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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Mixed Species Plantations: Prospects And Challenges, J Doland Nichols, Mila Bristow, Jerome K. Vanclay Nov 2009

Mixed Species Plantations: Prospects And Challenges, J Doland Nichols, Mila Bristow, Jerome K. Vanclay

Professor Jerome K Vanclay

About 2% of English-language literature on plantations deals with mixed-species plantations, but only a tiny proportion (<0.1%) of industrial plantations are polycultures. Small landholders are more innovative, with 12% of Australia’s farm forestry plantations under mixed-species plantings, and 80% of Queensland’s farm forestry as polycultures. We examine reasons for this discrepancy, and explore the history, silviculture and economics of polycultures. Financial analyses suggest that a yield stimulus of 10%, depending on product and rotation length, may be sufficient to offset increased costs associated with planting and managing a mixed-species plantation, a stimulus that has been demonstrated in ...


Improving Productivity In Mixed-Species Plantations, Mila Bristow, J Doland Nichols, Jerome K. Vanclay Nov 2009

Improving Productivity In Mixed-Species Plantations, Mila Bristow, J Doland Nichols, Jerome K. Vanclay

Professor Jerome K Vanclay

Mixed species plantations are often promoted as being environmentally preferable to monocultures, but are rarely considered operationally viable by commercial forest growers. Despite many publications documenting benefits demonstrated in research studies (e.g., Kelty 2006; Forrester et al. 2006b; Wood and Vanclay 1995), and despite continuing calls from a wide range of advocates for mixed-species plantations, polyculture remains the exception rather than the rule in industrial plantation forestry (Nichols et al 2006)...


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Functional Transition In The Floral Receptacle Of The Sacred Lotus (Nelumbo Nucifera): From Thermogenesis To Photosynthesis, R. E. Miller, J. R. Watling, Sharon A. Robinson Nov 2009

Functional Transition In The Floral Receptacle Of The Sacred Lotus (Nelumbo Nucifera): From Thermogenesis To Photosynthesis, R. E. Miller, J. R. Watling, Sharon A. Robinson

Sharon Robinson

The receptacle of the sacred lotus is the main source of heat during the thermogenic stage of floral development. Following anthesis, it enlarges, greens and becomes a fully functional photosynthetic organ. We investigated development of photosynthetic traits during this unusual functional transition. There were two distinct phases of pigment accumulation in receptacles. Lutein and photoprotective xanthophyll cycle pigments accumulated first with 64% and 95% of the maximum, respectively, present prior to anthesis. Lutein epoxide comprised 32% of total carotenoids in yellow receptacles, but declined with development. By contrast, more than 85% of maximum total chlorophyll, β-carotene and Rubisco were produced ...


Responses Of Plants In Polar Regions To Uvb Exposure : A Meta-Analysis, K. K. Newsham, Sharon A. Robinson Nov 2009

Responses Of Plants In Polar Regions To Uvb Exposure : A Meta-Analysis, K. K. Newsham, Sharon A. Robinson

Sharon Robinson

We report a meta-analysis of data from 34 field studies into the effects of UV-B radiation on Arctic and Antarctic bryophytes and angiosperms. The studies measured plant responses to decreases in UV-B radiation under screens, natural fluctuations in UV-B irradiance, or increases in UV-B radiation applied from fluorescent UV lamps. Exposure to UV-B radiation was found to increase the concentrations of UV-B absorbing compounds in leaves or thalli by 7% and 25% (expressed on a mass or area basis, respectively). UV-B exposure also reduced aboveground biomass and plant height by 15% and 10%, respectively, and increased DNA damage by 90 ...


Genetic Structure Of East Antarctic Populations Of The Moss Ceratodon Purpureus, L. J. Clarke, D. J. Ayre, Sharon A. Robinson Nov 2009

Genetic Structure Of East Antarctic Populations Of The Moss Ceratodon Purpureus, L. J. Clarke, D. J. Ayre, Sharon A. Robinson

Sharon Robinson

The capacity of the polar flora to adapt is of increasing concern given current and predicted environmental change in these regions. Previous genetic studies of Antarctic mosses have been of limited value due to a lack of variation in the markers or non-specificity of the methods used. We examined the power of five microsatellite loci developed for the cosmopolitan moss Ceratodon purpureus to detect genetically distinct clones and infer the distribution of clones within and among populations from the Windmill Islands, East Antarctica. Our microsatellite data suggest extraordinarily high levels of variation reported in RAPD studies were artificially elevated by ...


