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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Why We Can’T Solve The Opioid Problem, Wayne F. Coombs, Ph.D. Sep 2019

Why We Can’T Solve The Opioid Problem, Wayne F. Coombs, Ph.D.

Journal of Appalachian Health

Appalachia’s opioid epidemic is a complex, systemic problem being addressed by limited intervention processes conceptualized through narrow disciplinary models that are not working. We need a new comprehensive, collaborative approach if we ever hope to find solutions to this problem.


A Virginia Mountain City Responds To The Challenge Of Improving Health Outcomes, Robert S. Cowell Jr. Sep 2019

A Virginia Mountain City Responds To The Challenge Of Improving Health Outcomes, Robert S. Cowell Jr.

Journal of Appalachian Health

In 2012, Roanoke Virginia was becoming a city of haves and have-nots, a place where many were benefitting from revitalization underway but too many were seeing their situation grow worse and becoming even more entrenched. Poverty with levels as high as 50% in some neighborhoods; life expectancy sometimes 14 years shorter than those living just one or two neighborhoods over; and lack of access to fresh food, medical care, and economic opportunities—all within view of the largest hospital in the region was unacceptable.

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Adult Food Security And The Relationship With Adverse Childhood Experiences Among Residents Of Appalachian North Carolina, Manan Roy, Erin Bouldin, Maggie Bennett, Adam Hege Sep 2019

Adult Food Security And The Relationship With Adverse Childhood Experiences Among Residents Of Appalachian North Carolina, Manan Roy, Erin Bouldin, Maggie Bennett, Adam Hege

Journal of Appalachian Health

Introduction: The Appalachian region has worse health outcomes than the remainder of the United States. These disparities are often linked to the underlying social and environmental determinants of health. Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are associated with poor health outcomes across the lifespan and have a significant impact on future social determinants as an adult, including food security status.

Purpose: To explore the relationships between ACEs and food security among adults in the Appalachian counties of North Carolina and make comparisons with the rest of the state.

Methods: Researchers used North Carolina’s 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data; namely ...


A Comparison Of Appalachian And Non-Appalachian Kentucky Dui Offenders, Megan F. Dickson, Megan Kissel, J. Matthew Webster Sep 2019

A Comparison Of Appalachian And Non-Appalachian Kentucky Dui Offenders, Megan F. Dickson, Megan Kissel, J. Matthew Webster

Journal of Appalachian Health

Background: Driving under the influence has been an overlooked consequence of the opioid epidemic. Although recent reports have highlighted the increased prevalence of DUI in rural communities and the extensive mental health problems and criminal and drug use histories among rural Appalachian DUI offenders, it is unclear how Appalachian DUI populations compare to DUI offenders in other regions.

Purpose: To help fill this void in the literature, the current study uses a statewide sample to examine how Appalachian DUI offenders differ from non-Appalachian DUI offenders in a predominantly rural state.

Methods: Assessment records were examined for 11,640 Kentucky DUI ...


Roanoke's Collective Public Health Activities, Michael Lytton Sep 2019

Roanoke's Collective Public Health Activities, Michael Lytton

Journal of Appalachian Health

Roanoke is addressing problems that confront many small and medium sized cities in the U.S., especially disparities in health and life expectancy between neighborhoods. These disparities are often legacies of decades of racial and economic segregation, resulting in low-income or disinvested communities. Typically, such neighborhoods have fewer parks, higher vacancy rates and less stable affordable housing stock, inadequate public transit systems, too few clinics, too many fast food restaurants and insufficient access to high quality schools. In Roanoke these are the northwest and southeast quadrants, both federally designated Medically Underserved Areas, and characterized by a large proportion of the ...


A Legacy Of Disease, Arthur L. Frank Jul 2019

A Legacy Of Disease, Arthur L. Frank

Journal of Appalachian Health

In Appalachia, like much of America, there are important health issues that have not always been appropriately predicted or dealt with when they occur. Lifestyle issues in Appalachia lead to obesity and heart disease, not surprisingly due to extensive use of sugary drinks. The current opioid crisis could have been better predicted given the trauma of mining and the past abuse of less-potent narcotics. A continuing major problem in the whole country is inadequate support for preventive health activities.


