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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Quantifying Nitrogen Cycling On Surface Mined Lands Using Natural Delta 15n Abundances And Fungal Relationships: An Exploratory Study, Alice Jones, Stephanie Jarvis, James Fox, Harold Rowe Oct 2009

Quantifying Nitrogen Cycling On Surface Mined Lands Using Natural Delta 15n Abundances And Fungal Relationships: An Exploratory Study, Alice Jones, Stephanie Jarvis, James Fox, Harold Rowe

Alice Jones

The use of isotopes to measure the role of mycorrhizal fungi in cycling nitrogen between soil and plants is applied to a reclaimed surface mine to illustrate the impact of surface mining on soil nutrient cycling in a terrestrial ecosystem. Isotopic relationships between soil, plants, and fungi were examined for a ~10 year old pitch pine reclaimed valley fill in Breathitt County, KY and for an undisturbed mixed mesophytic forest in Letcher County, KY. A quantitative inventory of sporocarps present, their size and substrate was performed at each site. Isotopic signatures of fungal and presumed substrate samples, dominant foliage samples ...


Metals Analysis As A Tool For Understanding Headwater Health And Stream Processes In The Southern Appalachian Coal Region: An Exploratory Analysis, Alice Jones, Lee Powell, James Fox Sep 2009

Metals Analysis As A Tool For Understanding Headwater Health And Stream Processes In The Southern Appalachian Coal Region: An Exploratory Analysis, Alice Jones, Lee Powell, James Fox

Alice Jones

Major and trace metal analysis was applied to four coal-country headwater streams to better understand the fate of metals in headwater streams affected by mining over time and to determine headwater health. The study watersheds were located in southeastern Kentucky and consisted of an active mine site, a site mined prior to the passage of the Surface Mine Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA), a post-SMCRA reclaimed mine site, and an undisturbed forest control site. Dissolved water metals and suspended sediment metals were sampled at each source, middle, and outlet. Samples were analyzed on an ICP-OES, and spatial trends ...


Budgeting Soil Carbon In The Clean Coal Discussion: Elemental And Isotopic Measurements And Modeling Of Soil Carbon Uptake On Reclaimed Mining Sites, Alice Jones, Peter Acton, James Fox, Harry Rowe, Darren Martin, Elliott Campbell Sep 2009

Budgeting Soil Carbon In The Clean Coal Discussion: Elemental And Isotopic Measurements And Modeling Of Soil Carbon Uptake On Reclaimed Mining Sites, Alice Jones, Peter Acton, James Fox, Harry Rowe, Darren Martin, Elliott Campbell

Alice Jones

While recent research has focused on the use of carbon capture and sequestration technology feasibility, less focus has been placed upon terrestrial carbon storage affected by coal mining in the context of the clean coal debate. Recent research has shown that the initial disturbance of soil and above-ground carbon pools caused by surface coal mining methods can produce a significant carbon loss from the terrestrial ecosystem, thus increasing the coal carbon footprint of coal. However there is a lack of information regarding the uptake of CO (sub 2) on reclaimed mining sites during re-growth and re-establishment of the soil carbon ...


The Microbial Pool And Soil Carbon Cycling On Reclaimed Surface Mine Sites, Alice Jones, Guy Evans, James Fox Sep 2009

The Microbial Pool And Soil Carbon Cycling On Reclaimed Surface Mine Sites, Alice Jones, Guy Evans, James Fox

Alice Jones

The southern Appalachian region is an important source of coal resources. The wide scale practice of surface mining in this region leads to the landscape-scale removal of surface material and soils, a large carbon reservoir and important component of the carbon cycle. To date, few scientific studies have examined the development of the soil carbon cycle on post-reclamation mine sites in this region. In particular, development of the microbial pool and its role in carbon cycling in post-reclamation mine soils remains poorly understood. This study measured microbial biomass and soil respiration, as well as bulk soil total organic carbon, total ...