Two Cys Or Not Two Cys? That Is The Question; Alternative Oxidase In The Thermogenic Plant Sacred Lotus, Nicole M. Grant, Yoshihiko Onda, Yusuke Kakizaki, Kkikukatsu Ito, Jennifer R. Watling, Sharon A. Robinson Nov 2009

Two Cys Or Not Two Cys? That Is The Question; Alternative Oxidase In The Thermogenic Plant Sacred Lotus, Nicole M. Grant, Yoshihiko Onda, Yusuke Kakizaki, Kkikukatsu Ito, Jennifer R. Watling, Sharon A. Robinson

Sharon Robinson

Sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) regulates temperature in its floral chamber to 32°C to 35°C across ambient temperatures of 8°C to 40°C with heating achieved through high alternative pathway fluxes. In most alternative oxidase (AOX) isoforms, two cysteine residues, Cys1 and Cys2, are highly conserved and play a role in posttranslational regulation of AOX. Further control occurs via interaction of reduced Cys1 with α-keto acids, such as pyruvate. Here, we report on the in vitro regulation of AOX isolated from thermogenic receptacle tissues of sacred lotus. AOX protein was mostly present in the reduced form, and only ...


Mixed-Species Plantation Of Eucalyptus With Nitrogen Fixing Trees: A Review, David I. Forrester, Jürgen Bauhus, Annette L. Cowie, Jerome K. Vanclay Oct 2009

Mixed-Species Plantation Of Eucalyptus With Nitrogen Fixing Trees: A Review, David I. Forrester, Jürgen Bauhus, Annette L. Cowie, Jerome K. Vanclay

Professor Jerome K Vanclay

Mixed-species plantations of Eucalyptus with a nitrogen (N2) fixing species have the potential to increase productivity while maintaining soil fertility, compared to Eucalyptus monocultures. However, it is difficult to predict combinations of species and sites that will lead to these benefits. We review the processes and interactions occurring in mixed plantations, and the influence of species or site attributes, to aid the selection of successful combinations of species and sites. Successful mixtures, where productivity is increased over that of monocultures, have often developed stratified canopies, such that the less shade-tolerant species overtops the more shade-tolerant species. Successful mixtures also have ...


Illumination-Size Relationships Of 109 Coexisting Tropical Forest Tree Species, Douglas Sheil, Agus Salim, Jérôme Chave, Jerome K. Vanclay, William D. Hawthorne Oct 2009

Illumination-Size Relationships Of 109 Coexisting Tropical Forest Tree Species, Douglas Sheil, Agus Salim, Jérôme Chave, Jerome K. Vanclay, William D. Hawthorne

Professor Jerome K Vanclay

Summary 1 Competition for light is a central issue in ecological questions concerning forest tree differentiation and diversity. Here, using 213 106 individual stem records derived from a national survey in Ghana, West Africa, we examine the relationship between relative crown exposure, ontogeny and phylogeny for 109 canopy species. 2 We use a generalized linear model (GLM) framework to allow interspecific comparisons of crown exposure that control for stem-size. For each species, a multinomial response model is used to describe the probabilities of the relative canopy illumination classes as a function of stem diameter. 3 In general, and for all ...


Social And Ecological Issues For Private Native Forestry In North-Eastern New South Wales, Australia, V Alex Jay, J Doland Nichols, Jerome K. Vanclay Oct 2009

Social And Ecological Issues For Private Native Forestry In North-Eastern New South Wales, Australia, V Alex Jay, J Doland Nichols, Jerome K. Vanclay

Professor Jerome K Vanclay

Forests in north-eastern New South Wales have often been the focus of controversy. The tension between production and preservation continues and hampers current negotiations for a code of practice for private native forestry. The structure of many private forests reflects past mismanagement and silvicultural intervention would benefit both conservation and production objectives, but such intervention is rarely financially viable. This paper sets out the economic and ecological basis for private native forestry. Both the timber industry and nature-based tourism are major contributors to the local economy, and both rely in part on private native forests. Draft regulations currently under negotiation ...


