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Articles 1 - 18 of 18

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Stratospheric Polar Vortex Variability In The Northern Hemisphere: The Effects Of Climate Change On Polar Vortex Trends And Future Projections, John Earl Rogers Mar 2019

Stratospheric Polar Vortex Variability In The Northern Hemisphere: The Effects Of Climate Change On Polar Vortex Trends And Future Projections, John Earl Rogers

Dissertations and Theses

Regions that have experienced recent successive cold winters such as the Northeast of North America and Siberia have endured critical social and economic impacts from anomalous low temperatures in recent years, despite warming global temperatures. It is well known that the Tropospheric Polar Vortex (TPV), or jet stream, is a primary influence on many mid-latitude winter weather patterns. However, the strong circumpolar westerlies that maximize at around 60° latitude just above the tropopause, known as the Stratospheric Polar Vortex (SPV), can affect tropospheric circulation and thus winter weather in the Northern Hemisphere. Strong upward propagating waves can affect the geographic ...


A Comparison Of Neighborhood-Scale Interventions To Alleviate Urban Heat In Doha, Qatar, Salim Ferwati, Cynthia Skelhorn, Vivek Shandas, Yasuyo Makido Jan 2019

A Comparison Of Neighborhood-Scale Interventions To Alleviate Urban Heat In Doha, Qatar, Salim Ferwati, Cynthia Skelhorn, Vivek Shandas, Yasuyo Makido

Urban Studies and Planning Faculty Publications and Presentations

Recent evidence suggests that many densely populated areas of the world will be uninhabitable in the coming century due to the depletion of resources, climate change, and increasing urbanization. This poses serious questions regarding the actions that require immediate attention, and opportunities to stave off massive losses of infrastructure, populations, and financial investments. The present study utilizes microclimate modeling to examine the role of landscape features as they affect ambient temperatures in one of the fastest growing regions of the world: Doha, Qatar. By modeling three study sites around Doha—one highly urbanized, one newly urbanizing, and one coastal low-density ...


More Than The Sum Of Its Parts: How Disturbance Interactions Shape Forest Dynamics Under Climate Change, Melissa S. Lucash, Robert M. Scheller, Brian R. Sturtevant, Eric J. Gustafson, Alec M. Kretchun, Jane R. Foster Jun 2018

More Than The Sum Of Its Parts: How Disturbance Interactions Shape Forest Dynamics Under Climate Change, Melissa S. Lucash, Robert M. Scheller, Brian R. Sturtevant, Eric J. Gustafson, Alec M. Kretchun, Jane R. Foster

Geography Faculty Publications and Presentations

Interactions among disturbances are seldom quantified, and how they will be affected by climate change is even more uncertain. In this study, we sought to better understand how interactions among disturbances shift under climate change by applying a process-based landscape disturbance and succession model (LANDIS-II) to project disturbance regimes under climate change in north-central Minnesota, USA. Specifically, we (1) contrasted mortality rates and the extent of disturbance for four individual (single) disturbance regimes (fire, insects, wind, or forest management) vs. all four disturbance regimes operating simultaneously (concurrent) under multiple climate change scenarios and (2) determined how climate change interacts with ...


An Analysis Of The Optimal Mix Of Global Energy Resources And The Potential Need For Geoengineering Using The Ceagom Model, John George Anasis, M. A. K. Khalil, George G. Lendaris, Christopher L. Butenhoff, Randall Bluffstone Oct 2017

An Analysis Of The Optimal Mix Of Global Energy Resources And The Potential Need For Geoengineering Using The Ceagom Model, John George Anasis, M. A. K. Khalil, George G. Lendaris, Christopher L. Butenhoff, Randall Bluffstone

Systems Science Faculty Publications and Presentations

Humanity faces tremendous challenges as a result of anthropogenic climate change caused by greenhouse gas emissions. The mix of resources deployed in order to meet the energy needs of a growing global population is key to addressing the climate change issue. The goal of this research is to examine the optimal mix of energy resources that should be deployed to meet a forecast global energy demand while still meeting desired climate targets. The research includes the unique feature of examining the role that geoengineering can play in this optimization. The results show that some form of geoengineering is likely to ...


