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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Widening Spheres Of Impact: The Role Of Forgiveness In Marital And Family, Kristina Gordon, Farrah Hughes, Nathan Tomcik, Lee Dixon, Samantha Litzinger Feb 2015

Widening Spheres Of Impact: The Role Of Forgiveness In Marital And Family, Kristina Gordon, Farrah Hughes, Nathan Tomcik, Lee Dixon, Samantha Litzinger

Lee Dixon

This study examined relations between aspects of family functioning and positive and negative dimensions of forgiveness. Increased understanding of one's partner and decreased anger about betrayal characterize positive forgiveness, whereas experiences such as holding a grudge and desiring revenge indicate negative forgiveness. The sample included 87 wives and 74 husbands who reported experiencing a significant betrayal, their partners, and their adolescent children. Analyses of reported forgiveness revealed that more negative forgiveness was associated with lower marital satisfaction for husbands and wives; trust partially mediated this relationship for husbands and wives. Greater positive forgiveness reported by husbands and wives predicted ...


Behavioral And Cognitive-Behavioral Therapies, Kristina Gordon, Lee Dixon, Jennifer Willett, Farrah Hughes Feb 2015

Behavioral And Cognitive-Behavioral Therapies, Kristina Gordon, Lee Dixon, Jennifer Willett, Farrah Hughes

Lee Dixon

The Handbook of Family Psychology provides a comprehensive overview of the theoretical underpinnings and established practices relating to family psychology.

-Provides a thorough orientation to the field of family psychology for clinicians

-Includes summaries of the most recent research literature and clinical interventions for specific areas of interest to family psychology clinicians

-Features essays by recognized experts in a variety of specialized fields

-Suitable as a required text for courses in family psychology, family therapy, theories of psychotherapy, couples therapy, systems theory, and systems therapy


Thoughts Of Suicidality And Self-Harm In Middle Childhood: Relationship With Child Maltreatment And Maternal Substance Abuse And Depression, Tara Cossel, Natasha Elkovitch, David Hansen Mar 2012

Thoughts Of Suicidality And Self-Harm In Middle Childhood: Relationship With Child Maltreatment And Maternal Substance Abuse And Depression, Tara Cossel, Natasha Elkovitch, David Hansen

David J. Hansen

Child maltreatment victims are at increased risk for a multitude of symptoms, including: internalizing problems (e.g., depression, anxiety), behavior problems (e.g., aggression) and post-traumatic stress symptoms (Paolucci, Genuis, & Violato, 2001). Not all maltreated children present with the same outcomes, and research consistently demonstrates child abuse does not have an inevitable pattern or a unified presentation of symptoms. Some youth may be asymptomatic following abuse; others display a myriad of symptoms at varying levels of severity (Kendall-Tackett, Williams, & Finkelhor, 1993). A small percentage of this group becomes suicidal.

Recent studies have presented accumulating evidence that suicidality and self-harm warrant concern in the maltreated population. Child maltreatment has bivariate associations with suicidal ideation (Brezo, Paris, Tremblay, Vitaro, Zoccolillo, Hebert, et al., 2006), and childhood sexual abuse is a consistent correlate of suicide attempts (Brezo, Paris, Tremblay, Vitaro, Hébert, and Turecki, 2007). However, the majority of the literature addresses adults and adolescents; little is known about early onset of self-harm and suicidality.

In addition to maltreatment, maternal factors, such as substance abuse and depression, form a potentially important construct with regards to childhood suicidality and self-harm. Goodman (1994) found 20 percent of depressed mothers had a child with major depression or dysthymia. Research has further shown children of depressed ...


Production System Models Of Complex Cognition, John R. Anderson, Bonnie E. John, Marcel Adam Just, Patricia A. Carpenter, David E. Kieras, David E. Meyer Dec 2009

Production System Models Of Complex Cognition, John R. Anderson, Bonnie E. John, Marcel Adam Just, Patricia A. Carpenter, David E. Kieras, David E. Meyer

Marcel Adam Just

No abstract provided.