Growth And Species Interactions Of Eucalyptus Pellita In A Mixed And Monoculture Plantation In The Humid Tropics Of North Queensland, Mila Bristow, Jerome K. Vanclay, Lyndon O. Brooks, Mark Hunt Oct 2009

Growth And Species Interactions Of Eucalyptus Pellita In A Mixed And Monoculture Plantation In The Humid Tropics Of North Queensland, Mila Bristow, Jerome K. Vanclay, Lyndon O. Brooks, Mark Hunt

Professor Jerome K Vanclay

This study investigated whether mixed-species designs can increase the growth of a tropical eucalypt when compared to monocultures. Monocultures of Eucalyptus pellita (E) and Acacia peregrina (A) and mixtures in various proportions (75E:25A, 50E:50A, 25E:75A) were planted in a replacement series design on the Atherton Tablelands of north Queensland, Australia. High mortality in the establishment phase due to repeated damage by tropical cyclones altered the trial design. Effects of experimental designs on tree growth were estimated using a linear mixed effects model with restricted maximum likelihood analysis (REML). Volume growth of individual eucalypt trees were positively affected ...


Community Attitudes Towards Private Native Forestry In New South Wales, Jerome K. Vanclay Oct 2009

Community Attitudes Towards Private Native Forestry In New South Wales, Jerome K. Vanclay

Professor Jerome K Vanclay

An on-line survey during August-September 2006 examined community attitudes toward private native forestry. Survey findings (n=156) confirmed prior hypotheses that attitudes would correlate with associations (e.g., professionals in favour of incentives, farmers in favour of freedom to manage, conservationists in favour of regulations), and with interest (biodiversity enthusiasts in favour of regulations; producers in favour of incentives), but refuted the prior hypotheses that urban dwellers would be more likely to favour regulations. Respondents appear to reflect different constituencies with divergent views without a shared understanding of the condition and dynamics of these forests. This indicates the need for ...


On The Robustness Of The H-Index, Jerome K. Vanclay Oct 2009

On The Robustness Of The H-Index, Jerome K. Vanclay

Professor Jerome K Vanclay

The h-index (Hirsch, 2005) is robust, remaining relatively unaffected by errors in the long tails of the citations-rank distribution, such as typographic errors that short-change frequently-cited papers and create bogus additional records. This robustness, and the ease with which h-indices can be verified, support the use of a Hirsch-type index over alternatives such as the journal impact factor. These merits of the h-index apply to both individuals and to journals.


Regeneration Changes In Tree Species Abundance Diversity And Structure In Logged And Unlogged Subtropical Rainforest Over A 36-Year Period, Maina Kariuki, Robert M. Kooyman, R Geoff B. Smith, Grant Wardell-Johnson, Jerome K. Vanclay Oct 2009

Regeneration Changes In Tree Species Abundance Diversity And Structure In Logged And Unlogged Subtropical Rainforest Over A 36-Year Period, Maina Kariuki, Robert M. Kooyman, R Geoff B. Smith, Grant Wardell-Johnson, Jerome K. Vanclay

Professor Jerome K Vanclay

The long-term effects of logging treatments on rainforest regeneration are difficult to quantify due to compounding interactions with natural dynamics, site characteristics and tree species. The aim of this study was to examine regeneration differences over a 36-year period in stands subjected to various levels of disturbance ranging from natural, through an increasing intensity of individual tree removal to intensive logging. Multivariate and univariate analyses of trees ¡Ý 10 cm diameter at 1.3 m above the ground (dbh) showed that regeneration responses were generally correlated with disturbance gradient. In the undisturbed controls there were gradual changes that had no ...


Realising Opportunities In Forest Growth Modelling, Jerome K. Vanclay Oct 2009

Realising Opportunities In Forest Growth Modelling, Jerome K. Vanclay

Professor Jerome K Vanclay

The world is continually changing: the emergence of new technology and new demands for pertinent information pose new challenges and possibilities for forest management. Are forest growth models keeping up with client needs? To remain relevant, modelers need to anticipate client needs, gauge the data needed to satisfy these demands, develop the tools to collect and analyze these data efficiently, and resolve how best to deliver the resulting models and other findings. Researchers and managers should jointly identify and articulate anticipated needs for the future, and initiate action to satisfy them. New technology that offers potential for innovation in forest ...