Using Palaeobotanical Techniques To Guide Peatland Restoration. A Case Study From Byron Bay, Australia, Kathryn Taffs, Jeffrey Parr, Keith Bolton Jul 2009

Using Palaeobotanical Techniques To Guide Peatland Restoration. A Case Study From Byron Bay, Australia, Kathryn Taffs, Jeffrey Parr, Keith Bolton

Jeffrey Parr

No abstract provided.


Whether To Get An H1n1 Vaccination Or Not?, Chiehwen Ed Hsu May 2009

Whether To Get An H1n1 Vaccination Or Not?, Chiehwen Ed Hsu

Chiehwen Ed Hsu

In this interview Dr. Hsu provided public health informatics expertise to answer why or why not to receive H1N1 vaccination.


Swine Flu Myths - Experts Debunk Four Common Myths About Swine Flu, Chiehwen Ed Hsu May 2009

Swine Flu Myths - Experts Debunk Four Common Myths About Swine Flu, Chiehwen Ed Hsu

Chiehwen Ed Hsu

To date, no evidence has been found to link eating or handling pork to contracting swine flu. As the cases of the new swine flu virus continue to rise, so too do the misconceptions about the illness. "By eating pork or handling pork products you won't [contract] H1N1," said Ed Hsu, an associate professor of health informatics at the University of Texas Health Science Center and a contributor to ABC News's OnCall+ Swine Flu site. "There is no scientific evidence or literature or any studies that suggest that one contracts H1N1 virus through eating pork or handling pork ...


Should I Wear A Mask To Protect Myself From The Flu?, Chiehwen Ed Hsu May 2009

Should I Wear A Mask To Protect Myself From The Flu?, Chiehwen Ed Hsu

Chiehwen Ed Hsu

It depends. If you already have H1N1 virus infection, you are recommended to wear a mask just to prevent yourself from spreading the virus to others.


Can One Get H1n1 Flu (Swine Flu) From Eating Pork?, Chiehwen Ed Hsu May 2009

Can One Get H1n1 Flu (Swine Flu) From Eating Pork?, Chiehwen Ed Hsu

Chiehwen Ed Hsu

there is no literature (study) suggesting that human being would get swine flu by eating pork or handling raw pork. Usually, if you prepare or cook your pork/meat product above temperature 70C (160F) the temperature could kill most of the germs and viruses, including h1n1 virus


Swine Flu Vs. Bird Flu: Which Is The Greater Pandemic Threat? New Research Hints At Why Swine Flu Overshadows Bird Flu In Pandemic Potential, Chiehwen Ed Hsu May 2009

Swine Flu Vs. Bird Flu: Which Is The Greater Pandemic Threat? New Research Hints At Why Swine Flu Overshadows Bird Flu In Pandemic Potential, Chiehwen Ed Hsu

Chiehwen Ed Hsu

Ed Hsu, associate professor of public health informatics at the University of Texas School of Health Information Sciences and School of Public Health, agreed. "This study renders potential explanations for why Avian Flu virus does not effectively transmit from human to human -- an important indicator for raising pandemic level." Take, for example, the virulence of bird flu. Despite the relative paucity of human cases of bird flu among humans, Hsu said, 258 people have died since 2003 as a result of the bird flu virus -- a case fatality rate of more than 60 percent. "Once [bird flu] viruses get passed ...


2 Billion Infected? Who Stokes Swine Flu Fear, Chiehwen Ed Hsu May 2009

2 Billion Infected? Who Stokes Swine Flu Fear, Chiehwen Ed Hsu

Chiehwen Ed Hsu

One could reasonably question the reliability of WHO's statement of mass infection," he said. "By making such statement without strong backing WHO may risk putting its accountability on the line. "I think that WHO could serve the world health better by providing a more evidence-based, sensible 'benchmark' of H1N1 infection," said Ed Hsu, associate professor of public health informatics at the University of Texas School of Health Information Sciences and School of Public Health. He argued that the 2 billion figure, based on past pandemics, does not take into account recent public health improvements. Moreover, his own research has ...


