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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Evaluation Of A Palliative Care Initiative On The African Continent: Responsibly Improving Access To Pain Treatment, J. Spencer Hirschi Jan 2019

Evaluation Of A Palliative Care Initiative On The African Continent: Responsibly Improving Access To Pain Treatment, J. Spencer Hirschi

MPA/MPP Capstone Projects

The African continent today faces a crisis of inadequate palliative care, in spite of the growing level of suffering of its citizens who are faced with debilitating diseases and injuries. Much of this problem stems from deeply ingrained attitudes towards opioids: while the American continent grapples with the effects of opioid overprescribing, physicians trained in Africa are taught that opioids are inappropriate for virtually all scenarios, and therefore they come to fear and avoid their use or simply remain untrained on them altogether. Patients fail to advocate for themselves out of submission to the doctor’s authority, governments remain apathetic ...


Measuring Women's Empowerment In Sub-Saharan Africa: Exploratory And Confirmatory Factor Analyses Of The Demographic And Health Surveys, Ibitola O. Asaolu, Halimatou Alaofè, Jayleen K. L. Gunn, Akosua K. Adu, Amanda J. Monroy, John E. Ehiri, Mary H. Hayden, Kacey C. Ernst Jun 2018

Measuring Women's Empowerment In Sub-Saharan Africa: Exploratory And Confirmatory Factor Analyses Of The Demographic And Health Surveys, Ibitola O. Asaolu, Halimatou Alaofè, Jayleen K. L. Gunn, Akosua K. Adu, Amanda J. Monroy, John E. Ehiri, Mary H. Hayden, Kacey C. Ernst

Epidemiology Faculty Publications

Background: Women's status and empowerment influence health, nutrition, and socioeconomic status of women and their children. Despite its benefits, however, research on women's empowerment in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is limited in scope and geography. Empowerment is variably defined and data for comparison across regions is often limited. The objective of the current study was to identify domains of empowerment from a widely available data source, Demographic and Health Surveys, across multiple regions in SSA.

Methods: Demographic and Health Surveys from nineteen countries representing four African regions were used for the analysis. A total of 26 indicators across different ...


Influence Of Dietary Salt Knowledge, Perceptions, And Beliefs On Consumption Choices After Stroke In Uganda, Martin N. Kaddumukasa, Elly Katabira, Martha Sajatovic, Svetlana Pundik, Mark Kaddumukasa, Larry B. Goldstein Dec 2017

Influence Of Dietary Salt Knowledge, Perceptions, And Beliefs On Consumption Choices After Stroke In Uganda, Martin N. Kaddumukasa, Elly Katabira, Martha Sajatovic, Svetlana Pundik, Mark Kaddumukasa, Larry B. Goldstein

Neurology Faculty Publications

Background

Previous research on Uganda's poststroke population revealed that their level of dietary salt knowledge did not lead to healthier consumption choices.

Purpose

Identify barriers and motivators for healthy dietary behaviors and evaluate the understanding of widely accepted salt regulation mechanisms among poststroke patients in Uganda.

Methods

Convergent parallel mixed methods triangulation design comprised a cross-sectional survey (n = 81) and 8 focus group discussions with 7-10 poststroke participants in each group. We assessed participant characteristics and obtained insights into their salt consumption attitudes, perceptions, and knowledge. Qualitative responses were analyzed using an inductive approach with thematic analytic procedures. Relationships ...