Spatially-Explicit Competition Indices And The Analysis Of Mixed-Species Plantings With The Simile Modelling Environment, Jerome K. Vanclay Oct 2009

Spatially-Explicit Competition Indices And The Analysis Of Mixed-Species Plantings With The Simile Modelling Environment, Jerome K. Vanclay

Professor Jerome K Vanclay

Individual-based modelling and analysis of forest experiments has been made more accessible to researchers with the advent of modelling environments like Simile from www.simulistics.com. Individual-based analyses of tree growth data offer insights not possible with plot-based analyses, especially when the original experimental design has been compromised by mortality or other unforeseen events. The paper illustrates how Simile can be used for individual-based analyses of mixed plantings, and how it can be used to explore the consequences of the resulting statistical models. A mixed-species planting of Eucalyptus pellita and Acacia peregrina is used to illustrate possibilities.


Structure And Floristic Composition Of Flood Plain Forests In The Peruvian Amazon, Ii. The Understorey Of Restinga Forests, Gustav Nebel, Jens Dragsted, Jerome K. Vanclay Oct 2009

Structure And Floristic Composition Of Flood Plain Forests In The Peruvian Amazon, Ii. The Understorey Of Restinga Forests, Gustav Nebel, Jens Dragsted, Jerome K. Vanclay

Professor Jerome K Vanclay

Structure and floristic composition of small trees and shrubs (1.5 m height to 10 cm diameter at breast height was described in two flood plain forests of the lower Ucayali river, Peruvian Amazon. The forests were of the high and low restinga type, on an annual average flooded around 1 and 2 months, respectively. The soils were nutrient rich entisols, and the vegetation forms closed high canopy forests with presence of emergents. A total of 25 permanent sample plots covering 0.64 ha were established. They were nested within six quadratic 1 ha permanent sample plots where large individuals ...


Sustainable Forestry In The Tropics: Panacea Or Folly?, David W. Pearce, Francis E. Putz, Jerome K. Vanclay Oct 2009

Sustainable Forestry In The Tropics: Panacea Or Folly?, David W. Pearce, Francis E. Putz, Jerome K. Vanclay

Professor Jerome K Vanclay

The profitability of uncontrolled logging can be a significant obstacle to sustainable forest management, especially in the tropics. Rice et al. (1997) have argued that not only does traditional selective logging provide higher returns but also incurs less damage to forests than sustainable forest management systems that involve harvesting of many species and the creation of large gaps in the forest canopy to foster regeneration of light-demanding species. They claimed that protected areas were the only viable way to conserve forest ecosystems and proposed that loggers be allowed to log forests selectively once, after which the forests should become parks ...


Forest Dynamics In Flood Plain Forests In The Peruvian Amazon: Effects Of Disturbance And Implications For Management, Gustav Nebel, Lars Peter Kvist, Jerome K. Vanclay, Hector Vidaurre Oct 2009

Forest Dynamics In Flood Plain Forests In The Peruvian Amazon: Effects Of Disturbance And Implications For Management, Gustav Nebel, Lars Peter Kvist, Jerome K. Vanclay, Hector Vidaurre

Professor Jerome K Vanclay

Forest dynamics were studied from 1993 to 1997 for individuals > 10 cm DBH in nine 1 ha permanent sample plots. They were established in natural flood plain forests located on the lower Ucayali river in the Peruvian Amazon. After inventories of three plots in each of three forest types, a light and a heavy felling treatment were applied to each of the two plots, while a third plot was kept untreated. Average annual stem mortality and recruitment rates in the untreated plots were among the highest observed in neotropical rain forests: mortality 2.2-3.2% per year, recruitment 3.0-4 ...


The Effectiveness Of Parks, Jerome K. Vanclay Oct 2009

The Effectiveness Of Parks, Jerome K. Vanclay

Professor Jerome K Vanclay

Bruner et al. examined the effectiveness of parks in the tropics, drawing on survey data to support their contention that parks 1) have been effective; 2) need more support; and 3) should remain a central component of conservation strategies. Their conclusions remain equivocal...