Using Mini-Grants To Build Multi-Sector Partnerships In Rural Tennessee, Ginny Kidwell, Kristine Bowers, Taylor M. Dula, Randolph F. Wykoff Jul 2019

Using Mini-Grants To Build Multi-Sector Partnerships In Rural Tennessee, Ginny Kidwell, Kristine Bowers, Taylor M. Dula, Randolph F. Wykoff

Journal of Appalachian Health

Rural counties in Tennessee, including those located in Appalachia, face some of the greatest health challenges in the nation. Unpublished data collated by the East Tennessee State University College of Public Health (ETSU) show that Tennessee’s 52 Appalachian counties vary dramatically from its 43 non-Appalachian counties in virtually all socioeconomic, behavioral, and health outcome metrics. Since 2011, the Tennessee Institute of Public Health (TNIPH) has actively encouraged local communities to address behavior change, enhance educational achievement, and improve economic conditions as essential components for improving health and well-being in rural Tennessee.


Improving Access To Addiction Recovery Care In Central Appalachia Through Organizational Collaboration, Katy Stigers Jul 2019

Improving Access To Addiction Recovery Care In Central Appalachia Through Organizational Collaboration, Katy Stigers

Journal of Appalachian Health

Fahe, a Network of 50+ members throughout Appalachia based in Berea KY, has brought together a coalition to finance, build, and manage several addiction recovery care centers across Kentucky and West Virginia, increase access to employment, and deploy vouchers for supportive services.


Disparities In Quality Of Life By Appalachian-Designation Among Women With Breast Cancer, Robin C. Vanderpool, Ann L. Coker, Heather M. Bush, Sarah E. Cprek Jul 2019

Disparities In Quality Of Life By Appalachian-Designation Among Women With Breast Cancer, Robin C. Vanderpool, Ann L. Coker, Heather M. Bush, Sarah E. Cprek

Journal of Appalachian Health

Introduction: Few studies have examined the association of geography and quality of life (QOL) among breast cancer patients, particularly differences between Appalachian and non-Appalachian Kentucky women, which is important given the cancer and socioeconomic disparities present in Appalachia.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether women with breast cancer residing in Appalachian Kentucky experience poorer health outcomes in regards to depression, stress, QOL, and spiritual wellbeing, relative to those living in non-Appalachian Kentucky after adjusting for demographic, socioeconomic, and health-related factors.

Methods: Women, aged 18–79, recruited from the Kentucky Cancer Registry between 2009 and 2013 with ...


West Virginia’S Sugary Drink Tax: Examining Print Media Frames In Local News Sources, Lauri Andress, Ogaga Urhie, Christine Compton Jul 2019

West Virginia’S Sugary Drink Tax: Examining Print Media Frames In Local News Sources, Lauri Andress, Ogaga Urhie, Christine Compton

Journal of Appalachian Health

Introduction: Framing is an important aspect of the policy process that helps the public and decision makers sort through and resolve highly charged claims about an issue. Through slight changes in the presentation of issues, a framing effect may alter public support. The way a proposed sugary drink tax is discussed in public discourse and by the media significantly influences policy acceptance. Given the public health significance of obesity and diabetes in West Virginia (WV) the study of media frames employed to represent a sugary drink tax policy is useful.

Methods: Using quantitative content analysis, this study assessed news articles ...


Investigating The Impact Of The Diseases Of Despair In Appalachia, Michael Meit, Megan Heffernan, Erin Tanenbaum Jul 2019

Investigating The Impact Of The Diseases Of Despair In Appalachia, Michael Meit, Megan Heffernan, Erin Tanenbaum

Journal of Appalachian Health

Introduction: Appalachia is one of the regions most significantly impacted by the opioid crisis. This study investigated mortality due to diseases of despair within the Appalachian Region, with an additional focus on deaths attributable to opioid overdose.

Methods: Diseases of despair include: alcohol, prescription drug and illegal drug overdose, suicide, and alcoholic liver disease/cirrhosis of the liver. Mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) National Vital Statistics System (NVSS) Multiple Cause of Death database were analyzed for this study, focusing on individuals aged 15–64.

Results: Over the past two decades, the mortality rate due to ...