Swine Flu Likely To Return To U.S. Next Winter - Experts Can't Predict Whether It Will Be More Virulent Or Not, Chiehwen Ed Hsu May 2009

Swine Flu Likely To Return To U.S. Next Winter - Experts Can't Predict Whether It Will Be More Virulent Or Not, Chiehwen Ed Hsu

Chiehwen Ed Hsu

explained C. Ed Hsu, an associate professor of public health informatics at the University of Texas School of Health Information Sciences at Houston and associate director of health informatics at the Center for Biosecurity and Public Health Preparedness at the University of Texas School of Public Health. "How and when the flu spreads is dependent on other factors as well: the fitness and efficiency of the virus itself along with its innate ability to replicate; the susceptibility of the host; and the environment, which includes not only the weather, but also human behavior (for example, groups of people confined together ...


Flu Experts Debate Potential Number Of H1n1 Infections Worldwide, Chiehwen Ed Hsu Apr 2009

Flu Experts Debate Potential Number Of H1n1 Infections Worldwide, Chiehwen Ed Hsu

Chiehwen Ed Hsu

According to ABC News. "I think that WHO could serve the world health better by providing a more evidence-based, sensible 'benchmark' of H1N1 infection," said Ed Hsu, associate professor of public health informatics at the University of Texas School of Health Information Sciences and School of Public Health. Hsu said that while the WHO's estimates are grounded in historic data, they fail to consider improvement in public health, and his research shows signs that the numbers of swine flu infections in the U.S. are stabilizing. "One could reasonably question the reliability of WHO's statement of mass infection ...


Protecting The Young From Pandemic Flu., Chiehwen Ed Hsu Apr 2009

Protecting The Young From Pandemic Flu., Chiehwen Ed Hsu

Chiehwen Ed Hsu

whether these past findings will be borne out with this new virus have yet to be seen, warns Ed Hsu, associate professor at the University of Texas School of Health Information Sciences and School of Public Health. "We may need another week until the H1N1 outbreak runs the full course of its incubation and infectivity period," he said. "By this weekend we should have enough data to make some meaningful inferences from worldwide distribution of the disease, including susceptibility or vulnerability by age over time."


Cautious Optimism On Swine Flu?, Chiehwen Ed Hsu Apr 2009

Cautious Optimism On Swine Flu?, Chiehwen Ed Hsu

Chiehwen Ed Hsu

"I'm cautiously optimistic that we will begin seeing a decline in swine flu cases by mid-May or in a couple of weeks," said C. Ed Hsu, director of Preventive Health Informatics and SpaTial Analysis at the University of Texas Health Science Center


Swine Flu -- Answers To Your Questions., Chiehwen Ed Hsu Apr 2009

Swine Flu -- Answers To Your Questions., Chiehwen Ed Hsu

Chiehwen Ed Hsu

Ed Hsu from the University of Texas predicts a rise in cases over the next week followed by a sharp decline thereafter: “Based on the analysis of the SARS data … and our analysis of worldwide H5N1 data, if the trends hold true for H1N1 [swine flu], we will see substantial increase …next week through early May. However, again if the trends hold true, we can also reasonably expect the cases will go down dramatically beginning the week after (i.e., week of 5/3). Note that the rise in cases in next week is normal and expected …Next week will ...


Public Health Informatics Perspective On Swine Flu, Chiehwen Ed Hsu Apr 2009

Public Health Informatics Perspective On Swine Flu, Chiehwen Ed Hsu

Chiehwen Ed Hsu

Despite the action being taken by national and international health organizations, some infectious disease experts, including Ed Hsu, say it is far too early to fear the worst -- a global flu pandemic.


