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Social and Behavioral Sciences Commons

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Selected Works

2009

Public Affairs, Public Policy and Public Administration

Articles 1 - 30 of 205

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Selection Bias In College Admissions Test Scores, Jesse Rothstein, Melissa Clark, Diane Schanzenbach Apr 2012

Selection Bias In College Admissions Test Scores, Jesse Rothstein, Melissa Clark, Diane Schanzenbach

Diane Whitmore Schanzenbach

Data from college admissions tests can provide a valuable measure of student achievement, but the non-representativeness of test-takers is an important concern. We examine selectivity bias in both state-level and school-level SAT and ACT averages. The degree of selectivity may differ importantly across and within schools, and across and within states. To identify within-state selectivity, we use a control function approach that conditions on scores from a representative test. Estimates indicate strong selectivity of test-takers in "ACT states," where most college- bound students take the ACT, and much less selectivity in SAT states. To identify within- and between-school selectivity, we ...


Organizational Values, Social Responsibility, And Corporate Citizenship: The Case Of Nevada State College, Grace S. Thomson Dec 2009

Organizational Values, Social Responsibility, And Corporate Citizenship: The Case Of Nevada State College, Grace S. Thomson

Dr. Grace S. Thomson

Organizational Values, Social Responsibility, and Corporate Citizenship Organizations contribute more than products and services to the society. The generation of jobs, creation of wealth and satisfaction of needs are only a portion of the influence that organizations have in a community. Likewise, organizations are increasingly engaging in social responsible initiatives to respond to the concerns of their various stakeholders (Aguilera, Rupp, Williams, & Ganapathi, 2007). Organizations with a genuine interest for social responsibility and citizenship possess value systems that articulate and integrate these social motives into their corporate strategy (Graber & Kilpatrick, 2008). Higher education institutions in the United States face the ...


Strengthening Security And Oversight At Biological Research Laboratories, Michael Greenberger Dec 2009

Strengthening Security And Oversight At Biological Research Laboratories, Michael Greenberger

Michael Greenberger

With the advent of the Anthrax attacks in the fall of 2001, this Nation has been confronted with a serious policy conundrum. On the one hand, we have strengthened programs that encourage the use of our best scientific resources to develop countermeasures to the weaponization of highly dangerous biopathogens. On the other hand, research on those countermeasures requires the use of the very biopathogens we seek to defeat. There have been many mishaps in the handling of those pathogens, which raises the frightening prospect that the research may be as (or more) dangerous than the potential bioterrorist acts themselves. Indeed ...


The Brazilian Consensus, Andrea P. Pradilla Dec 2009

The Brazilian Consensus, Andrea P. Pradilla

Andrea P Pradilla

No abstract provided.


Tuition Tax Relief: A Conduit For Regulation?, Steven Alan Samson Dec 2009

Tuition Tax Relief: A Conduit For Regulation?, Steven Alan Samson

Steven Alan Samson

No abstract provided.


Ideologia E Utopias Nas Mais Recentes Constituintes Brasileira E Portuguesa: Algumas Linhas De Leitura, Paulo Ferreira Da Cunha Nov 2009

Ideologia E Utopias Nas Mais Recentes Constituintes Brasileira E Portuguesa: Algumas Linhas De Leitura, Paulo Ferreira Da Cunha

Paulo Ferreira da Cunha

Based upon a political compromise, in which « democratic socialists » and « social democrats » were the main protagonists, the ideology of Portuguese Constitution of 1976 was discrete, subtle. And ulterior constitutional revisions confirmed that fondamental aspect. Of course, utopia was present. But, even more present was the « hope principle ». We believe that the Brazilean constituent assembly, with the original importance of popular contributions, also had hope principle’s decisive influence. But the dinamics of the constituent assembly moderated, since the very beggining, the verbal signs of less discret ideologies. Utopia, neverthless, is very present in the aim of the « Citizen Constitution » to ...


Re-Visioning The Future Of Work: Towards A New Mindset, Colin C. Williams Nov 2009

Re-Visioning The Future Of Work: Towards A New Mindset, Colin C. Williams

Colin C Williams

No abstract provided.