Interleukin-6 (Il-6) Rs1800796 And Cyclin Dependent Kinase Inhibitor (Cdkn2a/Cdkn2b) Rs2383207 Are Associated With Ischemic Stroke In Indigenous West African Men, Rufus Akinyemi, Donna K. Arnett, Hemant K. Tiwari, Bruce Ovbiagele, Fred Sarfo, Vinodh Srinivasasainagendra, Marguerite Ryan Irvin, Abiodun Adeoye, Rodney T. Perry, Albert Akpalu, Carolyn Jenkins, Lukman Owolabi, Reginald Obiako, Kolawole Wahab, Emmanuel Sanya, Morenikeji Komolafe, Michael Fawale, Philip Adebayo, Godwin Osaigbovo, Taofiki Sunmonu, Paul Olowoyo, Innocent Chukwuonye, Yahaya Obiabo, Onoja Akpa, Sylvia Melikam, Raelle Saulson, Raj Kalaria, Adesola Ogunniyi, Mayowa Owolabi Aug 2017

Interleukin-6 (Il-6) Rs1800796 And Cyclin Dependent Kinase Inhibitor (Cdkn2a/Cdkn2b) Rs2383207 Are Associated With Ischemic Stroke In Indigenous West African Men, Rufus Akinyemi, Donna K. Arnett, Hemant K. Tiwari, Bruce Ovbiagele, Fred Sarfo, Vinodh Srinivasasainagendra, Marguerite Ryan Irvin, Abiodun Adeoye, Rodney T. Perry, Albert Akpalu, Carolyn Jenkins, Lukman Owolabi, Reginald Obiako, Kolawole Wahab, Emmanuel Sanya, Morenikeji Komolafe, Michael Fawale, Philip Adebayo, Godwin Osaigbovo, Taofiki Sunmonu, Paul Olowoyo, Innocent Chukwuonye, Yahaya Obiabo, Onoja Akpa, Sylvia Melikam, Raelle Saulson, Raj Kalaria, Adesola Ogunniyi, Mayowa Owolabi

Epidemiology Faculty Publications

Background—Inherited genetic variations offer a possible explanation for the observed peculiarities of stroke in sub – Saharan African populations. Interleukin–6 polymorphisms have been previously associated with ischemic stroke in some non-African populations.

Aim—Herein we investigated, for the first time, the association of genetic polymorphisms of IL-6 and CDKN2A- CDKN2B and other genes with ischemic stroke among indigenous West African participants in the Stroke Investigative Research and Education Network (SIREN) Study.

Methods—Twenty-three previously identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 14 genes of relevance to the neurobiology of ischemic stroke were investigated. Logistic regression models adjusting for known cardiovascular ...


Exploring Overlaps Between The Genomic And Environmental Determinants Of Lvh And Stroke: A Multicenter Study In West Africa, Abiodun M. Adeoye, Bruce Ovbiagele, Philip Kolo, Lambert Appiah, Akinyemi Aje, Oladimeji Adebayo, Fred Sarfo, Joshua Akinyemi, Gregory Adekunle, Francis Agyekum, Vincent Shidali, Okechukwu Ogah, Dan Lackland, Mulugeta Gebregziabher, Donna K. Arnett, Hemant K. Tiwari, Rufus Akinyemi, Ojo Olakanmi Olagoke, Ayodipupo Sikiru Oguntade, Taiwo Olunuga, Kelechi Uwanruochi, Carolyn Jenkins, Patrick Adadey, Henry Iheonye, Lukman Owolabi, Reginald Obiako, Samuel Akinjopo, Kevin Armstrong, Albert Akpalu, Adekunle Fakunle Jun 2017

Exploring Overlaps Between The Genomic And Environmental Determinants Of Lvh And Stroke: A Multicenter Study In West Africa, Abiodun M. Adeoye, Bruce Ovbiagele, Philip Kolo, Lambert Appiah, Akinyemi Aje, Oladimeji Adebayo, Fred Sarfo, Joshua Akinyemi, Gregory Adekunle, Francis Agyekum, Vincent Shidali, Okechukwu Ogah, Dan Lackland, Mulugeta Gebregziabher, Donna K. Arnett, Hemant K. Tiwari, Rufus Akinyemi, Ojo Olakanmi Olagoke, Ayodipupo Sikiru Oguntade, Taiwo Olunuga, Kelechi Uwanruochi, Carolyn Jenkins, Patrick Adadey, Henry Iheonye, Lukman Owolabi, Reginald Obiako, Samuel Akinjopo, Kevin Armstrong, Albert Akpalu, Adekunle Fakunle

Epidemiology Faculty Publications

Background

Whether left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is determined by similar genomic and environmental risk factors with stroke, or is simply an intermediate stroke marker, is unknown.

