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Articles 1 - 15 of 15

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

The Culture Of Punishment: Prison, Society, And Spectacle, Michelle Brown Sep 2009

The Culture Of Punishment: Prison, Society, And Spectacle, Michelle Brown

Michelle Brown

America is the most punitive nation in the world, incarcerating more than 2.3 million people—or one in 136 of its residents. Against the backdrop of this unprecedented mass imprisonment, punishment permeates everyday life, carrying with it complex cultural meanings. In The Culture of Punishment, Michelle Brown goes beyond prison gates and into the routine and popular engagements of everyday life, showing that those of us most distanced from the practice of punishment tend to be particularly harsh in our judgments. The Culture of Punishment takes readers on a tour of the sites where culture and punishment meet—television ...


Smoking And Psychological Health In Relation To Country Of Origin, Michael Lyvers, Tessa Hall, Mark Bahr Sep 2009

Smoking And Psychological Health In Relation To Country Of Origin, Michael Lyvers, Tessa Hall, Mark Bahr

Mark Bahr

In English-speaking, Western-Anglo countries, where smoking has become stigmatized in recent decades as a result of widespread anti-smoking campaigns, smokers commonly report poorer psychological health on average than non-smokers do. This may be indirectly related to the strong pressures to quit in such countries, as poorer psychological health is associated with a reduced likelihood of quitting, thus leading to a selection bias for smokers with relatively poorer psychological health. In the present study, 147 smoker and non-smoker participants either came from Western-Anglo countries where smoking has become stigmatized (Australia, Canada, U.S.) or countries in regions where smoking remains relatively ...


Gender Images In Hurricane Katrina Coverage, Pamela K. Morris Jul 2009

Gender Images In Hurricane Katrina Coverage, Pamela K. Morris

Pamela K. Morris

Media coverage of Hurricane Katrina was criticized in terms of race and class. But analyses from a gender perspective are missing. This research reviewed photographs of Katrina coverage in four prominent U.S. newspapers. Findings show that victims were all sexes and ages; but when it came to officials and heroes – men dominated. Also, women were more often shown with children than were men. These stereotypical images found in times of crises show culture’s core.


Don't Criticise The Effects Of Video Games On Kids, Exploit Them!, Jeffrey E. Brand Feb 2009

Don't Criticise The Effects Of Video Games On Kids, Exploit Them!, Jeffrey E. Brand

Jeffrey Brand

[Extract] For young learners today, video games are part of the "cultural furniture". The development of boys and girls, their socialisation, and their formal learning (including literacy) are at risk if they reject contemporary media. What humanises technology most completely is appropriation of it. As any parent or teacher who has tried it knows, using popular media in the service of formal learning most readily overcomes the risk attributed to them. It also eliminates the source of moral panics: ignorance about the learners' world.


Mandalas Of Security, Rosita Dellios Feb 2009

Mandalas Of Security, Rosita Dellios

Rosita Dellios

In employing the constructional metaphor of 'architectures' for the constructive purpose of security enhancement in the eastern Asian region, it is but a small step to 'indigenise' the process by slipping into the mentality of mandala-building. In doing so, it is to be hoped that Asian security 'architectures' will prove more acceptable and accessible to participants - and thus efficacious in their purpose. The mandala adds nothing new to the experience of Asian communities but redirects effort towards existing cultural orientations. In effect, it is a conceptual device for refining Western technostructures in ways more meaningful to the needs and expectations ...


"How May The World Be At Peace?": Idealism As Realism In Chinese Strategic Culture, Rosita Dellios Feb 2009

"How May The World Be At Peace?": Idealism As Realism In Chinese Strategic Culture, Rosita Dellios

Rosita Dellios

There is a famous orientalism which declares: "Let the Chinese dragon sleep for when she awakes she will astonish the world." In this decade of China's self-strengthening, Western Realists seem to be seeing dragons again. Not so their geoeconomic counterparts. They see only markets. Neither the threat nor opportunity analysts, however, quite see China in the "round"; a mandala of security in which certain principles have long held sway over matters of survival and, indeed, benefit. An appreciation of China's cultural-philosophical tradition provides a corrective to these blinkered visions. More than that, it suggests a way forward in ...


Mandala: From Sacred Origins To Sovereign Affairs In Traditional Southeast Asia, Rosita Dellios Feb 2009

Mandala: From Sacred Origins To Sovereign Affairs In Traditional Southeast Asia, Rosita Dellios

Rosita Dellios

This paper examines 'mandala' as a tradition of knowledge in Southeast Asia. It marries two concepts of mandala: (1) a Hindu-Buddhist religious diagram; with (2) a doctrine of traditional Southeast Asian 'international relations', derived from ancient Indian political discourse. It also highlights the value of Chinese thought as the 'yin' to ancient India's 'yang', in the construction of a Southeast Asian mandalic political culture. In its investigations, this paper draws on to the writings of key historians of this period, particularly O. W. Wolters, as well as the influential Indian text on governance, Kautilya's Arthasastra.


Driving Gender: An Analysis Of U.S. Auto Ad Visuals 1925-2005, Pamela K. Morris Feb 2009

Driving Gender: An Analysis Of U.S. Auto Ad Visuals 1925-2005, Pamela K. Morris

Pamela K. Morris

Advertising has been found to be not only a reflection of society, but also the basis for living amongst a group of people. The images in advertisements especially provide ideas and standards for acceptable behavior, social norms and values specific to men and women. Studying advertisement visuals can illuminate power relations in culture. This approach to feminist theory takes a look at how women and others are used to sell products and how these depictions illuminate power.