Root Causes Of Appalachia’S Deaths Of Despair, F. Douglas Scutchfield Md Jul 2019

Root Causes Of Appalachia’S Deaths Of Despair, F. Douglas Scutchfield Md

Journal of Appalachian Health

The U.S. is experiencing a decline in life expectancy, particularly among rural white males in their most productive years. Appalachia is disproportionally represented in mortality rates, accounting for 30% of the U.S. population, but 50% of the excess mortality attributed to the “deaths of despair”: drug overdose, suicide, and alcoholic cirrhosis. A substantial proportion of that excess mortality is related to the current opioid crisis we are experiencing. We have data on evidence-based solutions to the treatment of addiction, but little information on prevention of addiction as well as the other deaths of despair, likely with the same ...


There And Back Again: Processes Of Mexican Migration In The 21st Century: An Interview With Deborah A. Boehm, Deborah A. Boehm, Sharrah Lane Jun 2019

There And Back Again: Processes Of Mexican Migration In The 21st Century: An Interview With Deborah A. Boehm, Deborah A. Boehm, Sharrah Lane

Nomenclatura: aproximaciones a los estudios hispánicos

No abstract provided.


Dusty Shoes: Appalachia Wisdom Fertilizing The Future Of Religious Leadership, Jill Crainshaw Apr 2019

Dusty Shoes: Appalachia Wisdom Fertilizing The Future Of Religious Leadership, Jill Crainshaw

Journal of Appalachian Health

Dust from their journeys through the hills and hollows of Appalachia clings to their shoes and has forever shaped their vocational journeys. This is a refrain I have distilled from the reflections of students who have participated in Wake Forest University School of Divinity’s multicultural contexts course that includes a 10-day sojourn in the mountains of North Carolina.


Identifying Priority And “Bright-Spot” Counties For Diabetes Preventive Care In Appalachia: An Exploratory Analysis, Peter J. Mallow, Michael Topmiller, Jennifer Rankin, Jene Grandmont, David Grolling, Jessica L. Mccann, Mark Carrozza Apr 2019

Identifying Priority And “Bright-Spot” Counties For Diabetes Preventive Care In Appalachia: An Exploratory Analysis, Peter J. Mallow, Michael Topmiller, Jennifer Rankin, Jene Grandmont, David Grolling, Jessica L. Mccann, Mark Carrozza

Journal of Appalachian Health

Introduction: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) prevalence and mortality in Appalachian counties is substantially higher when compared to non-Appalachian counties, although there is significant variation within Appalachia.

Purpose: The objectives of this research were to identify low-performing (priority) and high-performing (bright spot) counties with respect to improving T2DM preventive care.

Methods: Using data from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid (CMS), the Dartmouth Atlas of Health Care, and the Appalachia Regional Commission, conditional maps were created using county-level estimates for T2DM prevalence, mortality, and annual hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) testing rates. Priority counties were identified using the following criteria: top 33rd ...


Serum Cotinine Versus Parent Reported Measures Of Secondhand Smoke Exposure In Rural Appalachian Children, Samrat Yeramaneni, Kimberly Yolton, Kurunthachalam Kannan, Kim N. Dietrich, Erin N. Haynes Apr 2019

Serum Cotinine Versus Parent Reported Measures Of Secondhand Smoke Exposure In Rural Appalachian Children, Samrat Yeramaneni, Kimberly Yolton, Kurunthachalam Kannan, Kim N. Dietrich, Erin N. Haynes

Journal of Appalachian Health

Background: Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure in Appalachian children and associated adverse effects is understudied and not well documented. This study assessed the prevalence of SHS exposure in Appalachian children by parental self-report and internal biological measure.

Methods: SHS exposure was determined in children residing in rural Appalachian communities during their participation in the Communities Actively Researching Exposure Study between 2009 and 2013. Parents reported the number of smokers in the household and number of cigarettes smoked/day. Children ages 7-9 provided a serum sample for cotinine analysis. Parent reported measures and child serum cotinine measures of SHS exposure were compared ...


