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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

At The Heart Of Morality Lies Folk Psychology, Steve Guglielmo, Andrew Monroe, Bertram Malle Dec 2008

At The Heart Of Morality Lies Folk Psychology, Steve Guglielmo, Andrew Monroe, Bertram Malle

Steve Guglielmo

No abstract provided.


The Future Of Journalism, Bonnie Brennen Dec 2008

The Future Of Journalism, Bonnie Brennen

Bonnie Brennen

No abstract provided.


Presidential Staffing And Public Opinion: How Public Opinion Influences Politicization, José Villalobos, Justin Vaughn Dec 2008

Presidential Staffing And Public Opinion: How Public Opinion Influences Politicization, José Villalobos, Justin Vaughn

José D. Villalobos

Scholars traditionally frame presidential efforts to politicize the federal bureaucracy as the result of divergence between the president's preferences and an agency's output. The authors argue that presidential concern with agency output is dynamic and is in part conditioned by the president's relationship with the public. To assess the relationship between politicization and public opinion, the authors use a data set that combines information on presidential efforts to politicize the Council of Economic Advisers from 1989 to 2004 with that of public attitudes concerning the president's handling of the economy. Their results indicate that public opinion ...


What Does It Mean To Be A Science Librarian 2.0?, Melissa J. Harvey Dec 2008

What Does It Mean To Be A Science Librarian 2.0?, Melissa J. Harvey

Missy Harvey

Science librarians, as well as other librarians, have seen ample new technologies come and go over the years. Librarians experiment and try to find ways to employ the new tools in our libraries. A driving force in our decision making about what tools to use should always be our patrons and whether the tools can help us do a better job of delivering services. This paper discusses what technologies have proven to be successful, as well as other thoughts to bear in mind as librarians evaluate Web 2.0 tools for science libraries.


From Pubs To Scrubs: Alcohol Misuse And Health Care Use, Michael T. French, Ana I. Balsa, Johanna Catherine Maclean, Edward C. Norton Dec 2008

From Pubs To Scrubs: Alcohol Misuse And Health Care Use, Michael T. French, Ana I. Balsa, Johanna Catherine Maclean, Edward C. Norton

Michael T. French

To analyze the relationships between alcohol misuse and two types of acute health care use—hospital admissions and emergency room (ER) episodes. Data Sources/Study Setting . The first (2001/2002) and second (2004/2005) waves of the National Epidemiological Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Study Design . Longitudinal study using a group of adults (18–60 years in Wave 1, N =23,079). Gender-stratified regression analysis adjusted for a range of covariates associated with health care use. First-difference methods corrected for potential omitted variable bias. Data Collection . The target population of the NESARC was the civilian noninstitutionalized population aged ...


Reframing Campaigning: Communications, The Media And Elections In Canada, Paul W. Nesbitt-Larking Dec 2008

Reframing Campaigning: Communications, The Media And Elections In Canada, Paul W. Nesbitt-Larking

Paul W Nesbitt-Larking

This article is a critical assessment of Canadian perspectives on the role of the media in electoral behaviour, notably on the roles media play in setting or responding to the agenda in the heat of election campaigns. Research into the role of the media in election campaigns has been conducted within the broadly behaviouralist tradition of political scientific research. The article begins with a brief contextualization of the behaviouralist research tradition in Canada. Within the specific context of Canadian history and its social structure, the introduction explains how the very questions that Canadians have posed regarding media/campaign interactions have ...


Security, Subjectivity And Space In Postcolonial Europe: Muslims In The Diaspora, Catarina Kinnvall, Paul W. Nesbitt-Larking Dec 2008

Security, Subjectivity And Space In Postcolonial Europe: Muslims In The Diaspora, Catarina Kinnvall, Paul W. Nesbitt-Larking

Paul W Nesbitt-Larking

In this article, we call into question the assumptions that undergird conceptions of boundary, territory, community and ethno-cultural belonging in the constitution of European security. Both the term ‘human security’ as defined by development and human rights scholars and ‘securitisation’ as conceptualised by critical security studies concern the socio-psychological aspects of security. Yet, few attempts have been made to seriously discuss the psychological effects of securitisation on subjectivity and space. There is, as we will argue, a tendency in much literature to use concepts of ‘existential security’, ‘fear’, ‘needs’ and the ‘politics of belonging’ – obviously connected to the human mind ...