Living In A Material World: How Visual Cues To Material Properties Affect The Way That We Lift Objects And Perceive Their Weight, Gavin Buckingham, Jonathan Cant, Melvyn Goodale Nov 2009

Living In A Material World: How Visual Cues To Material Properties Affect The Way That We Lift Objects And Perceive Their Weight, Gavin Buckingham, Jonathan Cant, Melvyn Goodale

Gavin Buckingham

The visual properties of an object provide many cues as to the tensile strength, compliance, and density of the material from which it is made. However, it is not well understood how these implicit associations affect our perceptions of these properties and how they determine the initial forces that are applied when an object is picked up. Here we examine the effects of these cues on such forces by using the classic "material-weight illusion" (MWI). Grip and load forces were measured in three experiments as participants lifted cubes made from metal, wood, and expanded polystyrene. These cubes were adjusted to ...


Toward A Theory Of Procedural Justice For Juveniles, Tamar R. Birckhead Nov 2009

Toward A Theory Of Procedural Justice For Juveniles, Tamar R. Birckhead

Tamar R Birckhead

Courts and legislatures have long been reluctant to make use of the data, findings, and recommendations generated by other disciplines when determining questions of legal procedure affecting juveniles, particularly when the research has been produced by social scientists. However, given the United States Supreme Court’s recent invocation of developmental psychology in Roper v. Simmons, which invalidated the juvenile death penalty, there is reason to believe that such resistance is waning. In 2005 the Simmons Court found, inter alia, that based on research on adolescent development, juveniles are not as culpable as adults and, therefore, cannot be classified among the ...


Trajectories Of Ptsd And Substance Use Disorders In A Longitudinal Study Of Personality Disorders, Meghan E. Mcdevitt-Murphy, Gilbert R. Parra, M. Tracie Shea, Shirley Yen, Carlos M. Grilo, Charles A. Sanislow, Thomas H. Mcglashan, John G. Gunderson, Andrew E. Skodol, John C. Markowitz Nov 2009

Trajectories Of Ptsd And Substance Use Disorders In A Longitudinal Study Of Personality Disorders, Meghan E. Mcdevitt-Murphy, Gilbert R. Parra, M. Tracie Shea, Shirley Yen, Carlos M. Grilo, Charles A. Sanislow, Thomas H. Mcglashan, John G. Gunderson, Andrew E. Skodol, John C. Markowitz

Charles A. Sanislow, Ph.D.

This study investigated the co-occurrence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorders (SUDs) in a sample (N 668) recruited for personality disorders and followed longitudinally as part of the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study. The study both examined rates of co-occurring disorders at baseline and temporal relationships between PTSD and substance use disorders over 4 years. Subjects with a lifetime history of PTSD at baseline had significantly higher rates of SUDs (both alcohol and drug) than subjects without PTSD. Latent class growth analysis, a relatively novel approach used to analyze trajectories and identify homogeneous subgroups of participant on ...


13. Interviewing Children., Thomas D. Lyon Nov 2009

13. Interviewing Children., Thomas D. Lyon

Thomas D. Lyon

There is sufficient empirical evidence and consensus to begin to build guidelines, including the interview structure, setting, interviewer demeanor, children's reluctance and suggestibility, rapport development, narrative practice, introducing the topic of abuse, avoiding concepts that confuse children, instructions to children, phrasing of questions, evidence-based strategies for eliciting details, and multiple interviews.