The Social Determinants Of Health And The Decline In U.S. Life Expectancy: Implications For Appalachia, Steven H. Woolf, Heidi Schoomaker, Latoya Hill, Christine M. Orndahl Apr 2019

The Social Determinants Of Health And The Decline In U.S. Life Expectancy: Implications For Appalachia, Steven H. Woolf, Heidi Schoomaker, Latoya Hill, Christine M. Orndahl

Journal of Appalachian Health

For the past century, life expectancy in industrialized countries has increased, and the U.S. has shared in that progress. However, beginning in the 1980s, advances in U.S. life expectancy began to lose pace with peer countries. By 1998, U.S. life expectancy had fallen below the average for Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development nations. U.S. life expectancy peaked in 2014 and has been decreasing for three consecutive years, a trend not been seen since the influenza pandemic a century ago. Put simply, U.S. health is in decline.


Delivering Health Knowledge And Wisdom From The Hills And Hollows Of Appalachia, F. Douglas Scutchfield Md, Erin N. Haynes, Robert M. Shapiro Ii, Charlotte S. Seidman Apr 2019

Delivering Health Knowledge And Wisdom From The Hills And Hollows Of Appalachia, F. Douglas Scutchfield Md, Erin N. Haynes, Robert M. Shapiro Ii, Charlotte S. Seidman

Journal of Appalachian Health

There is knowledge in the pages of Appalachia’s hills. This journal is positioned to find and publish those translations. It grows from a need to provide an outlet for scholarship about Appalachia’s health so that knowledge, and occasionally wisdom, is shared with those who care about and are committed to improving the region’s health.


Why Ask Why?, Beth Kraemer, Beth Fuchs, Jennifer Hootman, Debbie Sharp Feb 2019

Why Ask Why?, Beth Kraemer, Beth Fuchs, Jennifer Hootman, Debbie Sharp

Greater Faculties: A Review of Teaching and Learning

No abstract provided.


Volume 27: Archives, Sophonie Bazile, Christine L. Woodward, Zachary Griffith Jul 2018

Volume 27: Archives, Sophonie Bazile, Christine L. Woodward, Zachary Griffith

disClosure: A Journal of Social Theory

The 2017-2018 Editorial Collective is pleased to present the 27th volume of disClosure: A Journal of Social Theory.

Over the past year, we have compiled an exciting collection of interviews, scholarly articles, poetry, and fiction that explore the volume’s central theme: “Archives.” Archives are dynamic constellations of absence and presence, ghosts and ghouls, dust and the digital. As such, discussions of archives stretch into multiple schools of thought and practice, raising questions about power, knowledge, memory, community, and social justice. The works collected here, each one employing its own theoretical and methodological approach to archives, contribute to these important ...


Seeking Glimpses: Reflections On Doing Archival Work, Alex Hanson, Stephanie Jones, Thomas Passwater, Noah Wilson Jul 2018

Seeking Glimpses: Reflections On Doing Archival Work, Alex Hanson, Stephanie Jones, Thomas Passwater, Noah Wilson

disClosure: A Journal of Social Theory

This article explores the role of archival research in understanding and generating social histories from the perspectives of four different doctoral students as they reflect on their archival research experiences. We argue that archival research is complex, subjective, contextual, and at times, incomplete. Our various perspectives address ideas of privilege, representation, what it means to remember (or forget), how archives are constituted and reconstituted, and where we can make meaning in archival spaces. This article demonstrates that although archival research has had a presence in Composition and Rhetoric for some time, that presence is continually shifting, and even when embarking ...


Editors’ Preface And Acknowledgements, Sophonie Bazile, Christine L. Woodward, Zachary Griffith Jul 2018

Editors’ Preface And Acknowledgements, Sophonie Bazile, Christine L. Woodward, Zachary Griffith

disClosure: A Journal of Social Theory

No abstract provided.


Images, Silences, And The Archival Record: An Interview With Michelle Caswell, Michelle Caswell, Harrison Cole, Zachary Griffith Jul 2018

Images, Silences, And The Archival Record: An Interview With Michelle Caswell, Michelle Caswell, Harrison Cole, Zachary Griffith

disClosure: A Journal of Social Theory

Dr. Michelle Caswell is an Associate Professor of Archival Studies in the Department of Information Studies at the University of California, Los Angeles, where she is also an affiliated faculty member with the Department of Asian American Studies and the Center for Southeast Asian Studies. Her book, Archiving the Unspeakable: Silence, Memory, and the Photographic Record in Cambodia (2014), which explores the role of archives and records in the construction of memory about the Khmer Rouge in Cambodia through a collection of mug shots taken at Tuol Sleng prison, won the 2015 Waldo Grifford Leland award for Best Publication from ...