Objectives

We present a research plan and preliminary findings to explore the overlap in the genomic and environmental determinants of LVH and stroke among Africans participating in the SIREN (Stroke Investigative Research and Education Network) study.

Methods

SIREN is a transnational, multicenter study involving acute stroke patients and age-, ethnicity-, and sex-matched control subjects recruited from 9 sites in Ghana and Nigeria. Genomic and environmental risk factors and other relevant phenotypes for stroke and ...


Prevalence And Prognostic Features Of Ecg Abnormalities In Acute Stroke: Findings From The Siren Study Among Africans, Abiodun M. Adeoye, Okechukwu S. Ogah, Bruce Ovbiagele, Rufus Akinyemi, Vincent Shidali, Francis Agyekum, Akinyemi Aje, Oladimeji Adebayo, Joshua O. Akinyemi, Philip Kolo, Lambert Tetteh Appiah, Henry Iheonye, Uwanuruochi Kelechukwu, Amusa Ganiyu, Taiwo O. Olunuga, Onoja Akpa, Ojo Olakanmi Olagoke, Fred Stephen Sarfo, Kolawole Wahab, Samuel Olowookere, Adekunle Fakunle, Albert Akpalu, Philip B. Adebayo, Kwadwo Nkromah, Joseph Yaria, Philip Ibinaiye, Godwin Ogbole, Aridegbe Olumayowa, Sulaiman Lakoh, Benedict Calys-Tagoe, Donna K. Arnett Jun 2017

Prevalence And Prognostic Features Of Ecg Abnormalities In Acute Stroke: Findings From The Siren Study Among Africans, Abiodun M. Adeoye, Okechukwu S. Ogah, Bruce Ovbiagele, Rufus Akinyemi, Vincent Shidali, Francis Agyekum, Akinyemi Aje, Oladimeji Adebayo, Joshua O. Akinyemi, Philip Kolo, Lambert Tetteh Appiah, Henry Iheonye, Uwanuruochi Kelechukwu, Amusa Ganiyu, Taiwo O. Olunuga, Onoja Akpa, Ojo Olakanmi Olagoke, Fred Stephen Sarfo, Kolawole Wahab, Samuel Olowookere, Adekunle Fakunle, Albert Akpalu, Philip B. Adebayo, Kwadwo Nkromah, Joseph Yaria, Philip Ibinaiye, Godwin Ogbole, Aridegbe Olumayowa, Sulaiman Lakoh, Benedict Calys-Tagoe, Donna K. Arnett

Epidemiology Faculty Publications

Background

Africa has a growing burden of stroke with associated high morbidity and a 3-year fatality rate of 84%. Cardiac disease contributes to stroke occurrence and outcomes, but the precise relationship of abnormalities as noted on a cheap and widely available test, the electrocardiogram (ECG), and acute stroke outcomes have not been previously characterized in Africans.

Objectives

The study assessed the prevalence and prognoses of various ECG abnormalities among African acute stroke patients encountered in a multisite, cross-national epidemiologic study.

Methods

We included 890 patients from Nigeria and Ghana with acute stroke who had 12-lead ECG recording within first 24 ...