Using Stories, Narratives, And Storytelling In Energy And Climate Change Research, Mithra Moezzi, Kathryn B. Janda, Sea Rotmann Aug 2017

Using Stories, Narratives, And Storytelling In Energy And Climate Change Research, Mithra Moezzi, Kathryn B. Janda, Sea Rotmann

Urban Studies and Planning Faculty Publications and Presentations

Energy and climate change research has been dominated by particular methods and approaches to defining and addressing problems, accomplished by gathering and analysing the corresponding forms of evidence. This special issue starts from the broad concepts of stories, narratives, and storytelling to go beyond these analytic conventions, approaching the intersection of nature, humanity, and technology in multiple ways, using lenses from social sciences, humanities, and practitioners’ perspectives. The contributors use stories as data objects to gather, analyse, and critique; stories as an approach to research an inquiry; narrative analysis as a way of crystallising arguments and assumptions; and storytelling as ...


Behavioral Perspectives On Home Energy Audits: The Role Of Auditors, Labels, Reports, And Audit Tools On Homeowner Decision-Making, Aaron Ingle, Mithra Moezzi, Loren Lutzenhiser, Zachary Lawrence Hathaway, Susan Lutzenhiser, Joe Van Clock, Jane Peters, Rebecca Smith, David Heslam, Richard Diamond Jul 2012

Behavioral Perspectives On Home Energy Audits: The Role Of Auditors, Labels, Reports, And Audit Tools On Homeowner Decision-Making, Aaron Ingle, Mithra Moezzi, Loren Lutzenhiser, Zachary Lawrence Hathaway, Susan Lutzenhiser, Joe Van Clock, Jane Peters, Rebecca Smith, David Heslam, Richard Diamond

Center for Urban Studies Publications and Reports

Our study focused on the perspective of homeowner decision-making in response to home energy audits, combined with attention to the quality of the recommendations that homeowners receive, as well as the perspectives of some key industry actors on auditing and home energy labels. Unlike a program evaluation, the research was not designed to answer detailed questions about program effectiveness in terms of costs, savings, or process, nor was it designed to provide direct answers to questions of how to get people to do more audits or more retrofits. Rather it “steps back” toward a better understanding of more basic questions ...


Lifestyles, Buildings And Technologies: What Matters Most?, Loren Lutzenhiser, Huafen Hu, Mithra Moezzi, Anthony Michael Levenda, James Woods Jan 2012

Lifestyles, Buildings And Technologies: What Matters Most?, Loren Lutzenhiser, Huafen Hu, Mithra Moezzi, Anthony Michael Levenda, James Woods

Center for Urban Studies Publications and Reports

There is considerable variation across households in energy use, even within similar climates and housing styles. There is also considerable variation in energy savings following upgrades of housing and appliances. We combine empirical data on household consumption with advanced simulation modeling techniques to investigate just how much behavior matters in determining consumption levels. compared to weather, technology and building characteristics. We explore several new concepts, including the BETA (building, environment, technology, activity) Model of household energy use, a habitation zone approach that can be used to differentiate BETA effects, and a hybrid (simulation/ statistical) end-use consumption analysis approach. For illustrative ...


How Well Do Home Energy Audits Serve The Homeowner?, Aaron Ingle, Mithra Moezzi, Loren Lutzenhiser, Richard Diamond Jan 2012

How Well Do Home Energy Audits Serve The Homeowner?, Aaron Ingle, Mithra Moezzi, Loren Lutzenhiser, Richard Diamond

Center for Urban Studies Publications and Reports

Home energy audits administered by utilities and government typically provide homeowners with lists of technical upgrade recommendations intended to increase the technical energy efficiency of the house. Audits proceed with assessment of physical characteristics, subsequently processed with a computational model and transformed into a report, sometimes customized by the auditor. While the design of an energy audit reflects program and policy points of view – balancing program cost with expected program savings, educating people about the value of energy efficiency, etc. – it is crucial to consider the criteria for a good home energy audit and recommendations from homeowners’ points of view ...