The Managing Of The Presidency: Applying Theory-Driven Empirical Models To The Study Of White House Bureaucratic Performance, Justin S. Vaughn, José D. Villalobos Dec 2008

The Managing Of The Presidency: Applying Theory-Driven Empirical Models To The Study Of White House Bureaucratic Performance, Justin S. Vaughn, José D. Villalobos

José D. Villalobos

We argue that scholars of the presidency should begin to apply their rich descriptive understanding of White House organization and personnel to questions of causality. To help guide this effort, we offer a theory-driven empirical model that explains organizational performance. Importing theory from the public management literature, we show how scholars can use the Meier-O'Toole (MO) model to explain performance outcomes and dynamics for key political and policy functions within the institutional presidency. We introduce the MO model and discuss its potential impact on the field of presidency studies.


Public Policies And Motorcycle Safety, Michael T. French, Gulcin Gumus, Jenny F. Homer Dec 2008

Public Policies And Motorcycle Safety, Michael T. French, Gulcin Gumus, Jenny F. Homer

Michael T. French

Numerous studies have examined the effectiveness of alcohol and traffic policies in reducing automobile crashes and fatalities, but only a few have analyzed the impact of state-specific policies on motorcycle safety. Given the growing popularity and inherent safety risks of motorcycle riding, this study provides a comprehensive investigation of both fatal and non-fatal injuries. State-level longitudinal data from 1990 to 2005 are analyzed to determine how various alcohol and traffic policies impact motorcycle safety and whether there are differential effects by type of injury. The results consistently show that universal helmet laws have the most significant effect on both non-fatal ...


The Aims Of Public Scholarship In Media Law And Ethics, Erik Ugland Dec 2008

The Aims Of Public Scholarship In Media Law And Ethics, Erik Ugland

Erik Ugland

This essay urges scholars in media law and ethics to reevaluate the extent and utility of their public-scholar efforts and to consider ways that they can transfer research-based knowledge to public audiences while also playing a more deliberate role in holding media and government institutions accountable. It suggests that the devolution of standards in mass communication, the increasing encroachments on media autonomy, and the broader collapse of power into fewer hands make this a particularly urgent moment for scholars to reengage the public and to abandon their feckless neutrality on public issues. The overarching aim of public scholars ought to ...


Newsgathering, Autonomy, And The Special-Rights Apocrypha: Supreme Court And Media Litigant Conceptions Of Press Freedom, Erik Ugland Dec 2008

Newsgathering, Autonomy, And The Special-Rights Apocrypha: Supreme Court And Media Litigant Conceptions Of Press Freedom, Erik Ugland

Erik Ugland

This Article addresses the validity of several long-standing assumptions about the Supreme Court’s free-press jurisprudence and about the arguments made by the media litigants in those cases. It analyzes more than three decades of court opinions and litigant briefs and finds, among other things, no support for the abiding accusation that the media litigants have claimed an elite or preferred constitutional position, or that they have sought judicial recognition of a framework of special rights. The litigants did make distinctions between speech and press, and between the press and public, but they linked their claims to an egalitarian conception ...


Substance Use, Education, Employment, And Criminal Activity Outcomes Of Adolescents In Outpatient Chemical Dependency Programs, Michael T. French, Ana I. Balsa, Jenny F. Homer, Constance M. Weisner Dec 2008

Substance Use, Education, Employment, And Criminal Activity Outcomes Of Adolescents In Outpatient Chemical Dependency Programs, Michael T. French, Ana I. Balsa, Jenny F. Homer, Constance M. Weisner

Michael T. French

Although the primary outcome of interest in clinical evaluations of addiction treatment programs is usually abstinence, participation in these programs can have a wide range of consequences. This study evaluated the effects of treatment initiation on substance use, school attendance, employment, and involvement in criminal activity at 12 months post-admission for 419 adolescents (aged 12 to 18) enrolled in chemical dependency recovery programs in a large managed care health plan. Instrumental variables estimation methods were used to account for unobserved selection into treatment by jointly modeling the likelihood of participation in treatment and the odds of attaining a certain outcome ...


