. In the Introduction we talk about the special collaboration between the media and the researcher and the challenges both face in communicating science to the public at large. We note the ethical component inherent in all communication and include quotations ...


Responsible Use Of Statistical Methods, Larry Nelson, Charles Proctor, Cavell Brownie Apr 2000

Responsible Use Of Statistical Methods, Larry Nelson, Charles Proctor, Cavell Brownie

Ethics in Science and Engineering National Clearinghouse

Responsible Use of Statistical Methods focuses on good statistical practices. In the Introduction we distinguish between two types of activities; one, those involving the study design and protocol (a priori) and two, those actions taken with the results (post hoc.) We note that right practice is right ethics, the distinction between a mistake and misconduct and emphasize the importance of how the central hypothesis is stated. The Central Essay, Identification of Outliers in a Set of Precision Agriculture Experimental Data by Larry A. Nelson, Charles H. Proctor and Cavell Brownie, is a good paper to study. The Applied Ethics section ...


The Mentoring Of Graduate Students, Margaret King Apr 2000

The Mentoring Of Graduate Students, Margaret King

Ethics in Science and Engineering National Clearinghouse

The Mentoring of Graduate Students presents basic issues that face both mentors and their protégés. Margaret King, the Graduate School, is our faculty guide for this module. We focus on some of the ethical values most central to the mentoring process such as justice and the idea of contracts. One of the challenges of the mentoring experience is that it involves rules and practices both tangible and intangible. Dr. King explores some of these intangibles- Right Attention, Right Balance, Right Empowerment and Right Boundaries- in the central essay and we focus on them additionally in our Central Theme section. We ...