Single-Trait And Multi-Trait Genome-Wide Association Analyses Identify Novel Loci For Blood Pressure In African-Ancestry Populations, Jingjing Liang, Thu H. Le, Digna R. Velez Edwards, Bamidele O. Tayo, Kyle J. Gaulton, Jennifer A. Smith, Yingchang Lu, Richard A. Jensen, Guanjie Chen, Lisa R. Yanek, Karen Schwander, Salman M. Tajuddin, Tamar Sofer, Wonji Kim, James Kayima, Colin A. Mckenzie, Ervin Fox, Michael A. Nalls, J. Hunter Young, Yan V. Sun, Jacqueline M. Lane, Sylvia Cechova, Jie Zhou, Hua Tang, Myriam Fornage, Solomon K. Musani, Heming Wang, Juyoung Lee, Adebowale Adeyemo, Albert W. Dreisbach, Donna K. Arnett May 2017

Single-Trait And Multi-Trait Genome-Wide Association Analyses Identify Novel Loci For Blood Pressure In African-Ancestry Populations, Jingjing Liang, Thu H. Le, Digna R. Velez Edwards, Bamidele O. Tayo, Kyle J. Gaulton, Jennifer A. Smith, Yingchang Lu, Richard A. Jensen, Guanjie Chen, Lisa R. Yanek, Karen Schwander, Salman M. Tajuddin, Tamar Sofer, Wonji Kim, James Kayima, Colin A. Mckenzie, Ervin Fox, Michael A. Nalls, J. Hunter Young, Yan V. Sun, Jacqueline M. Lane, Sylvia Cechova, Jie Zhou, Hua Tang, Myriam Fornage, Solomon K. Musani, Heming Wang, Juyoung Lee, Adebowale Adeyemo, Albert W. Dreisbach, Donna K. Arnett

Epidemiology Faculty Publications

Hypertension is a leading cause of global disease, mortality, and disability. While individuals of African descent suffer a disproportionate burden of hypertension and its complications, they have been underrepresented in genetic studies. To identify novel susceptibility loci for blood pressure and hypertension in people of African ancestry, we performed both single and multiple-trait genome-wide association analyses. We analyzed 21 genome-wide association studies comprised of 31,968 individuals of African ancestry, and validated our results with additional 54,395 individuals from multi-ethnic studies. These analyses identified nine loci with eleven independent variants which reached genome-wide significance (P < 1.25×10−8) for either systolic ...


Discovery And Fine-Mapping Of Adiposity Loci Using High Density Imputation Of Genome-Wide Association Studies In Individuals Of African Ancestry: African Ancestry Anthropometry Genetics Consortium, Maggie C. Y. Ng, Mariaelisa Graff, Yingchang Lu, Anne E. Justice, Poorva Mudgal, Ching-Ti Liu, Kristin Young, Lisa R. Yanek, Mary F. Feitosa, Mary K. Wojczynski, Kristin Rand, Jennifer A. Brody, Brian E. Cade, Latchezar Dimitrov, Qing Duan, Xiuqing Guo, Leslie A. Lange, Michael A. Nalls, Hayrettin Okut, Salman M. Tajuddin, Bamidele O. Tayo, Sailaja Vedantam, Jonathan P. Bradfield, Guanjie Chen, Wei-Min Chen, Alessandra Chesi, Marguerite R. Irvin, Badri Padhukasahasram, Jennifer A. Smith, Wei Zheng, Donna K. Arnett Apr 2017

Discovery And Fine-Mapping Of Adiposity Loci Using High Density Imputation Of Genome-Wide Association Studies In Individuals Of African Ancestry: African Ancestry Anthropometry Genetics Consortium, Maggie C. Y. Ng, Mariaelisa Graff, Yingchang Lu, Anne E. Justice, Poorva Mudgal, Ching-Ti Liu, Kristin Young, Lisa R. Yanek, Mary F. Feitosa, Mary K. Wojczynski, Kristin Rand, Jennifer A. Brody, Brian E. Cade, Latchezar Dimitrov, Qing Duan, Xiuqing Guo, Leslie A. Lange, Michael A. Nalls, Hayrettin Okut, Salman M. Tajuddin, Bamidele O. Tayo, Sailaja Vedantam, Jonathan P. Bradfield, Guanjie Chen, Wei-Min Chen, Alessandra Chesi, Marguerite R. Irvin, Badri Padhukasahasram, Jennifer A. Smith, Wei Zheng, Donna K. Arnett