“Effects Of Physical Attractiveness, Personality, And Grooming On Academic Performance In High School, Michael T. French, Philip K. Robins, Jenny F. Homer, Lauren M. Tapsell Dec 2008

“Effects Of Physical Attractiveness, Personality, And Grooming On Academic Performance In High School, Michael T. French, Philip K. Robins, Jenny F. Homer, Lauren M. Tapsell

Michael T. French

Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), we investigate whether certain aspects of personal appearance (i.e., physical attractiveness, personality, and grooming) affect a student's cumulative grade point average (GPA) in high school. When physical attractiveness is entered into the model as the only measure of personal appearance (as has been done in previous studies), it has a positive and statistically significant impact on GPA for female students and a positive yet not statistically significant effect for male students. Including personality and grooming, the effect of physical attractiveness turns negative for both groups, but ...


Obama’S Empty Cupboard: Contending With Administrative Vacancies And The Threat To Neutral Competence, Justin S. Vaughn, José D. Villalobos Dec 2008

Obama’S Empty Cupboard: Contending With Administrative Vacancies And The Threat To Neutral Competence, Justin S. Vaughn, José D. Villalobos

José D. Villalobos

In this essay, we focus on the public administration challenge concerning the rising number of politically motivated administrative vacancies resulting from George W. Bush's tenure in office with which President Barack Obama must now contend. We argue that the hyper-politicization of personnel decision-making during the presidency of George W. Bush left many parts of the federal bureaucracy understaffed, yet more densely populated by staffers chosen more for ideological and political congruence than administrative competence. For President Obama to achieve key aspects of his policy agenda, he must first attend to fixing these staffing problems and then to reforming the ...


The Cost Of Treating Addiction From The Client's Perspective: Results From A Multi-Modality Application Of The Client Datcap, Michael T. French, Kathryn E. Mccollister, Jeffrey M. Pyne, Brenda Booth, Richard Rapp, Carey Carr Dec 2008

The Cost Of Treating Addiction From The Client's Perspective: Results From A Multi-Modality Application Of The Client Datcap, Michael T. French, Kathryn E. Mccollister, Jeffrey M. Pyne, Brenda Booth, Richard Rapp, Carey Carr

Michael T. French

There is a considerable disparity between the number of individuals who need substance abuse treatment and the number who actually receive it. This is partly due to the fact that many individuals with substance use disorders do not perceive a need for formal treatment. Another contributing factor, however, is a discrepancy between the real and perceived cost of services. Although many cost evaluations of substance abuse treatment have been conducted from the treatment provider perspective, less is known about the client-specific costs of attending treatment (e.g., lost work and leisure time, transportation, out-of-pocket and in-kind payments). Concerns about financial ...


Introduction To The Special Issue On Communications, The Media And Policy In Canada, Paul W. Nesbitt-Larking, Michael Howlett Dec 2008

Introduction To The Special Issue On Communications, The Media And Policy In Canada, Paul W. Nesbitt-Larking, Michael Howlett

Paul W Nesbitt-Larking

No abstract provided.


Soft Law As Delegation, Timothy L. Meyer Dec 2008

Soft Law As Delegation, Timothy L. Meyer

Timothy Meyer

This article examines one of the most important trends in international legal governance since the end of the Cold War: the rise of “soft law,” or legally non-binding instruments that are given legal effect through domestic law or internationally binding agreements such as treaties. Scholars studying the design of international agreements have long puzzled over why states use soft law. The decision to make an agreement or obligation legally binding is within the control of the states negotiating the content of the legal obligations. Basic contract theory predicts that parties to a contract would want their agreement to be as ...


Defining “Rural” For Rural Library Research., Thomas Ivie Dec 2008

Defining “Rural” For Rural Library Research., Thomas Ivie

Thomas Ivie

No abstract provided.


Managing Obesity: Human Resource Managers' Perspectives, Helen Lavan, Marsha Katz Dec 2008

Managing Obesity: Human Resource Managers' Perspectives, Helen Lavan, Marsha Katz

Helen LaVan

No abstract provided.


The Health Effects Of Parental Problem Drinking On Adult Children, Michael T. French, Ana I. Balsa, Jenny F. Homer Dec 2008

The Health Effects Of Parental Problem Drinking On Adult Children, Michael T. French, Ana I. Balsa, Jenny F. Homer

Michael T. French

BACKGROUND: Much of the research on adult children of alcoholics has focused on the transmission of drinking patterns from parents to their children and the development of alcohol-related problems. Less is known about how exposure to parental problem drinking affects children as they progress into adulthood in terms of other mental health outcomes. This is crucial information, in part because the average age of onset for depression and other mental health disorders is during late adolescence or young adulthood. AIMS: The objective of this study was to rigorously assess the long-term impacts of parental problem drinking on adult children's ...