My Next Client: Understanding The Big Five And Positive Personality Dispositions Of Those Seeking Psychosocial Support Interventions., Karen D. Klockner, Richard Hicks Nov 2009

My Next Client: Understanding The Big Five And Positive Personality Dispositions Of Those Seeking Psychosocial Support Interventions., Karen D. Klockner, Richard Hicks

Richard Hicks

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine whether individuals who sought out psychosocial support interventions which include life, career and executive coaching, mentoring services and counselling psychology services, could be identified by a combination of the Big Five and other positive personality facets and could subsequently be described as being open to growth and having a goal directed orientation.
Design: The dimensions of Personal Growth Initiative, Adult Dispositional Hope, Goal Setting and the Big Five factors (Extraversion, Neuroticism, Openness to Experience, Conscientiousness and Agreeableness) were investigated in an attempt to predict and further understand those individuals who would ...


Perceptions Of The Authenticity Of Reality Programs And Their Relationships To Audience Involvement, Enjoyment, And Perceived Learning, Alice Hall Nov 2009

Perceptions Of The Authenticity Of Reality Programs And Their Relationships To Audience Involvement, Enjoyment, And Perceived Learning, Alice Hall

Alice Hall

This study investigated whether perceptions of reality programs’ authenticity are associated with viewer involvement, enjoyment, and perceived learning.240 viewers completed a survey about their impressions of the reality program they watch most frequently. Four dimensions of the perceived authenticity were identified: cast eccentricity, representativeness, candidness, and producer manipulation. Perceptions that the cast was not eccentric, that they were representative of people the respondents could meet, that they were behaving candidly, and that the producers were manipulating the show were associated with cognitive involvement. Cast representativeness was also positively associated with social involvement. Cognitive and social involvement were each associated ...


Bookendings: Beginnings And Endings For Women In Violent Relationships, F. Christopher, Tiffani Kisler, Johnson Oct 2009

Bookendings: Beginnings And Endings For Women In Violent Relationships, F. Christopher, Tiffani Kisler, Johnson

Tiffani S. Kisler

No abstract provided.


The Occupational Stress Inventory-Revised: Confirmatory Factor Analysis Of The Original Inter-Correlation Data Set And Model, Richard Hicks, Mark Bahr, Daisure Fujiwara Oct 2009

The Occupational Stress Inventory-Revised: Confirmatory Factor Analysis Of The Original Inter-Correlation Data Set And Model, Richard Hicks, Mark Bahr, Daisure Fujiwara

Richard Hicks

Stress levels are said to be rising in many different occupations but one problem for cross-occupation comparison purposes is that different questionnaires have been used in different studies - often specially designed questionnaires for the occupation under study. The Occupational Stress Inventory-Revised (OSI-R) is one questionnaire that may help assess the same stress-related variables across different occupational groups. The OSI-R model is theory-based and assesses the effects on the individual of three ‘factors’ (occupational roles, psychological strain and coping resources) across fourteen dimensions. This current study reports the findings of a re-analysis of the original Manual data of 983 mixed occupational ...


The Occupational Stress Inventory-Revised: Confirmatory Factor Analysis Of The Original Inter-Correlation Data Set And Model, Richard Hicks, Mark Bahr, Daisure Fujiwara Oct 2009

The Occupational Stress Inventory-Revised: Confirmatory Factor Analysis Of The Original Inter-Correlation Data Set And Model, Richard Hicks, Mark Bahr, Daisure Fujiwara

Mark Bahr

Stress levels are said to be rising in many different occupations but one problem for cross-occupation comparison purposes is that different questionnaires have been used in different studies - often specially designed questionnaires for the occupation under study. The Occupational Stress Inventory-Revised (OSI-R) is one questionnaire that may help assess the same stress-related variables across different occupational groups. The OSI-R model is theory-based and assesses the effects on the individual of three ‘factors’ (occupational roles, psychological strain and coping resources) across fourteen dimensions. This current study reports the findings of a re-analysis of the original Manual data of 983 mixed occupational ...


Disentangling Mothering And Fathering: The Role Of Youth Personality., Heidi Stolz, Brian Barber, J Olsen, L Emhof Oct 2009

Disentangling Mothering And Fathering: The Role Of Youth Personality., Heidi Stolz, Brian Barber, J Olsen, L Emhof

Heidi E Stolz

No abstract provided.