The Obama Administration's Challenges After The 'War On Science': Reforming Staffing Practices And Protecting Scientific Integrity In The Executive Branch, Justin Vaughn, José Villalobos Nov 2009

The Obama Administration's Challenges After The 'War On Science': Reforming Staffing Practices And Protecting Scientific Integrity In The Executive Branch, Justin Vaughn, José Villalobos

José D. Villalobos

In this article, we examine the difficult leadership position President Barack Obama inherited as he took office with respect to science and technology policy making and implementation, particularly following the Bush administration and years of the so-called "war on science." We contend that the Obama administration's challenge is not only to take substantive policy action, but also to reform certain administrative practices, particularly in light of the previous administration's practice of the politics of strategic vacancies, a managerial technique that rearranges an agency's ideological inclinations not through the usual forms of active politicization (i.e., by filling ...


Information Warfare: The Computer Revolution Is Altering How Future Wars Will Be Conducted, Stephen R. Bowers Nov 2009

Information Warfare: The Computer Revolution Is Altering How Future Wars Will Be Conducted, Stephen R. Bowers

Stephen R Bowers

No abstract provided.


Youtube: Spotlight On Policy, Dr. Greg Hill On Educational Attainment, Greg Hill Nov 2009

Youtube: Spotlight On Policy, Dr. Greg Hill On Educational Attainment, Greg Hill

Gregory C. Hill

In this episode of SPOTLIGHT ON POLICY, Dr. Greg Hill, Assistant Professor of Public Policy and Administration discusses educational attainment measures for the Boise MSA and Idaho. Spotlight on Policy is a production of the Public Policy Center at Boise State University. http://ppa.boisestate.edu/centerppa/


Improvement And Growth Of Local Productive Systems From Identity, Selfsufficiency, Federico Del Giorgio Solfa, Luciana Mercedes Girotto Nov 2009

Improvement And Growth Of Local Productive Systems From Identity, Selfsufficiency, Federico Del Giorgio Solfa, Luciana Mercedes Girotto

Federico Del Giorgio Solfa

This paper intends to begin the discussion of a new territorial development perspective. According to Boisier, the concept of territorial development is understood as one related to the idea of container, rather than content. Therefore, it is understood that, even though every portion of the earth surface is territory, not all territories are important from a developmental perspective. The aforementioned author differentiates among: “natural territory”, composed by natural elements free from any human intervention; "equipped territory" or “intervened territory”, where man has already built transport systems, infrastructure and even extractive production activities; and "organized territory", characterized by a community with ...


An "Act Of God": Race, Religion, And Policy In The Wake Of Hurricane Katrina, Seneca Vaught Oct 2009

An "Act Of God": Race, Religion, And Policy In The Wake Of Hurricane Katrina, Seneca Vaught

Seneca Vaught

This essay addresses how characterization of Hurricane Katrina as an “act of God” exposed historical racial cleavages and policy challenges in post-Katrina America. Act-of-God rhetoric not only stemmed from religious history but was also largely informed by America's racial legacy. Usage of the term often absolved individuals and institutions from personal responsibility and economic liability, especially when the specter of race could be invoked. The term also revealed generational ideological differences within the Black community itself, posing significant questions about the discourse of race and religion in post–civil rights America.


Organized Crime In West Africa: Options For Eu Engagement, Emmanuel Aning Oct 2009

Organized Crime In West Africa: Options For Eu Engagement, Emmanuel Aning

Emmanuel Kwesi Aning

Worldwide, organized crime is considered a major threat to human security. Organized crime impedes social, economic, cultural and democratic developments globally, with disproportionate effects on developing and fragile states. The threat and challenges of organized crime in Africa in general and West Africa in particular is enormous because of the high presence of fragile states serving as potential breeding grounds for such activities (Commission of the European Communities 2007: 5). In Africa, as in the rest of the world, organized criminal activities take the form of drug trafficking, advanced fee and Internet fraud, human trafficking, diamond smuggling, forgery, cigarette smuggling ...


Tobacco Use Policymaking And Administration In Bhutan, Michael S. Givel Oct 2009

Tobacco Use Policymaking And Administration In Bhutan, Michael S. Givel

Michael S. Givel

No abstract provided.


Investigating The Link Between Gun Possession And Gun Assault, Charles C. Branas, Therese S. Richmond, Dennis P. Culhane, Thomas R. Ten Have, Douglas J. Wiebe Oct 2009

Investigating The Link Between Gun Possession And Gun Assault, Charles C. Branas, Therese S. Richmond, Dennis P. Culhane, Thomas R. Ten Have, Douglas J. Wiebe

Dennis P. Culhane

Objectives. We investigated the possible relationship between being shot in an assault and possession of a gun at the time.

