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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Do Citizens Know Whether Their State Has Decriminalized Marijuana? Assessing The Perceptual Component Of Deterrence Theory, Robert Maccoun, Rosalie Pacula, Jamie Chriqui, Katherine Harris, Peter Reuter Dec 2015

Do Citizens Know Whether Their State Has Decriminalized Marijuana? Assessing The Perceptual Component Of Deterrence Theory, Robert Maccoun, Rosalie Pacula, Jamie Chriqui, Katherine Harris, Peter Reuter

Robert MacCoun

Deterrence theory proposes that legal compliance is influenced by the anticipated risk of legal sanctions. This implies that changes in law will produce corresponding changes in behavior, but the marijuana decriminalization literature finds only fragmentary support for this prediction. But few studies have directly assessed the accuracy of citizens’ perceptions of legal sanctions. The heterogeneity in state statutory penalties for marijuana possession across the United States provides an opportunity to examine this issue. Using national survey data, we find that the percentages who believe they could be jailed for marijuana possession are quite similar in both states that have removed ...


Selection Bias In College Admissions Test Scores, Jesse Rothstein, Melissa Clark, Diane Schanzenbach Apr 2012

Selection Bias In College Admissions Test Scores, Jesse Rothstein, Melissa Clark, Diane Schanzenbach

Diane Whitmore Schanzenbach

Data from college admissions tests can provide a valuable measure of student achievement, but the non-representativeness of test-takers is an important concern. We examine selectivity bias in both state-level and school-level SAT and ACT averages. The degree of selectivity may differ importantly across and within schools, and across and within states. To identify within-state selectivity, we use a control function approach that conditions on scores from a representative test. Estimates indicate strong selectivity of test-takers in "ACT states," where most college- bound students take the ACT, and much less selectivity in SAT states. To identify within- and between-school selectivity, we ...


What Code-Mixed Dps Can Tell Us About Gender, Elena Valenzuela, Joyce Bruhn De Garavito, Ewelina Barski, Maria De Luna Villalón, Ana Faure, Yolanda Pangtay, Alma Ramírez Trujillo, Sonia Reis Oct 2011

What Code-Mixed Dps Can Tell Us About Gender, Elena Valenzuela, Joyce Bruhn De Garavito, Ewelina Barski, Maria De Luna Villalón, Ana Faure, Yolanda Pangtay, Alma Ramírez Trujillo, Sonia Reis

Ewelina Barski, PhD

There has been a growing interest in the examination of the steady state of simultaneous bilinguals. An understanding of what leads to the possible weaknesses in the grammar of early bilinguals can contribute to our understanding of the possible causes of the apparent characteristic ‘failures’ in second language acquisition (Montrul 2008). Spanish has a gender feature for nouns (Carroll 1989) and gender agreement for determiners and adjectives. Problems with the acquisition of gender marking on the noun and/or with gender agreement are well-known in the L2 literature (Hawkins 1998; Fernández–Garcia 1999; Franceschina 2001; Bruhn de Garavito and White ...


What Code-Mixed Dps Can Tell Us About Gender, Elena Valenzuela, Joyce Bruhn De Garavito, Ewelina Barski, Maria De Luna Villalón, Ana Faure, Yolanda Pangtay, Alma Ramírez Trujillo, Sonia Reis Jun 2010

What Code-Mixed Dps Can Tell Us About Gender, Elena Valenzuela, Joyce Bruhn De Garavito, Ewelina Barski, Maria De Luna Villalón, Ana Faure, Yolanda Pangtay, Alma Ramírez Trujillo, Sonia Reis

Joyce Bruhn de Garavito

There has been a growing interest in the examination of the steady state of simultaneous bilinguals. An understanding of what leads to the possible weaknesses in the grammar of early bilinguals can contribute to our understanding of the possible causes of the apparent characteristic ‘failures’ in second language acquisition (Montrul 2008). Spanish has a gender feature for nouns (Carroll 1989) and gender agreement for determiners and adjectives. Problems with the acquisition of gender marking on the noun and/or with gender agreement are well-known in the L2 literature (Hawkins 1998; Fernández–Garcia 1999; Franceschina 2001; Bruhn de Garavito and White ...