Developing Early Semantic Networks And The Associative Structure Of Child Directed Speech, Thomas Hills, Josita Maouene, Brian Riordan, Linda Smith Oct 2009

Developing Early Semantic Networks And The Associative Structure Of Child Directed Speech, Thomas Hills, Josita Maouene, Brian Riordan, Linda Smith

Josita C Maouene

No abstract provided.


Personality And Psychosocial Factors Of College Drinking Amount And Frequency, Tara K. Cossel, Lindsay A. Vuchetich, Dennis E. Mcchargue Oct 2009

Personality And Psychosocial Factors Of College Drinking Amount And Frequency, Tara K. Cossel, Lindsay A. Vuchetich, Dennis E. Mcchargue

Tara K. Cossel (Tara Morton)

No abstract provided.


The Stability Of Personality Traits In Individuals With Borderline Personality Disorder, Christopher J. Hopwood, Daniel A. Newman, M. Brent Donnellan, John C. Markowitz, Carlos M. Grilo, Charles A. Sanislow, Emily B. Ansell, M. Tracie Shea, Andrew E. Skodol, Thomas H. Mcglashan, John G. Gunderson, Mary C. Zanarini, Leslie C. Morey Oct 2009

The Stability Of Personality Traits In Individuals With Borderline Personality Disorder, Christopher J. Hopwood, Daniel A. Newman, M. Brent Donnellan, John C. Markowitz, Carlos M. Grilo, Charles A. Sanislow, Emily B. Ansell, M. Tracie Shea, Andrew E. Skodol, Thomas H. Mcglashan, John G. Gunderson, Mary C. Zanarini, Leslie C. Morey

Charles A. Sanislow, Ph.D.

Although stability and pervasive inflexibility are general criteria for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (American Psychiatric Association, 1994) personality disorders (PDs), borderline PD (BPD) is characterized by instability in several domains, including interpersonal behavior, affect, and identity. The authors hypothesized that such inconsistencies notable in BPD may relate to instability at the level of the basic personality traits that are associated with this disorder. Five types of personality trait stability across 4 assessments over 6 years were compared for BPD patients (N = 130 at first interval) and patients with other PDs (N = 302). Structural stability did ...


12. Disclosure Of Child Sexual Abuse., Thomas D. Lyon, Elizabeth C. Ahern Oct 2009

12. Disclosure Of Child Sexual Abuse., Thomas D. Lyon, Elizabeth C. Ahern

Thomas D. Lyon

The research supports the proposition that CSA victims often delay disclosure or fail altogether to disclose abuse and that delays and nondisclosure are most common among children abused by a familiar person, especially a family member living in the child's household. The implications of the research are that inconsistencies and recantations in children's reports may be due to reluctance rather than a false allegation.


Limitations Of Functional Analysis: The Case For Including Valued Outcomes Analysis In The Investigation Of Difficult Behaviour, Vicki Bitsika Oct 2009

Limitations Of Functional Analysis: The Case For Including Valued Outcomes Analysis In The Investigation Of Difficult Behaviour, Vicki Bitsika

Vicki Bitsika

Effective behaviour change is based on understanding the reasons for difficult behaviour. However, current functional analytic technology is often limited in its effectiveness in the clinical setting because the focus is on labelling and classifying behavioural outcomes rather than conducting a detailed analysis of the manner in which these outcomes assist the client to operate in the environment. The effectiveness of existing functional analytic techniques might be enhanced by moving the focus of the investigation from identifying the consequent variables that impact on behaviour to systematically exploring client–environment interactions as well as the manner in which the client experiences ...