Methods. We enrolled 677 case participants that had been shot in an assault and 684 population-based control participants within Philadelphia from 2003 to 2006. We adjusted odds ratios for confounding variables.

Results. After adjustment, individuals in possession of a gun were 4.46 (P<.05) times more likely to be shot in an assault than those not in possession. Among gun assaults where the victim had at least some chance to resist, this adjusted

odds ratio increased to 5.45 (P<.05).

Conclusions. On average, guns did not protect those who possessed them from being shot in an assault. Although successful defensive gun uses occur each year, the probability of success ...


Community Based Divorce Education Programmes: Short-Term And Longer-Term Impacts, Sherrill W. Hayes, Lori Pelletier Oct 2009

Community Based Divorce Education Programmes: Short-Term And Longer-Term Impacts, Sherrill W. Hayes, Lori Pelletier

Sherrill W. Hayes

Surveys of mandatory parent education in the USA (M J Geasler and K R Blaisure, ‘A review of divorce education programme materials’ (1998) 47 Family Relations 167–175; M J Geasler and K R Blaisure, ‘1998 Nationwide survey of court-connected divorce education programmes’ (1999) 37 Family and Conciliation Courts Review 36–63; S L Pollet and M Lombreglia, ‘A nationwide survey of mandatory parent education’ (2008) 46(2) Family Court Review 375–394) have demonstrated the positive impact of well-designed, evidence-based programmes on children and families. Divorce education programmes for parents are now required in many jurisdictions in 46 states ...


Public Relations And War: Socially Responsible Or Unethical, John R. Fisher Oct 2009

Public Relations And War: Socially Responsible Or Unethical, John R. Fisher

Dr. John R. Fisher

This article applies symmetrical public relations to warfare and argues that it is not possible because the purpose of public relations in wartime is to persuade and control information.


Employment In Construction And Distribution Industries: The Impact Of The New Jobs Tax Credit, John H. Bishop Oct 2009

Employment In Construction And Distribution Industries: The Impact Of The New Jobs Tax Credit, John H. Bishop

John H Bishop

Excerpt] The New Jobs Tax Credit (NJTC) offers a tax credit of fifty percent of the first $4200 of wages per employee for increases in employment of more than two percent over the previous year. Economic theory predicts that such a tax credit should stimulate employment, decrease hours worked per week, and reduce product prices of the subsidized industries. A time series analysis of the construction, retailing, and wholesaling industries finds strong support for these hypotheses. Our results suggest that the NJTC was responsible for 150,000-670,000 of the more than 1-million increase in employment that occurred between mid-1977 ...


Keeping National Health Insurance (Nhi) Accessible For All. 台北時報論壇, Chiehwen Ed Hsu Oct 2009

Keeping National Health Insurance (Nhi) Accessible For All. 台北時報論壇, Chiehwen Ed Hsu

Chiehwen Ed Hsu

Media reports say that Taiwan Health Insurance Bureau and the Department of Health are proposing an amendment to the health insurance laws to require every returned overseas Taiwanese who has been abroad for more than six months be resident in Taiwan for four months before he or she becomes eligible to re-enroll in the National Health Insurance (NHI) program. The proposed amendment arose from a small portion of overseas Taiwanese who are have allegedly played medical tourists, returning to Taiwan for medical treatments under the NHI plan. The amendments’ proponents urged “restoring equality” in the NHI. However, the proposal could ...


What Mann Hath Wrought, Steven Alan Samson Oct 2009

What Mann Hath Wrought, Steven Alan Samson

Steven Alan Samson

No abstract provided.


The Heat Is On, Roopali Phadke Oct 2009

The Heat Is On, Roopali Phadke

Roopali Phadke

No abstract provided.


A Service Choice Model For Optimizing Taxi Service Delivery, Shih-Fen Cheng, Xin Qu Sep 2009

A Service Choice Model For Optimizing Taxi Service Delivery, Shih-Fen Cheng, Xin Qu

Shih-Fen CHENG

Taxi service has undergone radical revamp in recent years. In particular, significant investments in communication system and GPS devices have improved quality of taxi services through better dispatches. In this paper, we propose to leverage on such infrastructure and build a service choice model that helps individual drivers in deciding whether to serve a specific taxi stand or not. We demonstrate the value of our model by applying it to a real-world scenario. We also highlight interesting new potential approaches that could significantly improve the quality of taxi services.