Experiment Designs To Evaluate Inter- And Intra-Specific Interactions In Mixed Plantings Of Forest Trees, Jerome K. Vanclay Oct 2009

Experiment Designs To Evaluate Inter- And Intra-Specific Interactions In Mixed Plantings Of Forest Trees, Jerome K. Vanclay

Professor Jerome K Vanclay

A review of three mixed-species trials reveals the utility of competition indices for evaluating inter- and intra-specific interactions between trees, the desirability of experiments that span a range of tree spacing and composition to inform calibration of these competition indices, the need for extremes of species composition and stand density to calibrate response surfaces, and the far-reaching impact of edge-effects. Experiment layouts commonly used for mixed-species trials in forestry (such as replacement series) rarely provide a strong basis to calibrate competition indices and response surfaces. Alternative designs involving systematic changes in species composition may offer a better basis for calibrating ...


How To Foster Good Husbandry Of Private Native Forests, Jerome K. Vanclay Oct 2009

How To Foster Good Husbandry Of Private Native Forests, Jerome K. Vanclay

Professor Jerome K Vanclay

It is generally agreed that effective conservation requires the cooperation of private landholders to complement reserve-based efforts, but there is little agreement about how this can best be achieved. Various stakeholders lobby for tough regulations, for greater landholder freedom, and for incentives for activities or outcomes. A review of these alternatives suggests an emerging consensus that incentives are the most effective approach. Policy-makers should consider incentive-based approaches such as stewardship support to foster conservation outcomes on private lands.


Why Model Landscapes At The Level Of Households And Fields?, Jerome K. Vanclay Oct 2009

Why Model Landscapes At The Level Of Households And Fields?, Jerome K. Vanclay

Professor Jerome K Vanclay

Sustainable resource management relies upon many disciplines and deals with complex interactions at the landscape scale. Many of the issues at the landscape scale arise from decisions taken at the household level and affect land use in fields and in small patches of forest. Spatially-explicit modelling of these units is desirable because it enables rigorous testing of model predictions, and thus of underlying propositions. The greatest insights may be obtained by participatory modelling of these processes as we understand them. Despite this, few models simulate dynamics at the household and field level. FLORES, the Forest Land Oriented Resource Envisioning System ...


Diameter Growth Performance Varies With Species Functional-Group And Habitat Characteristics In Subtropical Rainforests, Maina Kariuki, Margaret Rolfe, R Geoff B. Smith, Jerome K. Vanclay, Robert M. Kooyman Oct 2009

Diameter Growth Performance Varies With Species Functional-Group And Habitat Characteristics In Subtropical Rainforests, Maina Kariuki, Margaret Rolfe, R Geoff B. Smith, Jerome K. Vanclay, Robert M. Kooyman

Professor Jerome K Vanclay

We examined tree diameter growth in 20 plots subjected to various disturbance intensities (natural, low, moderate and intensive logging) in a bid to understand the general tree growth responses in relation to habitat characteristics in subtropical rainforests of north-eastern NSW, Australia. Species-specific regeneration strategy, maximum size and level of shade tolerance were used to classify species into five groups: emergent and shade tolerant main canopy (group 1), shade tolerant mid canopy (2), shade tolerant understoreys (3), moderate shade tolerant (4) and shade intolerant (5) tree species. Data series for trees ‗10 cm diameter at 1.3 m above the ground ...


Spiral And Interlocking Grain In Eucalyptus Dunnii, C Thinley, Graeme Palmer, Jerome K. Vanclay, Michael Henson Oct 2009

Spiral And Interlocking Grain In Eucalyptus Dunnii, C Thinley, Graeme Palmer, Jerome K. Vanclay, Michael Henson

Professor Jerome K Vanclay

Spiral grain in 181 trees from a 9-year-old plantationgrown Eucalyptus dunnii was normally distributed with mean −0.33 degrees (to the left) and standard deviation 1.7 degrees, and was affected by family and by crown asymmetry. Interlocking grain was common, exhibiting a mean amplitude of 3.4 degrees (standard deviation 1.5◦) and a mean wavelength of 39 mm (standard deviation 12 mm). The relatively large amplitude of interlocking grain means that most trees will have spiral grain that alternates between left and right during each year. The wavelength of interlocking grain is influenced by tree size, but amplitude ...