Epidemiology Faculty Publications

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified > 300 loci associated with measures of adiposity including body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (adjusted for BMI, WHRadjBMI), but few have been identified through screening of the African ancestry genomes. We performed large scale meta-analyses and replications in up to 52,895 individuals for BMI and up to 23,095 individuals for WHRadjBMI from the African Ancestry Anthropometry Genetics Consortium (AAAGC) using 1000 Genomes phase 1 imputed GWAS to improve coverage of both common and low frequency variants in the low linkage disequilibrium African ancestry genomes. In the sex-combined analyses, we ...


A Case For Empathy: Immigration In Spanish Contemporary Media, Music, Film, And Novels, Constantin C. Icleanu Jan 2017

A Case For Empathy: Immigration In Spanish Contemporary Media, Music, Film, And Novels, Constantin C. Icleanu

Theses and Dissertations--Hispanic Studies

This dissertation analyzes the representations of immigrants from North Africa, Latin America, and Eastern Europe in Spain. As engaged scholarship, it seeks to better the portrayal of immigrants in the mass media through the study of literature, film, and music about immigration spanning from the year 2000 to 2016. Because misconceptions continue to propagate in the media, this dissertation works to counteract anti-immigrant, xenophobic representations as well as balance out overly positive and orientalized portrayal of immigrants with a call to recognize immigrants as human beings who deserve the same respect, dignity, and rights as any other citizen.

Chapter 1 ...


Living Care-Fully: Labor, Love And Suffering And The Geographies Of Intergenerational Care In Northern Ghana, Kelsey B. Hanrahan Jan 2015

Living Care-Fully: Labor, Love And Suffering And The Geographies Of Intergenerational Care In Northern Ghana, Kelsey B. Hanrahan

Theses and Dissertations--Geography

Care is socially constructed, shaped by expectations embedded within particular relationships and the culturally-specific understandings of what it means to work, love and suffer. In this dissertation, I conceptualize care as a fundamental component of everyday life in which individuals are oriented towards the needs of others. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork in a rural Konkomba community in northern Ghana, I explore the geographies of care shaping the everyday experiences of women engaged in intergenerational relationships as they encounter emerging dependencies associated with ageing. Dependencies emerge when an individual requires support and care from another, and in turn the struggles for ...


The Use Of Improved Technology And Market-Based Incentives To Increase Forest Resource And Biodiversity Conservation In Rwanda, Kelly M. Rayens Jan 2015

The Use Of Improved Technology And Market-Based Incentives To Increase Forest Resource And Biodiversity Conservation In Rwanda, Kelly M. Rayens

Theses and Dissertations--Forestry and Natural Resources

This study evaluated the effectiveness of two distinct approaches to ecosystem conservation in Rwanda’s Nyungwe National Park: cookstove technology adoption and market-based policy instruments. A June 2014 survey of 250 households revealed that use of improved cookstove technology dramatically decreased fuelwood consumption for households in rural Rwanda, but that design, engineering and conflicting policy issues can hamper the widespread use of energy-efficient cooking technology. The second component of this research used the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) within a multi-criteria analysis (MCA) framework to explore the options for designing and implementing market-based instruments around the country’s conservation targets, particularly ...