Federal Disaster Relief In The U.S.: The Role Of Political Partisanship And Preference In Presidential Disaster Declarations And Turndowns, Richard Salkowe, Jayajit Chakraborty Mar 2009

Federal Disaster Relief In The U.S.: The Role Of Political Partisanship And Preference In Presidential Disaster Declarations And Turndowns, Richard Salkowe, Jayajit Chakraborty

Richard Steven Salkowe

Federal disaster declarations are authorized by the president under the provisions of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act of 1988 (the Stafford Act). Previous studies pertaining to presidential disaster declarations have found varying levels of political influence associated with the declaration process. Factors including electoral votes, reelection years, congressional committee appointments, geographic location, and party favoritism have been implicated in the selective approval capacity that is designated to the president in issuing federal disaster declarations.

This article aims to provide a comparative analysis of emergency and major disaster declaration requests under the Stafford Act from 1989-2005 ...


Pervasive Location Tracking: A Privacy Protection Perspective, Harlan Onsrud Mar 2009

Pervasive Location Tracking: A Privacy Protection Perspective, Harlan Onsrud

Harlan J Onsrud

A laudable goal of ubiquitous computing is to enhance our day-to-day living by invisibly embedding sensors and computing platforms in our stationary and mobile surroundings. Sensors being developed and deployed within distributed computing networks include those able to see (ranging from automated detection of light to identification of specific individuals and objects), hear (detection of specific sounds to transcribing language), smell (detection of specific gases), feel (detection of specific motions, temperature, humidity, etc) and communicate. Sensors in and on our bodies will communicate through our phones, cars, offices, homes, transportation infrastructure, and with objects along our travel paths. Numerous visions ...


Book Review: The Great Warming: Climate Change And The Rise And Fall Of Civilizations, James Fleming Feb 2009

Book Review: The Great Warming: Climate Change And The Rise And Fall Of Civilizations, James Fleming

James R. Fleming

No abstract provided.


Creative Commons Licensing And Non-Creative Geographic Data, Harlan Onsrud Jan 2009

Creative Commons Licensing And Non-Creative Geographic Data, Harlan Onsrud

Harlan J Onsrud

Why does the scientific community need a simple method for letting each of us know that we are allowed legally to build on the work and data products of each other without asking permission? Does merely following the traditional practices of science and giving credit now make me a lawbreaker? What's the problem, how did we get here and what's the solution? Why does the solution for creative works not apply to geographic and other utilitarian data and databases? This presentation addresses these questions and approaches for arriving at solutions.


Environmental Challenges And Opportunities: Local-Global Perspectives On Canadian Issues, Christopher Gore, Peter Stoett Dec 2008

Environmental Challenges And Opportunities: Local-Global Perspectives On Canadian Issues, Christopher Gore, Peter Stoett

Christopher D Gore

No abstract provided.


Local Government Responses To Climate Change: Our Last, Best Hope?, Christopher Gore, Pamela Robinson Dec 2008

Local Government Responses To Climate Change: Our Last, Best Hope?, Christopher Gore, Pamela Robinson

Christopher D Gore

No abstract provided.


Perceptions Of Neighborhood Disorder: The Role Of Individual And Neighborhood Characteristics., Rachel Margolis, Irma Elo, Laryssa Mykyta, Jennifer Culhane Dec 2008

Perceptions Of Neighborhood Disorder: The Role Of Individual And Neighborhood Characteristics., Rachel Margolis, Irma Elo, Laryssa Mykyta, Jennifer Culhane

Rachel Margolis

Objectives. The study of neighborhood effects on health and well-being has regained prominence in recent years. Most authors have relied on Census data and other administrative data sources to assess neighborhood characteristics. Less commonly employed, but gaining in popularity, are measures from surveys that ask neighborhood residents about various aspects of their neighborhood environment. Such surveys are a potentially attractive alternative or augmentation to administrative data sources. Methods. Using data from a study of neighborhood effects on pregnancy outcomes among low-income, inner-city women in Philadelphia, PA (N=3,988), we examined psychometric and ecometric properties of scales used to assess ...