A Long And Winding Road: The Regulation Of Private Native Forestry In New South Wales, Australia, Jerome K. Vanclay, J Doland Nichols Oct 2009

A Long And Winding Road: The Regulation Of Private Native Forestry In New South Wales, Australia, Jerome K. Vanclay, J Doland Nichols

Professor Jerome K Vanclay

This special issue of Small-Scale Forestry is concerned with private native forestry (PNF) in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Private native forests comprise indigenous species in a semi-natural formation on privately owned land. Such forests are usually uneven-aged, and regenerated naturally rather than by sowing or planting. These forests are of major conservation and commercial importance in NSW, covering 8 M ha and comprising one-third of all native forest in the state (Thompson 2007). The management and harvesting of these forests is known as PNF, and has been the focus of public attention for several years, as the desirability and ...


The Mirror Effect, The Law Of Attraction, And "Points Of Attraction" That Can Nurture The Evolution Of Human Consciousness, Carroy U. Ferguson Jul 2009

The Mirror Effect, The Law Of Attraction, And "Points Of Attraction" That Can Nurture The Evolution Of Human Consciousness, Carroy U. Ferguson

Carroy U "Cuf" Ferguson, Ph.D.

This message has several purposes. First, I want to express my immense joy that Chip Baggett and I are serving as Co-Presidents of AHP since August 16, 2009. In my view, Chip and I are long-time friends, who have a transcendent connection and synergistic energies. My desire and intent is for our co-presidency to mirror the effect(s) of synergistic collaboration as a “point of attraction” that can assist in the evolution of human consciousness across often “perceived personal and societal boundaries” (e.g., race, culture, ethnicity, class, individual and collective belief systems, and dogma). More generally, however, this message ...


Varroa In The Aloha State, Tammy Horn Jun 2009

Varroa In The Aloha State, Tammy Horn

Tammy Horn

The Hawaiian word for fate is hopena, and since the early 1900s, it’s been a matter of hopena that Varroa mites would eventually come to the Islands. The inevitability increased in 2001 when APHIS/USDA forced Hawai’i to allow transshipments of queens and package bees from New Zealand to Canada to pass through its ports. Since Varroa arrived on Oahu in 2006 and on the Big Island in 2008, many agencies have been working together to create appropriate infrastructure to address the latest arrival. According to Hawai’i Department of Agriculture (HDOA) branch chief Neil Reimer, 'Before Varroa ...


Current Dietetic Practices Of Obesity Management In Saudi Arabia And Comparison With Australian Practices And Best Practice Criteria, A. Almajwal, P. Williams, Marijka Batterham Jun 2009

Current Dietetic Practices Of Obesity Management In Saudi Arabia And Comparison With Australian Practices And Best Practice Criteria, A. Almajwal, P. Williams, Marijka Batterham

Peter Williams

Objective: To describe the dietetic practices of the treatment of obesity in Saudi Arabia and compare this with best practice criteria and the practice in Australia. Methods: Anonymous questionnaires were completed by dietitians in Saudi Arabia. The topics included barriers to obesity management, demand and level of service and strategies and approaches used for weight management. Best practice scores were based on those used to assess Australian dietitians. Results: 253 dietitians participated in the survey. Of these, 175 (69 %) were involved in the management of obesity. The best practice score for Australian dietitians was slightly but significantly greater than the ...


Trends In The Affordability Of The Illawarra Healthy Food Basket 2000-2007, P. G. Williams, A. Hull, M. Kontos Jun 2009

Trends In The Affordability Of The Illawarra Healthy Food Basket 2000-2007, P. G. Williams, A. Hull, M. Kontos

Peter Williams

Aims
The Illawarra Healthy Food Basket (IHFB) was developed as one measure to monitor the affordability of healthy eating in Australia. It consists of 57 items selected to meet the nutritional requirements of a reference family of five. The basket was first costed in the Illawarra region of Australia in 2000 and again in 2001 and 2003. This study aimed to repeat the costing of the basket in 2005 and 2007 and to assess the trends in affordability since 2000.
Methods
Costing was carried out in the same five suburbs as previous surveys, utilising a large supermarket, greengrocer and butcher ...