Prediction Markets To Forecast Electricity Demand, Peter Cramton, Luciano De Castro Mar 2010

Prediction Markets To Forecast Electricity Demand, Peter Cramton, Luciano De Castro

Luciano I. de Castro

Forecasting electricity demand for future years is an essential step in resource planning. A common approach is for the system operator to predict future demand from the estimates of individual distribution companies. However, the predictions thus obtained may be of poor quality, since the reporting incentives are unclear. We propose a prediction market as a form of forecasting future demand for electricity. We describe how to implement a simple prediction market for continuous variables, using only contracts based on binary variables. We also discuss specific issues concerning the implementation of such a market.


Structure And Behavior: Experiments In Social Sciences, Shyam Sunder Dec 2009

Structure And Behavior: Experiments In Social Sciences, Shyam Sunder

Shyam Sunder

No abstract provided.


Default Penalty As A Disciplinary And Selection Mechanism In Presence Of Multiple Equilibria., Shyam Sunder Dec 2009

Default Penalty As A Disciplinary And Selection Mechanism In Presence Of Multiple Equilibria., Shyam Sunder

Shyam Sunder

No abstract provided.


Structure And Behavior: Experiments In Social Sciences, Shyam Sunder Dec 2009

Structure And Behavior: Experiments In Social Sciences, Shyam Sunder

Shyam Sunder

No abstract provided.


Default Penalty As A Disciplinary And Selection Mechanism In Presence Of Multiple Equilibria, Shyam Sunder Dec 2009

Default Penalty As A Disciplinary And Selection Mechanism In Presence Of Multiple Equilibria, Shyam Sunder

Shyam Sunder

No abstract provided.


Stem Cell Matching For Patients Of Mixed Race, Ted C. Bergstrom Dec 2009

Stem Cell Matching For Patients Of Mixed Race, Ted C. Bergstrom

Ted C Bergstrom

Patients with leukemia and other blood diseases stand a good chance of recovery and a return to normal life if they receive a stem cell transplant from a living donor. In the absence of a transplant, their survival prospects are grim. For a transplant to be successful, the human leukocyte antigens (HLA) of the donor and recipient must be a close genetic match. To facilitate non-sibling matches, the developed nations of the world have set up national volunteer registries. The larges such registry is the NMDP (National Marrow Donor Program). We estimate the distribution of HLA types for individuals of ...


Freakonomics: Steven Levitt, Alfredo Bateman Dec 2009

Freakonomics: Steven Levitt, Alfredo Bateman

Alfredo Bateman

No abstract provided.


Towards Extending The Equilibrium Of Discrimination In The Internet To Its Fringes, Matthias Bärwolff Dec 2009

Towards Extending The Equilibrium Of Discrimination In The Internet To Its Fringes, Matthias Bärwolff

Matthias Bärwolff

The core insight to the history of the dynamics of limitations, restrictions, and discriminations on the Internet is that they are largely a corollary to the futility of obtaining an entirely 'neutral' design of the Internet that is both robust and scalable. The question then is how to arrange the necessary volume of discriminations so as to obtain a design as value free as possible, for only such a design can be in line with the premise of stipulating no values other than (1) good order at large, and (2) the appreciation of the pursuit of local purposes by individuals ...


Separate And Unequal: The Effect Of Unequal Access To Employment-Based Health Insurance On Gay, Lesbian, And Bisexual People, Michael A. Ash, Lee Badgett Dec 2009

Separate And Unequal: The Effect Of Unequal Access To Employment-Based Health Insurance On Gay, Lesbian, And Bisexual People, Michael A. Ash, Lee Badgett

Lee Badgett

Employers’ standard practice of including legal spouses in health insurance is likely to place people in unmarried couples at a significant disadvantage for obtaining coverage. Data from married and unmarried couples in the Current Population Survey confirm that people with unmarried partners are two to three times more likely to lack health insurance than are people in married couples, even after controlling for factors that influence coverage. A requirement to provide the same benefits for partners as are provided to spouses would reduce the proportion of uninsured people in same-sex couples and different-sex couples by as much as 50%. We ...


Green Economics And Employment: Possibilities For Massachusetts, Robert Pollin Dec 2009

Green Economics And Employment: Possibilities For Massachusetts, Robert Pollin

Robert N Pollin

No abstract provided.


Green Recovery Since The American Recovery And Reinvestment Act (Arra), Robert Pollin Dec 2009

Green Recovery Since The American Recovery And Reinvestment Act (Arra), Robert Pollin

Robert N Pollin

No abstract provided.