Changing Climate, Changing Behavior: An Interview With Angus Duncan, Michael Burnham Jan 2012

Changing Climate, Changing Behavior: An Interview With Angus Duncan, Michael Burnham

Institute of Portland Metropolitan Studies Publications

In a 2010 report, the Oregon Legislature-created Oregon Global Warming Commission (OGWC) stated "with confidence" that human activities were primarily responsible for a 1.5 degree Fahrenheit increase in 20th century temperatures in the Pacific Northwest. Transportation and electricity were responsible for about 70 percent of Oregon's greenhouse gas emissions during the 2003-2007 period of study, while agriculture, waste, combustion, leakage, and other sources were responsible for the balance of emissions. Metroscape's Michael Burnham sat down with OGWC Chairman Angus Duncan recently to discuss the commission's work and how a warming world might affect the metropolitan Portland ...


Future Flooding Impacts On Transportation Infrastructure And Traffic Patterns Resulting From Climate Change, Heejun Chang, Martin Lafrenz, Il-Won Jung, Miguel A. Figliozzi, Rolando Melgoza, David Ruelas, Deena Platman, Cindy Pederson Nov 2011

Future Flooding Impacts On Transportation Infrastructure And Traffic Patterns Resulting From Climate Change, Heejun Chang, Martin Lafrenz, Il-Won Jung, Miguel A. Figliozzi, Rolando Melgoza, David Ruelas, Deena Platman, Cindy Pederson

Geography Faculty Publications and Presentations

This study investigated potential impacts of climate change on travel disruption resulting from road closures in two urban watersheds in the Portland metropolitan area. We used ensemble climate change scenarios, a hydrologic model, stream channel survey, a hydraulic model, and a travel forecast model to develop an integrated impact assessment method. High-resolution climate change scenarios are based on the combinations of two emission scenarios and eight general circulation models. The Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System was calibrated and validated for the period 1988-2006, and simulated for determining the probability of floods from 2020-2049. We surveyed stream cross sections at five road crossings ...


Sticky Points In Modeling Household Energy Consumption, Loren Lutzenhiser, Mithra Moezzi, David Hungerford, Rafael Friedmann Jan 2010

Sticky Points In Modeling Household Energy Consumption, Loren Lutzenhiser, Mithra Moezzi, David Hungerford, Rafael Friedmann

Center for Urban Studies Publications and Reports

A variety of approaches have been proposed to explaining individual household energy consumption, its variation, and its potential reduction. Some focus on technology, some on costs, and some on a combination of behaviors, attitudes, intentions, and norms. All try to make sense of a problem that, from a modeling perspective, involves hundreds of potentially important factors, yet is supported by highly inadequate or at best selective data. While there is value in "doing the best one can" with the resources at hand, building a defensible science requires a cold hard look at the quality of theory, research and data. This ...


What’S Missing In Theories Of The Residential Energy User, Mithra Moezzi, Loren Lutzenhiser Jan 2010

What’S Missing In Theories Of The Residential Energy User, Mithra Moezzi, Loren Lutzenhiser

Center for Urban Studies Publications and Reports

Residential energy use has been envisioned in varied ways, each highlighting different factors and capturing a partial truth. This paper outlines assumptions of core theories about household energy use. It gives an abbreviated list of major empirical findings framed by these theories. It then identifies a new set of "blind spots" created by overly-simple reliance on models and by data shortcomings that in combination may block development of a more sophisticated understanding of energy use. Policies and program strategies, in turn, can become oriented toward simplistic approaches to change. We point to the need for improved interpretation and elaboration of ...


Examining The Effects Of Climate Change And Urban Development On Water Demand: A Multi-Scale Analysis Of Future Water Demand In Hillsboro, Oregon, Lily House-Peters Jan 2010

Examining The Effects Of Climate Change And Urban Development On Water Demand: A Multi-Scale Analysis Of Future Water Demand In Hillsboro, Oregon, Lily House-Peters

Dissertations and Theses

In the Portland, Oregon, metropolitan area, suburban cities such as Hillsboro are projected to grow as people seek affordable housing near a rapidly growing metropolis. This thesis examines the combined impact of'c1imate change and urban development on both neighborhood and municipal scale residential water demand in Hillsboro, Oregon. I use two models, a surface energy balance model, Local-scale Urban Meteorological Parameterization Scheme (LUMPS), and a system dynamics model, CCDomestic, to investigate changes in residential water demand in the 2040s at two distinct spatial scales, the neighborhood and the municipality. I calibrate and validate each model to the reference period ...