Stress, Anxiety And Depression Among Parents Of Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Vicki Bitsika, Christopher Sharpley Oct 2009

Stress, Anxiety And Depression Among Parents Of Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Vicki Bitsika, Christopher Sharpley

Vicki Bitsika

In a replication of a previous study of the incidence and contributing factors in anxiety, depression and stress in Victorian parents of a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a sample of 107 Gold Coast parents completed a questionnaire that assessed their demographic backgrounds, anxiety and depression scores on standardised inventories, and also tapped several aspects of those factors that may have contributed to their wellbeing. Over 90% of parents reported that they were sometimes unable to deal effectively with their child's behaviour. Nearly half of the participants were severely anxious and nearly two thirds were clinically depressed. Factors ...


Treating The Client Rather Than The Symptoms: Moving Beyond Manualised Treatments In Psychotherapy, Vicki Bitsika, Christopher Sharpley Oct 2009

Treating The Client Rather Than The Symptoms: Moving Beyond Manualised Treatments In Psychotherapy, Vicki Bitsika, Christopher Sharpley

Vicki Bitsika

There have been some challenges to the reliance upon data from randomised controlled clinical trials when identifying ‘evidence-based’ psychotherapy treatments. Similarly, data show that use of treatment manuals does not result in uniform and beneficial outcomes, that some evidence-based treatments are little better than non-specific counselling and that the search for those therapies or components that are effective has been largely fruitless. In an attempt to extend the debate about evidence-based treatments and drawing upon those aspects of cognitive and behavioural therapies that have been shown to be effective in most settings, this article describes valued outcomes analysis and therapy ...


"But I'M Not Really Bad": Using An Idiographic Versus A Nomothetic Approach To Understand The Reasons For Difficult Behaviour In Children, Vicki Bitsika Oct 2009

"But I'M Not Really Bad": Using An Idiographic Versus A Nomothetic Approach To Understand The Reasons For Difficult Behaviour In Children, Vicki Bitsika

Vicki Bitsika

The number of students who are identified as experiencing behavioural difficulties in the mainstream school setting is growing. However, current efforts by teachers to address these behavioural difficulties are seriously limited because of lack of training in the procedures for assessing and working with difficult behaviour. This paper will argue that the apparent failure of traditional "behaviour modification" in producing positive changes in difficult behaviour lies in its prescriptive application of general strategies to specific student problems. This approach to behaviour change is ineffective because it is not based on an understanding of the reasons for difficult behaviour. The functional ...


Genetical Genomic Determinants Of Alcohol Consumption In Rats And Humans, Heather Richardson, Boris Tabakoff, Laura Saba, Morton Printz, Pam Flodman, Colin Hodgkinson, David Goldman, George Koob, Katerina Kechris, Richard L. Bell, Norbert Hubner, Matthias Heinig, Michal Pravenec, Jonathan Mangion, Lucie Legault, Maurice Dongier, Katherine M. Conigrave, John B. Whitfield, John Saunders, Bridget Grant, Paula L. Hoffman Oct 2009

Genetical Genomic Determinants Of Alcohol Consumption In Rats And Humans, Heather Richardson, Boris Tabakoff, Laura Saba, Morton Printz, Pam Flodman, Colin Hodgkinson, David Goldman, George Koob, Katerina Kechris, Richard L. Bell, Norbert Hubner, Matthias Heinig, Michal Pravenec, Jonathan Mangion, Lucie Legault, Maurice Dongier, Katherine M. Conigrave, John B. Whitfield, John Saunders, Bridget Grant, Paula L. Hoffman

Heather Richardson

Background: We have used a genetical genomic approach, in conjunction with phenotypic analysis of alcohol consumption, to identify candidate genes that predispose to varying levels of alcohol intake by HXB/BXH recombinant inbred rat strains. In addition, in two populations of humans, we assessed genetic polymorphisms associated with alcohol consumption using a custom genotyping array for 1,350 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Our goal was to ascertain whether our approach, which relies on statistical and informatics techniques, and non-human animal models of alcohol drinking behavior, could inform interpretation of genetic association studies with human populations. Results: In the HXB/BXH ...