A framework using cultural, communication and feminist theories is constructed to build an approach for reviewing advertising messages. Focus is on visuals of ...


Hamas Controlled Televised News Media: Counter- Peace, Allen Gnanam Dec 2008

Hamas Controlled Televised News Media: Counter- Peace, Allen Gnanam

Allen Gnanam

The hegemonic force of Hamas censored televised news media in Gaza, can not be fully comprehended and appreciated without recognizing the role of propaganda, censorship, and the historical context of the middle east. These 3 interrelated dimensions will be analyzed using functionalism, the mass society theory, the dominant ideology framework, the critical criminology framework, and the symbolic interactionist framework. Through censorship, Hamas news media outlets were able to unilaterally inject culturally relevant propaganda, into the minds of children and citizens. The hypodermic syringe model can be applied to the state controlled news media situation in Gaza, as the people of ...


Playing, Shopping, And Working As Rock Musicians, Carey Sargent Dec 2008

Playing, Shopping, And Working As Rock Musicians, Carey Sargent

Carey L Sargent

Masculinities vary by organizational context, demonstrating that organizational culture shapes the gendering of work even within the same occupation. The author draws on comparative and ethnographic data collected in two retail environments (large and small musical instrument stores) to understand how a common organizational culture is differently gendered by the organization of work. In these music stores, organizational culture is driven by masculinist fantasies of the rock musician lifestyle. As the products and knowledge of the rock musician lifestyle are made popularly accessible and retail work is deskilled, a style of masculinity based on fraternization and competition takes the place ...


The Consequences Of "Culture's Consequences": A Critical Approach To Culture As Collective Programming Applied To Cross-Cultural Crews, Fabienne Knudsen, Lisa Froholdt Dec 2008

The Consequences Of "Culture's Consequences": A Critical Approach To Culture As Collective Programming Applied To Cross-Cultural Crews, Fabienne Knudsen, Lisa Froholdt

Lisa L. Froholdt

No abstract provided.


Enculturation, Allen Gnanam Dec 2008

Enculturation, Allen Gnanam

Allen Gnanam

Enculturation is the process by which individuals of an ethnic group unintentionally, unconsciously, and naturally, acquire culture specific values, knowledge, behaviours, manners, and identities (Gob, Lee, & Yoon, 2008) (Grovtevant, Gunnar & Hellerstedt, 2006) (Kim & Omizo, 2006) (Constantine & Miville, 2006). There are many psychological concepts that can be linked to enculturation such as psychological protective factors, perceived sense of well being, social connectedness, psychological health, cultural identity, help seeking, self efficacy, and self esteem. Research literature pertaining to enculturation has illustrated that, the degree to which these psychological concepts are present within individuals, are strongly influenced by enculturation. Due to ecological variations ...


Ethnicity, Race, And Nationalism, Rogers Brubaker Dec 2008

Ethnicity, Race, And Nationalism, Rogers Brubaker

Rogers Brubaker

This article traces the contours of a comparative, global, crossdisciplinary, and multiparadigmatic field that construes ethnicity, race, and nationhood as a single integrated family of forms of cultural understanding, social organization, and political contestation. It then reviews a set of diverse yet related efforts to study the way ethnicity, race, and nation work in social, cultural, and political life without treating ethnic groups, races, or nations as substantial entities, or even taking such groups as units of analysis at all.


The Influence Of National Culture And Institutional Voids On Family Ownership Of Large Firms: A Country Level Empirical Study, Subrata Chakrabarty Dec 2008

The Influence Of National Culture And Institutional Voids On Family Ownership Of Large Firms: A Country Level Empirical Study, Subrata Chakrabarty

Subrata Chakrabarty

There is considerable variation across countries in both the extent to which large publicly listed firms are family-owned and the dominance of such family-owned firms in stock markets. The literature presents competing theoretical viewpoints on what influences such country-level variation. On one hand, institutional economists suggest that institutional voids can have a strong influence. On the other hand, cultural sociologists suggest that a country's culture can have a strong influence. One type of institutional void is a lack of institutional norms and regulations needed for monitoring contracts (which can discourage owners from hiring professional agents for top management positions ...


The Development Of Humans – A Study Including Languages, Cultures, Religions And Genetics, Dr. Erik Dahlquist, Dr. Allan Dahlquist Dec 2008

The Development Of Humans – A Study Including Languages, Cultures, Religions And Genetics, Dr. Erik Dahlquist, Dr. Allan Dahlquist

Dr. Erik Dahlquist

The book covers the development of culture, religion, language and genetics of the human population since prehistory. Four main cultures have spread around the globe: 1) Monosyllabic language people with ancestor cult 2) Austroasiatic people with sun worshipping and megalit graves. Counting with 20 as the base 3) Uralic speaking people with kings from the sky, and strong city states. Moon and mother godess. Don´t differentiate between male and female, he and she. 4) Inflectual language speaking people with sky gods and cattles. Indoeuropeans. Often endings differentiating he and she. Shows how original cultures are refelected in todays society.