Climatic And Spatial Variations Of Mount Rainier's Glaciers For The Last 12,000 Years, Michael Leslie Hekkers Jan 2010

Climatic And Spatial Variations Of Mount Rainier's Glaciers For The Last 12,000 Years, Michael Leslie Hekkers

Dissertations and Theses

Regional paleoclimatic proxies and current local climate variables and were analyzed to reconstruct paleoglaciers in an effort to assess glacier change On Mount Rainier. Despite the dry and generally warm conditions (sea surface temperatures (SST) -0.15°C to +1.8°C relative to current temperatures), the previously documented McNeeley II advance (10,900 - 9,950 cal yr B.P.) was likely produced by air temperature fluctuations. The average SST record and the terrestrial climate proxies show cooling temperatures with continued dryness between McNeeley II and the Burroughs Mountain advance (3,442 - 2,153 cal yr B.P.). The paleoclimate ...


Impacts Of Climate Change And Urban Development On Water Resources In The Tualatin River Basin, Sarah Praskievicz May 2009

Impacts Of Climate Change And Urban Development On Water Resources In The Tualatin River Basin, Sarah Praskievicz

Dissertations and Theses

Potential impacts of climate change on the water resources of the Pacific Northwest of the United States include earlier peak runoff, reduced summer flows, and increased winter flooding. An increase in impervious surfaces, accompanied by urban development, is known to decrease infiltration and increase surface runoff. Alterations of flow amount and pathways can alter water quality through dilution or flushing effects. I used the United States Environmental Protection Agency's Better Assessment Science Integrating Point and Nonpoint Sources (BASINS) modeling system to investigate the relative importance of future climate change and land use change in determining the quantity and quality ...


Neighborhood Climate Action Planning Handbook, Hannah Dondy-Kaplan, Erica Timm, Beth Cohen, Dyami Valentine, Mariah Vanzerr, Devin Moller Jan 2009

Neighborhood Climate Action Planning Handbook, Hannah Dondy-Kaplan, Erica Timm, Beth Cohen, Dyami Valentine, Mariah Vanzerr, Devin Moller

Master of Urban and Regional Planning Workshop Projects

The City of Portland and Multnomah County are developing new plans and policies to meet greenhouse gas reduction goals of 80% below 1990 levels by 2050. To meet these new steep reduction targets, actions will be needed at every level of society. While neighborhoods have historically received little attention as a means of addressing climate change, they are ideally suited to bring people together to bridge the gap between individual actions and higher level government policies. To help neighborhoods develop strategies and actions to address climate change, C-Change Consultants worked with the Southeast Uplift Neighborhood Coalition to create a Neighborhood ...


The Effects Of Climate Change And Urbanization On The Runoff Of The Rock Creek Basin, Jon J. Franczyk Mar 2008

The Effects Of Climate Change And Urbanization On The Runoff Of The Rock Creek Basin, Jon J. Franczyk

Dissertations and Theses

Climate changes brought on by global warming are expected to have a significant affect on the Pacific Northwest hydrology during the 21st Century. Current research anticipates higher mean annual temperatures and an intensification of the hydrological cycle. This is of particular concern for highly urbanized basins, which are considered more vulnerable to changes in climate. Because the majority of previous studies have addressed the influences of either climate or urban land cover changes on runoff, there is a lack of research investigating the combined effect of these factors. The Rock Creek basin (RCB), located in the Portland, OR, metropolitan ...


Quantifying Twentieth Century Glacier Change In The Sierra Nevada, California, Hassan J. Basagic Jan 2008

Quantifying Twentieth Century Glacier Change In The Sierra Nevada, California, Hassan J. Basagic

Dissertations and Theses

Numerous small alpine glaciers occupy the high elevation regions of the central and southern Siena Nevada, California. These glaciers change size in response to variations in climate and are therefore important indicators of climate change. An inventory based on USGS topographic maps (l :24,000) revealed 1719 glaciers and perennial snow and ice features for a total area of 39.l5 ±7.52 km2. The number of 'true' glaciers, versus non-moving ice, is estimated to be 118, covering 15.87 ± 1.69 Km2. All glaciers were located on north to northeast aspects, at elevations >3000 m. Historical photographs ...