Holodomor, Taylor Diken Jul 2018

Holodomor, Taylor Diken

disClosure: A Journal of Social Theory

No abstract provided.


Library, Jessy Randall, Briget Heidmous Jul 2018

Library, Jessy Randall, Briget Heidmous

disClosure: A Journal of Social Theory

“Library” is a visual poem from Mapping Project, a collaborative effort of Jessy Randall and Briget Heidmous. Jessy writes words and Briget draws.

http://www.briget-heidmous.com/mapping-project/


Subjectivity And Methodology In The Arch‘I’Ve, Elizabeth J. Vincelette Jul 2018

Subjectivity And Methodology In The Arch‘I’Ve, Elizabeth J. Vincelette

disClosure: A Journal of Social Theory

This article explores methodologies from the fields of library archival science, human geography, composition and rhetoric, and established editorial practices in English studies. By elaborating on the role of a researcher’s subjectivity in archival creation, this work expands the conversation regarding methodology and archives, especially how archives present us with new ways of seeing and making narratives during the editorial decision-making involved in their creation. Writing about my own experience, I privilege the researcher’s point of view with a narrative about my construction of a digital archive. With archival research, we should promote the revelation of methods and ...


Queering The Archive: Transforming The Archival Process, Lizeth Zepeda Jul 2018

Queering The Archive: Transforming The Archival Process, Lizeth Zepeda

disClosure: A Journal of Social Theory

The purpose of this work is to recognize the lack of queer of color lens within the archival profession that determines the appraisal, preservation, and impeding access. Queering the archive transforms the institution with possibilities of inclusivity for social justice and the rewriting of histories. Traditionally, the archival institution has reaffirmed hegemonic power structures by erasing and ignoring histories of marginalized communities. A way to disrupt this is to queer these archival institutions to confront these power dynamics and make interventions against the racist, sexist, classist and heterosexist structures that maintain them. Thus, this paper focuses on how processing through ...


Queer Lives In Archives: Intelligibility And Forms Of Memory, Gina Watts Jul 2018

Queer Lives In Archives: Intelligibility And Forms Of Memory, Gina Watts

disClosure: A Journal of Social Theory

Exploring queer archives through a variety of texts and case studies, this paper seeks to understand three primary themes: the departure of traditional archival theory in queer archives, the absence of records and what they might mean for queer history, and a conception of queer time and space contributed to by archival records. Together, these suggest a specific form of intelligibility and memory available to people identifying as queer through the existence of these communal archives, one which reaffirms a history that some were determined to bury and which challenges and expands typical understandings of activism in the archival profession ...


Togetherness With The Past: Literary Pedagogy And The Digital Archive, Madeline B. Gangnes Jul 2018

Togetherness With The Past: Literary Pedagogy And The Digital Archive, Madeline B. Gangnes

disClosure: A Journal of Social Theory

Archival materials are invaluable to an understanding of the historical, cultural, and material contexts in which literary texts were published. Materiality, paratextual elements, and other key characteristics of literature cannot be discerned from recent editions. Yet original and rare versions of literary texts are difficult or impossible for most scholars, let alone their students, to access. Digital facsimiles provide opportunities to examine archival texts over the Internet, alleviating logistical and financial barriers. In Dust: The Archive and Cultural History (2001), Carolyn Steedman writes: “The Archive is a place in which people can be alone with the past” (81); archives are ...


People Of The Stacks: ‘The Archivist’ Character In Fiction, Sharon Wolff Jul 2018

People Of The Stacks: ‘The Archivist’ Character In Fiction, Sharon Wolff

disClosure: A Journal of Social Theory

Archives and archival professionals suffer from what may be termed as an “image problem” due to their general lack of exposure to the public. With their efforts being tucked away in various repositories, their fictional representatives become an important way to give people an idea of what they do. With the help of an article by Arlene Schmuland, two works of fiction, People of the Book by Geraldine Brooks from 2008 and The Archivist by Martha Cooley from 1998, are used to compare fictional archivists and the ways their differences may indicate a change in how their real-life counterparts are ...