Food Imports Under Foreign Exchange Constraints In The Cfa’S Franc Zone Of Sub-Saharan Africa (Ssa), Seydina Ousmane Sene Jan 2014

Food Imports Under Foreign Exchange Constraints In The Cfa’S Franc Zone Of Sub-Saharan Africa (Ssa), Seydina Ousmane Sene

Theses and Dissertations--Agricultural Economics

To respond to the high imported food prices in their domestic markets, net food importing countries in the Communauté Financière Africaine (CFA) zone[1] are adjusting their import tariffs and homologate domestic prices of imported commodities such as rice, wheat, maize, and sugar. This research uses a multivariate specification of error correction model (VECM) of estimation to investigate the link between food imports, world price index of rice, wheat, maize and sugar, real effective exchange rates, domestic food production, GDP, and trade openness in the short and long run. The data are on each homogenous commodity from 1969 to 2012 ...


Peacekeeping And Peace Kept: Third Party Interventions And Recurrences Of Civil War, Barrett J. Osborn Jan 2013

Peacekeeping And Peace Kept: Third Party Interventions And Recurrences Of Civil War, Barrett J. Osborn

Theses and Dissertations--Political Science

Civil wars have become more prevalent in modern times and present unique challenges to conflict resolution. Third parties often intervene in civil wars attempting to insure that peace is imposed and will persist. However, the impact of third parties on intrastate conflicts remains incomplete. The civil conflict literature does not sufficiently distinguish how third parties promote peaceful outcomes during a peacekeeping operation and why a state remains stable after the peacekeepers leave. By examining data on third party interventions from 1946-2006 and individually examining the case of Sierra Leone, this research concludes that peacekeeping missions promoting transparency, credible information sharing ...


The Effects Of Migration On Gender Norms And Relations: The Post-Repatriation Experience In Bor, South Sudan, Marybeth Chrostowsky Jan 2013

The Effects Of Migration On Gender Norms And Relations: The Post-Repatriation Experience In Bor, South Sudan, Marybeth Chrostowsky

Theses and Dissertations--Anthropology

My dissertation research was a 14-month ethnographic study of the post-repatriation experience of forced migrants in South Sudan. It was designed to determine if alterations to gender norms and relations that refugees experienced during asylum differed as a function of the asylum environments and if these modifications remained intact upon the refugees’ return. The forced migrants in my sample, the Dinka of Bor from South Sudan, encountered two different asylum environments and experiences: Kakuma refugee camp in northern Kenya and Khartoum, in northern Sudan. After 10-15 years in asylum, these forced Dinka Bor migrants returned to South Sudan. I compared ...


Local Ghanaian Stakeholder Perceptions After One Year Of A New School Feeding Program In Adjeikrom, Ghana, Monica E. Fowler Jan 2012

Local Ghanaian Stakeholder Perceptions After One Year Of A New School Feeding Program In Adjeikrom, Ghana, Monica E. Fowler

Theses and Dissertations--Dietetics and Human Nutrition

The objective of this qualitative longitudinal study was to assess stakeholder perceptions after one year of a new school feeding program to contrast and compare to pre-program expectations. Semi-structured interviews were conducted using questions reviewed by an in-country collaborator for cultural sensitivity and appropriateness. Follow up questions were determined from participant response. The interviews were analyzed by performing content analysis using open and axial coding to find key concepts in the data. The results showed the school feeding program met stakeholder expectations regarding reduction in absenteeism and truancy, improving classroom behavior and increasing enrollment as well as relieving short term ...


We Do Not Enjoy Equal Political Rights: Ghanaian Women's Perceptions On Political Participation In Ghana, Marie-Antoinette Sossou Apr 2011

We Do Not Enjoy Equal Political Rights: Ghanaian Women's Perceptions On Political Participation In Ghana, Marie-Antoinette Sossou

Social Work Faculty Publications

This study explores Ghanaian women’s perception and voices about issues of gender equality in terms of exercising their political and decision-making rights in connection with political participation and governance in Ghana. The study uses demographic survey and six different focus group discussions to capture the views of a total of 68 women with different educational, socioeconomical, and occupational backgrounds, in two regions of the Ghana. The findings indicate that even though theoretically the constitution of Ghana gives women equal rights as their male counterparts to actively participate in the governance of their country, in practice, women face issues of ...