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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

The Association Between Household Food Insecurity And Body Mass Index: A Prospective Growth Curve Analysis, Brenda J. Lohman, Tricia K. Neppl, Yoojin Lee, Olivia N. Diggs, Daniel W. Rusell Jul 2018

The Association Between Household Food Insecurity And Body Mass Index: A Prospective Growth Curve Analysis, Brenda J. Lohman, Tricia K. Neppl, Yoojin Lee, Olivia N. Diggs, Daniel W. Rusell

Human Development and Family Studies Publications

Objective To examine the association between food insecurity and body mass index (BMI) from early adolescence to adulthood.

Study design Growth curve analyses were performed. Sex differences were examined by conducting the analyses separately by sex. Ten data points were examined over a 16-year period from age 15 to 31 years. Data were obtained from the Family Transitions Project, a longitudinal study of 559 adolescents and their families that was initiated in 1989 in the Midwest. Primarily rural, non-Hispanic whites were selected based on the economic farm crisis. We examined participants from adolescence to adulthood from 1991 through 2007. Measures ...


Family Systems Associations With Obesogenic Behaviors Among Rural Latino And White Families, Brianna Routh Jan 2018

Family Systems Associations With Obesogenic Behaviors Among Rural Latino And White Families, Brianna Routh

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Although obesity rates in the United States have stabilized at the national level, disparities continue to exist among rural, low-income, and Latino children. Research has identified obesogenic behaviors in the home as leading contributors to child obesity, and these behaviors are potentially influenced by individual, family, and contextual factors. This dissertation examined data collected as part of the multi-state Rural Families Speak about Health Project and the associated Iowa Latino Family Project. Through regression and moderation analyses, Chapter 3 explored how family relationships influence children’s obesogenic behaviors in the home among Latino immigrant and White families living in rural ...


Sorting Into And Out Of Rural And Urban Retail Markets, Georgeanne M. Artz, Liesl Eathington, Jasmine Francois, Melvin Masinde, Peter F. Orazem Sep 2017

Sorting Into And Out Of Rural And Urban Retail Markets, Georgeanne M. Artz, Liesl Eathington, Jasmine Francois, Melvin Masinde, Peter F. Orazem

Economics Working Papers

We compare the entry decisions and relative success of rural and urban retail start-ups in Iowa from 1992 through 2011. We use an expanded variant of the pull factor idea to predict the level of local retail sales. We then examine how the factors that increase sales affect the incentive to enter or exit an urban or rural market. We show that the same factors that affect retail sales also affect new retail firm entry and retail firm exit. Our findings are consistent with a model where the very best generally skilled entrepreneurs sort into thicker, urban locations where they ...


Entrepreneurial Skills In Thick And Thin Markets, Georgeanne M. Artz, Zizhen Guo, Peter F. Orazem Jul 2017

Entrepreneurial Skills In Thick And Thin Markets, Georgeanne M. Artz, Zizhen Guo, Peter F. Orazem

Economics Working Papers

Firm profitability is affected by location-specific factors such as agglomeration economies, infrastructure, or proximity to consumers or key producers. Location-specific profits are also influenced by the idiosyncratic match between the entrepreneur and the community. Using data on the universe of all new firm entrants in North Carolina and Iowa between 1992–2011, this study shows how observed location-specific factors affect the probability of new firm entry. We then show that the unobserved factors that influence new firm entry increase the probability of firm survival, demonstrating that these unobserved idiosyncratic factors influence firm profitability and are not just unproductive entrepreneurial preferences ...


Hospital Closure And Hospital Choice: How Hospital Quality And Availability Will Affect Rural Residents, Deepak Premkumar, Dave Jones, Peter Orazem Nov 2016

Hospital Closure And Hospital Choice: How Hospital Quality And Availability Will Affect Rural Residents, Deepak Premkumar, Dave Jones, Peter Orazem

Economics Working Papers

This study estimates a model of rural patient hospital choice between the nearest rural hospital, the nearest urban hospital, or the nearest research hospital. We present separate estimates for inpatient and outpatient visits, for different diagnoses, and for emergency and nonemergency admissions. The analyses illustrate the tradeoffs between hospital quality and distance in deciding whether to choose the nearest hospital or to travel farther for an alternative. The model parameters are used to simulate two hospital closing scenarios for both outpatient and inpatient data: 1) closing 25% of lowest quality rural hospitals and 2) closing 15% of the least used ...


Application Of The Family Stress Model In Populations Of Rural Latina Mothers, Kimberly Dawn Doudna Jan 2016

Application Of The Family Stress Model In Populations Of Rural Latina Mothers, Kimberly Dawn Doudna

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Guided by the Family Stress Model, the two studies in this dissertation examine relations between household food insecurity, maternal depressive symptoms and child outcomes among rural Latino families who have low household incomes. The studies used data from two different, yet related, multi-state research projects. Path analysis was conducted in both studies to determine the relations between variables, and to test for mediation effects. The first study examined relations among food insecurity and internalizing and externalizing behaviors of children, and the indirect effects of maternal depressive symptoms and alliance between parents. The second study examined relations ahousehold food insecurity, medical ...


