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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Controlling Influenza A (H1n1) In China: Bayesian Or Frequentist Approach, Dejian Lai, Chiehwen Ed Hsu Jul 2009

Controlling Influenza A (H1n1) In China: Bayesian Or Frequentist Approach, Dejian Lai, Chiehwen Ed Hsu

Chiehwen Ed Hsu

In this article we discuss two approaches to controlling the newly identified influenza A (H1N1) via Bayesian and frequentist statistical reasoning. We reviewed the measures implemented in China as an example to illustrate these two approaches. Since May 2009, China has deployed strict controlling mechanisms based on the strong prior Bayesian assumption that the origin of influenza A (H1N1) was from outside China and as such strict border control would keep the virus from entering China. After more than two months of hard work by Chinese health professionals and officials, the number of confirmed influenza A (H1N1) has increased steadily ...


A Microwave Digestion Method For The Extraction Of Phytoliths From Herbarium Specimens, Jeffrey Parr, V Dolic, Graham Lancaster, William Boyd Jul 2009

A Microwave Digestion Method For The Extraction Of Phytoliths From Herbarium Specimens, Jeffrey Parr, V Dolic, Graham Lancaster, William Boyd

Jeffrey Parr

The extraction of phytoliths from herbarium and/or fresh plant material to obtain a suite of comparative reference samples is an essential component of palaeobotanical studies for the accurate interpretation of fossil phytolith assemblages. A number of established methods have been employed to extract phytoliths from plant material including dry ashing and acid digestion. However, while these methods produce good results, they can be time consuming and have the potential to produce results with some cross-contamination if not monitored closely. In this study, we trial an alternative method using microwave digestion, and compare the results to those produced using a ...


Soil Carbon Sequestration In Phytoliths, Jeffrey Parr, Leigh Sullivan Jul 2009

Soil Carbon Sequestration In Phytoliths, Jeffrey Parr, Leigh Sullivan

Jeffrey Parr

The role of the organic carbon occluded within phytoliths (referred to in this text as ‘PhytOC‘) in carbon sequestration in some soils is examined. The results show that PhytOC can be a substantial component of total organic carbon in soil. PhytOC is highly resistant to decomposition compared to other soil organic carbon components in the soil environments examined accounting for up to 82% of the total carbon in well-drained soils after 1000 years of organic matter decomposition. Estimated PhytOC accumulation rates were between 15 and 37% of the estimated global mean long-term (i.e. on a millenial scale) soil carbon ...


A Comparative Analysis Of Wet And Dry Ashing Techniques For The Extraction Of Phytoliths From Plant Material, Jeffrey Parr, Carol Lentfer, William Boyd Jul 2009

A Comparative Analysis Of Wet And Dry Ashing Techniques For The Extraction Of Phytoliths From Plant Material, Jeffrey Parr, Carol Lentfer, William Boyd

Jeffrey Parr

Two methods are commonly used for the extraction of phytoliths from plant material to be used as reference in the analysis of archaeological phytolith samples: (1) spodograms or dry ashings; and (2) acid digestions or wet ashing. It has been suggested that these techniques may modify the resultant samples in different ways. Dry ashing, in particular, has been implicated as a cause of shrinkage and warping in phytolith assemblages when incineration occurs at ≥450°C. The results of a morphometric comparative analysis between the dry ashing and wet ashing methods do not support these claims. This study establishes that differences ...


Sidewalks: Conflict And Negotiation Over Public Space, Anastasia Loukaitou-Sideris, Renia Ehrenfeucht Dec 2008

Sidewalks: Conflict And Negotiation Over Public Space, Anastasia Loukaitou-Sideris, Renia Ehrenfeucht

Renia Ehrenfeucht

No abstract provided.