Who Is Responsible For The C-N-T Equation, Shyam Sunder Dec 2009

Who Is Responsible For The C-N-T Equation, Shyam Sunder

Shyam Sunder

No abstract provided.


How Demanding Should Equality Of Opportunity Be, And How Much Have We Achieved?, Valentino Dardanoni, Gary S. Fields, John E. Roemer, Maria Laura Sánchez Puerta Dec 2009

How Demanding Should Equality Of Opportunity Be, And How Much Have We Achieved?, Valentino Dardanoni, Gary S. Fields, John E. Roemer, Maria Laura Sánchez Puerta

Gary S Fields

[Excerpt] This chapter proposes tests of various notions of equality of opportunity and applies them to intergenerational income data for the United States and Britain. Agreement is widespread that equality of opportunity holds in a society if the chances that individuals have to succeed depend only on their own efforts and not on extraneous circumstances that may inhibit or expand those chances. What is contentious, however, is what constitutes "effort" and "circumstances." Most people, we think, would say that the social connections of an individual's parents would be included among circumstances: equality of opportunity is incomplete if some individuals ...


Organizational Values, Social Responsibility, And Corporate Citizenship: The Case Of Nevada State College, Grace S. Thomson Dec 2009

Organizational Values, Social Responsibility, And Corporate Citizenship: The Case Of Nevada State College, Grace S. Thomson

Dr. Grace S. Thomson

Organizational Values, Social Responsibility, and Corporate Citizenship Organizations contribute more than products and services to the society. The generation of jobs, creation of wealth and satisfaction of needs are only a portion of the influence that organizations have in a community. Likewise, organizations are increasingly engaging in social responsible initiatives to respond to the concerns of their various stakeholders (Aguilera, Rupp, Williams, & Ganapathi, 2007). Organizations with a genuine interest for social responsibility and citizenship possess value systems that articulate and integrate these social motives into their corporate strategy (Graber & Kilpatrick, 2008). Higher education institutions in the United States face the ...


The Brazilian Consensus, Andrea P. Pradilla Dec 2009

The Brazilian Consensus, Andrea P. Pradilla

Andrea P Pradilla

No abstract provided.


Modeling Labor Market Policy In Developing Countries: A Selective Review Of The Literature And Needs For The Future, Gary S. Fields Dec 2009

Modeling Labor Market Policy In Developing Countries: A Selective Review Of The Literature And Needs For The Future, Gary S. Fields

Gary S Fields

[Excerpt] Sound labor market policy requires sound labor market models. Sound models have three characteristics. First, from a welfare economic point of view, the policy judgments are explicit, mutually consistent, and thoroughly worked out. Second, from a theoretical point of view, the models are sufficiently detailed and suitably rigorous. And third, from an empirical point of view, the models guide and are guided by solid quantitative evidence. This paper reviews models of labor markets in developing countries from both a positive and a normative point of view. The survey is selective in that it exposits only some of the more ...


A Public Lecture: Labour Markets And Economic Development, Gary S. Fields Dec 2009

A Public Lecture: Labour Markets And Economic Development, Gary S. Fields

Gary S Fields

[Excerpt] I want to put forward three propositions to you based on decades of work in Asia, Latin America, and Africa. First, economic development can be (but need not be) a win-win-win situation - for businesses, for individuals and groups of individuals, and for governments and non- governmental organisations (NGOs). Second, the labour market can (but need not) serve as an effective mechanism for contributing to economic growth and for transmitting the gains from economic growth. And third, in both of these areas, whether a country experiences the more favorable set of outcomes or the less favorable ones reflects a) its ...


For Both Love And Money: Viviana Zelizer's "The Purchase Of Intimacy", Martha M. Ertman Dec 2009

For Both Love And Money: Viviana Zelizer's "The Purchase Of Intimacy", Martha M. Ertman

Martha M. Ertman

Viviana Zelizer’s recent book, The Purchase of Intimacy (2005) presents an innovative theory of how social and legal actors negotiate rights and obligations when money changes hands in intimate relationships--a perspective that could change how we understand many things, from valuations of homemaking labor to the 9/11 Victim Compensation Fund. This essay describes Zelizer’s critique of the reductionist “Hostile Worlds” and “Nothing But” approaches to economic exchange in intimate relationships, then explains her more three-dimensional approach, “Connected Lives.” While Zelizer focuses on family law, the essay goes beyond that context, extending Zelizer’s approach to transfers of ...