Blind Matching Versus Matchmaking: Comparison Group Selection For Highly Creative Researchers, Jan Youtie, Philip Shapira, Juan Rogers Sep 2009

Blind Matching Versus Matchmaking: Comparison Group Selection For Highly Creative Researchers, Jan Youtie, Philip Shapira, Juan Rogers

Philip Shapira

This research examines approaches for constructing a comparison group relative to highly creative researchers in nanotechnology and human genetics in the US and Europe. Such a comparison group would be useful in identifying factors that contribute to scientific creativity in these emerging fields. Two comparison group development approaches are investigated. The first approach is based on propensity score analysis and the second is based on knowledge from the literature on scientific creativity and early career patterns. In the first approach, the log of citations over the years of activity in the domains under analysis produces a significant result, but the ...


Teaching Students And Teaching Each Other: The Importance Of Peer Learning For Teachers, Clement (Kirabo) Jackson, Elias Bruegmann Sep 2009

Teaching Students And Teaching Each Other: The Importance Of Peer Learning For Teachers, Clement (Kirabo) Jackson, Elias Bruegmann

C. Kirabo Jackson

Using student examination data linked to longitudinal teacher personnel data, we document that a teacher’s students have larger test score gains when she experiences an improvement in the observable characteristics of her colleagues. Using within-school and within-teacher variation, we further show that a teacher’s students have larger test score gains when she has more effective colleagues (based on their own students’ achievement gains from an out-of-sample pre-period). A one standard deviation increase in average teacher peer quality is associated with an increase of 0.02 and 0.04 standard deviations in student test score growth in reading and ...


Gouverner: Détecter Et Prévenir!, Antoinette Rouvroy Sep 2009

Gouverner: Détecter Et Prévenir!, Antoinette Rouvroy

Antoinette Rouvroy

No abstract provided.


American Red Cross Academy: Team-Building And Leadership Development, Anne L. Drabczyk Sep 2009

American Red Cross Academy: Team-Building And Leadership Development, Anne L. Drabczyk

Dr. Anne L. Drabczyk

This research explored and validated value-based organizational indicators in order to enable co-construction of the American Red Cross Leadership Academy. Participation in the leadership experience would foster deeper membership accountability toward fulfilling requisite disaster response functions. Through an appreciative inquiry method, a cohort discovered and acknowledged individual, collective, and organizational strength-based values. An emergent cohort profile was generative in nature and cultivated vision statements that synchronized collective strengths and values with organizational responsibilities. Self-identified strengths and values provided tangible traction upon which associates could foster design and deployment accountability strategies. The cohort was able to create a customized leadership curriculum ...


Assassination And The Death Of Politics, Steven Alan Samson Sep 2009

Assassination And The Death Of Politics, Steven Alan Samson

Steven Alan Samson

The assassination of Israeli's prime minister, Yitzhak Rabin, moments after speaking of his hopes for peace at a large public rally in Tel Aviv gives his death the added poignancy of the image of an old soldier giving up his life in the pursuit of peace. But the assassin's bullets were also aimed at the heart of an entire nation. It may indeed be true, as Simone Weil observed, that the destruction of a city is the greatest calamity that can befall the human race. The scope of the horrors that have accompanied twentieth century warfare and ethnic ...


Francis Lieber: Transatlantic Cultural Missionary, Steven Alan Samson Sep 2009

Francis Lieber: Transatlantic Cultural Missionary, Steven Alan Samson

Steven Alan Samson

Lieber remained consistent in his commitment to institutional liberty. He had no notion of a distinction that would later be made between property rights and human rights. He consistently encouraged economic free enterprise in his teaching and writings. Even the rise and fall of nations he regarded as simply part of a much larger picture. National institutions permit the encouragement of commerce and interdependence among nations. This, in turn, puts absolutism on the defensive. Growing interdependence permits the principle of institutional liberty to operate on a global scale as well as locally. It is this third characteristic of the modern ...


A Preface To American Politics, Steven Alan Samson Sep 2009

A Preface To American Politics, Steven Alan Samson

Steven Alan Samson

No abstract provided.


Sara Paretsky, Steven Alan Samson Sep 2009

Sara Paretsky, Steven Alan Samson

Steven Alan Samson

Sara Paretsky is the creator of a street-smart feminist series detective, V. I. Warshawski, a former attorney who now investigates white-color crime. Each novel in the series further fleshes out her character and life story as readers are introduced to various friends and relatives, some of whom become staples.