Assessment And Treatment Of Fire-Setters, Rebekah Doley, Katarina Fritzon Oct 2009

Assessment And Treatment Of Fire-Setters, Rebekah Doley, Katarina Fritzon

Rebekah Doley

Extract: I am malicious because I am miserable. -Frankenstein, Mary Shelley Within clinical literature there has been an assumption that the above quote typifies a large proportion of individuals who deliberately commit arson. In other words, that psychological disorders of some kind can be found in the majority of such persons (Geller, Fisher, & Moynihan, 1992). For example, early conceptualisations of the condition pyromania meant that any individual who set more than one fire was considered to suffer from an 'irresistible impulse'- merely for the fact that they did not resist the impulse to set a fire. Now, however, a more ...


Are Honors Students Losing Place In Cyberspace?, Steffen Wilson, Sarah Carty, Bruce Maclaren Sep 2009

Are Honors Students Losing Place In Cyberspace?, Steffen Wilson, Sarah Carty, Bruce Maclaren

Steffen Wilson

No abstract provided.


Concerns About Labiaplasty From A Sexual Health Perspective, Tiffani Kisler Sep 2009

Concerns About Labiaplasty From A Sexual Health Perspective, Tiffani Kisler

Tiffani S. Kisler

No abstract provided.


The Intersection Of Alcohol Use And Intimate Partner Violence, Gregory Stuart Sep 2009

The Intersection Of Alcohol Use And Intimate Partner Violence, Gregory Stuart

Gregory Lyal Stuart

No abstract provided.


Rationality And Humanity: A View From Feminist Economics, Julie A. Nelson Sep 2009

Rationality And Humanity: A View From Feminist Economics, Julie A. Nelson

Julie A. Nelson

DOES RATIONAL CHOICE THEORY (RCT) HAVE SOMETHING IMPORTANT to contribute to the humanities? Usually the arguments for answering “yes” to this question go something like the following: The application of RCT has proved to be a powerful tool in economics and the social sciences, leading to clear and rigorous insights unattainable from less precise methods. Therefore, by also harnessing this power, the disciplines in the humanities could advance toward becoming more elegant, rational, and forceful in their explorations of human behavior. As an economist, I’d like to address this argument on its home ground. Has the use of RCT ...


Maternal Behavior Q-Sort (Mbqs) – Overview, Available Materials And Support, Greg Moran, David Pederson, Sandi Bento Sep 2009

Maternal Behavior Q-Sort (Mbqs) – Overview, Available Materials And Support, Greg Moran, David Pederson, Sandi Bento

Greg Moran

No abstract provided.


The Convergent And Discriminant Validity Of Five-Factor Traits: Current And Prospective Social, Work, And Recreational Dysfunction, Christopher J. Hopwood, Leslie C. Morey, Emily B. Ansell, Carlos M. Grilo, Charles A. Sanislow, Thomas H. Mcglashan, John C. Markowitz, John G. Gunderson, Shirley Yen, M. Tracie Shea, Andrew E. Skodol Sep 2009

The Convergent And Discriminant Validity Of Five-Factor Traits: Current And Prospective Social, Work, And Recreational Dysfunction, Christopher J. Hopwood, Leslie C. Morey, Emily B. Ansell, Carlos M. Grilo, Charles A. Sanislow, Thomas H. Mcglashan, John C. Markowitz, John G. Gunderson, Shirley Yen, M. Tracie Shea, Andrew E. Skodol

Charles A. Sanislow, Ph.D.

The convergent and discriminant validity of Five Factor Model (FFM) personality traits with concurrent and prospective social, work, and recreational dysfunction was assessed in a large, longitudinal clinical sample. Consistent with five factor theoretical expectations, neuroticism is broadly related to dysfunction across domains; extraversion is primarily related to social and recreational dysfunction; openness to recreational dysfunction; agreeableness to social dysfunction; and conscientiousness to work dysfunction. Findings support five factor theory and the clinical assessment of normative personality traits.