Needs Analysis And The Role Of Education In Rural Communities, Miriam Brown Tyson Jan 2014

Needs Analysis And The Role Of Education In Rural Communities, Miriam Brown Tyson

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Utilizing an interpretive theoretical perspective, this qualitative case study applied the Community Capitals Theoretical Framework as a method to analyze the community. The research questions guiding the first phase of the study asked what are the: (a) strengths of the community, (b) needs of the community, and (c) concerns of the community? The research question for the second phase of the research: What are the functions of education in the community's development?

For the first phase of the study, data were collected through observations of community meetings, residents' focus groups, and city staff interviews. A selection of community residents ...


Evaluation Of Systemic Safety Methodologies On Low-Volume Rural Paved Roadways, Georges Elias Bou Saab Jan 2014

Evaluation Of Systemic Safety Methodologies On Low-Volume Rural Paved Roadways, Georges Elias Bou Saab

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Prioritizing locations in rural areas has been a major concern to various transportation agencies due to the wide-spread nature of crashes on rural roadways. A systemic (more proactive) approach is required to rank sites in this case since the traditional "hot spot" method only considers crash data. The thesis was based on a prioritization project funded by Mid-America Transportation Center (MATC). Several systemic safety methodologies were explored and summarized in the report. However, one technique was selected, i.e. Minnesota CRSP approach, on the basis of a decision-making matrix that included five factors. The selected technique was applied on secondary ...


Sexuality Education Policy Implementation In Two Rural Midwestern Communities: A Comparative Case Study, Adam Foley Jan 2013

Sexuality Education Policy Implementation In Two Rural Midwestern Communities: A Comparative Case Study, Adam Foley

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This study seeks to further interrogate the sexuality education debate from the perspective of the educational policy being implemented to achieve established curricular requirements and goals in rural midwestern communities. To this point, very little research has examined the way in which sexuality education curricula are implemented in these communities. The overall purpose of this study was to provide a qualitative case study analysis of sexuality education policy implementation in two rural midwestern communities in the state of Iowa. The researcher was interested in learning how local agents in rural midwestern communities implemented sexuality education policy, and understanding that process ...


Gangs In A Rural Town: An Analysis Of Community Perceptions Of Crime, Gangs, And The New In-Migrant Population., Angela Glosser Jan 2013

Gangs In A Rural Town: An Analysis Of Community Perceptions Of Crime, Gangs, And The New In-Migrant Population., Angela Glosser

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

ABSTRACT

Urban gangs have captivated social scientists and been the topic of research for decades. However, recent gang member migration has created a relatively new interest in the possibility of non-metropolitan, or rural, gang presence and activities. Current research literature contends that this phenomenon is the result of the in-migration of urban minority and immigrant gang members, whereas law enforcement asserts gang growth is caused by community apathy toward the growing problem. This research examined community perceptions within the rural case study community of Bridgetown, Iowa. Bridgetown has been experiencing an influx of minority in-migrants entering the community to work ...


Broadband Internet And Firm Entry: Evidence From Rural Iowa, Younjun Kim, Peter F. Orazem Dec 2012

Broadband Internet And Firm Entry: Evidence From Rural Iowa, Younjun Kim, Peter F. Orazem

Economics Working Papers (2002–2016)

The availability of broadband Internet service should have increased firm productivity and lowered firm entry costs. However, validating the broadband effect is complicated by the rapid deployment of broadband Internet service across metropolitan areas, removing meaningful variation in broadband availability. Deployment in rural markets was much more uneven, suggesting that the presence or absence of broadband service may have altered the site selection of firms targeting rural markets. We investigate the effect of broadband availability on firm location decision in rural Iowa. We establish a counterfactual baseline firm entry rate for each zip code area in rural counties by showing ...


The Longitudinal Relations Between Depression And Parenting Self-Efficacy In Rural Mothers With Low Incomes, Kimberly Dawn Doudna Jan 2012

The Longitudinal Relations Between Depression And Parenting Self-Efficacy In Rural Mothers With Low Incomes, Kimberly Dawn Doudna

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This thesis examined depression and parenting self-efficacy in context with individual and family variables, in two different studies. Data were aggregated from a multi-state, longitudinal research project that examined the effects of the 1996 welfare reform on the functioning and well-being of rural families with low household incomes. Both studies used path analysis to determine the relations between variables, and test for moderation effects. The first study examined relations between food insecurity, depression, parenting self-efficacy and perceived parenting support, with knowledge of community resources acting as a moderator. The second study examined relations between depression, parenting self-efficacy and family functioning ...


Does The Jack Of All Trades Hold The Winning Hand?: Comparing The Role Of Specialized Versus General Skills In The Returns To An Agricultural Degree, Georgeanne M. Artz, Kevin Kimle, Peter Orazem Nov 2011

Does The Jack Of All Trades Hold The Winning Hand?: Comparing The Role Of Specialized Versus General Skills In The Returns To An Agricultural Degree, Georgeanne M. Artz, Kevin Kimle, Peter Orazem

Economics Working Papers (2002–2016)

This paper examines the roles of specialized versus general skills in explaining variation in the returns to an agriculture degree across majors inside and outside the agricultural industry. The focus on returns by sector of employment is motivated by the finding that most agricultural majors are employed in non-agricultural jobs. A sample of alumni graduating from a large Midwestern Public University between 1982 and 2006 shows that alumni with majors more specialized in agriculture earned a premium from working in the agriculture industry, but this advantage has diminished over time. Agricultural majors with more general training earn more outside than ...