Chinese Investment In Ethiopia: Devlopmental Opportunity Or Deepening China's New Mercantilism?, Asayehgn Desta Nov 2009

Chinese Investment In Ethiopia: Devlopmental Opportunity Or Deepening China's New Mercantilism?, Asayehgn Desta

Asayehgn Desta

The political warfare theorists argue that the so-called \"cooperative\" investments undertaken by China in Africa are devastating and exploitative. In contrast, the position of the South-South Cooperative school of thought stresses that China's increased aid, trade, and investment in Africa is a means to foster Africa's self-sufficiency and sustainable development in the 21st century. Before romanticizing on illusion, the two schools of thought need to be tested empirically. The empirical part of this study attempts to advance the understanding and rationalization of the various Chinese investments in Ethiopia. More specifically, the central motive of this study was to ...


Explaining Commercial Rents In Major U.S. Metropolitan Areas Using An Error Correction Model With Panel Data, Maria R. Ibanez Nov 2009

Explaining Commercial Rents In Major U.S. Metropolitan Areas Using An Error Correction Model With Panel Data, Maria R. Ibanez

Maria Ibanez

This project presents rent models for flexible, industrial, retail and office properties in the Unites States. Panel data are used covering the largest fifty metropolitan areas in the U.S. for 27 years (1982-2009) to analyze the determinants of rents.


On The Rise Of Health Spending And Longevity, Raquel Fonseca, Pierre-Carl Michaud, Titus Galama, Arie Kapteyn Nov 2009

On The Rise Of Health Spending And Longevity, Raquel Fonseca, Pierre-Carl Michaud, Titus Galama, Arie Kapteyn

Titus Galama

We use a calibrated stochastic life-cycle model of endogenous health spending, asset accumulation and retirement to investigate the causes behind the increase in health spending and life expectancy over the period 1965-2005. We estimate that technological change along with the increase in the generosity of health insurance may explain independently 53% of the rise in health spending (insurance 29% and technology 24%) while income less than 10%. By simultaneously occurring over this period, these changes may have lead to a “synergy” or interaction effect which helps explain an additional 37% increase in health spending. We estimate that technological change, taking ...


Re-Visioning The Future Of Work: Towards A New Mindset, Colin C. Williams Nov 2009

Re-Visioning The Future Of Work: Towards A New Mindset, Colin C. Williams

Colin C Williams

No abstract provided.


Dualism In The Labor Market: A Perspective On The Lewis Model After Half A Century, Gary S. Fields Nov 2009

Dualism In The Labor Market: A Perspective On The Lewis Model After Half A Century, Gary S. Fields

Gary S Fields

This paper asks how the Lewis model might be viewed from the perspective of economic science half a century later. Many of the core propositions remain intact, some might be amplified, and a small number might be revised.


Household Income Dynamics: A Four Country Story, Gary S. Fields, Paul L. Cichello, Samuel Freije, Marta Menéndez, David Newhouse Nov 2009

Household Income Dynamics: A Four Country Story, Gary S. Fields, Paul L. Cichello, Samuel Freije, Marta Menéndez, David Newhouse

Gary S Fields

[Excerpt] In this paper, we analyse the dynamics of household per capita incomes using longitudinal data from Indonesia, South Africa, Spain and Venezuela. We find that in all four countries reported initial income and job changes of the head are consistently the most important variables in accounting for income changes, overall and for initially poor households. We also find that changes in income are more important than changes in household size and that changes in labour earnings are more important than changes in other sources of household income.


Msc. Thesis Defence, Johansein L. Rutaihwa Mr. Nov 2009

Msc. Thesis Defence, Johansein L. Rutaihwa Mr.

Johansein Rutaihwa

No abstract provided.


Proposals For Effectively Regulating The U.S. Financial System To Avoid Yet Another Meltdown, James Crotty, Gerald Epstein Nov 2009

Proposals For Effectively Regulating The U.S. Financial System To Avoid Yet Another Meltdown, James Crotty, Gerald Epstein

Gerald A. Epstein

It is now clear that we are in the midst of the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression. This crisis is the latest phase of the evolution of financial markets under the radical financial deregulation process that began in the late 1970s. This evolution has taken the form of cycles in which deregulation accompanied by rapid financial innovation stimulates powerful financial booms that end in crises. Governments respond to crises with bailouts that allow new expansions to begin. As a result, financial markets have become ever large and financial crises have become more threatening to society, which forces governments ...