Why Do Rural Firms Live Longer?, Li Yu, Peter Orazem, Robert W. Jolly Jul 2009

Why Do Rural Firms Live Longer?, Li Yu, Peter Orazem, Robert W. Jolly

Economics Working Papers (2002–2016)

For the first 13 years after entry, the hazard rate for firm exits is persistently higher for urban than rural firms. While differences in observed industry market, local market and firm attributes explain some of the rural-urban gap in firm survival, rural firms retain a survival advantage 25% greater than observationally equivalent urban firms. In competitive markets, the remaining survival advantage for rural firms must be attributable to unobserved factors that are known at the time of entry. One plausible candidate for such a factor is thinner markets for the capital of failed rural firms. The implied lower salvage value ...


It Takes A Village: Protecting Rural African American Youth In The Context Of Racism, Cady Berkel, Velma Mcbride Murry, Tera R. Hurt, Yi-Fu Chen, Gene H. Brody, Ronald L. Simons, Carolyn Cutrona, Frederick X. Gibbons Feb 2009

It Takes A Village: Protecting Rural African American Youth In The Context Of Racism, Cady Berkel, Velma Mcbride Murry, Tera R. Hurt, Yi-Fu Chen, Gene H. Brody, Ronald L. Simons, Carolyn Cutrona, Frederick X. Gibbons

Psychology Publications

Prior research demonstrates negative consequences of racism, however, little is known about community, parenting, and intrapersonal mechanisms that protect youth. Using a mixed-methods approach, this study illuminated linkages between positive and negative contextual influences on rural African American adolescent outcomes. Quantitative results provide support for Structural Ecosystems Theory, in that the influence of discrimination and collective socialization on adolescent outcomes was mediated by racial socialization and positive parenting. Parenting and community influences contributed to adolescent racial identity and self image, which protected against common negative responses to racism; including academic underachievement, succumbing to peer pressure, and aggressive tendencies. Qualitative results ...


Developing A Rural Renaissance Community Index: A Multi-Disciplinary Project With Research And Outreach Elements, Ann Marie Fiore, Linda S. Niehm, Christopher Seeger, Jessica L. Hurst, Daniel Russell, Steven Garasky, Sara J. Kadolph Jan 2009

Developing A Rural Renaissance Community Index: A Multi-Disciplinary Project With Research And Outreach Elements, Ann Marie Fiore, Linda S. Niehm, Christopher Seeger, Jessica L. Hurst, Daniel Russell, Steven Garasky, Sara J. Kadolph

Apparel, Events and Hospitality Management Conference Proceedings and Presentations

The main purpose of this project was to develop a multi-functional instrument to capture information about the relative attractiveness of rural community features, including retail offerings, to the Creative Class as well as other prospective residents.


Rural Immigrant Population Growth, 1950-2000: Waves Or Ripples?, Andrew Dust, Peter F. Orazem, Darin Wohlgemuth Aug 2008

Rural Immigrant Population Growth, 1950-2000: Waves Or Ripples?, Andrew Dust, Peter F. Orazem, Darin Wohlgemuth

Economics Working Papers (2002–2016)

Using U.S. Census data from 1950 to 2000, this paper provides a framework to compare the responses of immigrant and native population growth to the economic incentives offered by rural counties in the Midwest and the South. We find that in marked contrast to traditional destinations for new immigrants such as urban areas or rural California, growth of the immigrant population in these nontraditional rural destinations is not tied to concentrations of existing immigrant populations. Rural immigrant population growth is more responsive than native populations to economic incentives and immigrant growth is not affected by local welfare or other ...


The Effect Of Social Inequality On Civil Society Access And Participation In Communities In Rural Iowa, Victor Raymond Jan 2008

The Effect Of Social Inequality On Civil Society Access And Participation In Communities In Rural Iowa, Victor Raymond

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Civil society theory tends to posit that civil society is normatively positive; in its ideal form, civil society is functional in character. Additionally, civil society is assumed to have ameliorative effects on inequality and stratification, however, much of the existing civil society literature does not address the converse relationship of how social inequality might affect civil society. It was hypothesized that social inequality related to class, race, gender, and age would lead to differences in attitudes towards and structural conditions related to access to and inclusion in civil society, as well as to actual participation in civil society on the ...


The Adoption Of Soil Conservation Practices In Burkina Faso: The Role Of Indigenous Knowledge, Social Structure And Institutional Support , Basga Emile Dialla Jan 1992

The Adoption Of Soil Conservation Practices In Burkina Faso: The Role Of Indigenous Knowledge, Social Structure And Institutional Support , Basga Emile Dialla

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

In the West African country of Burkina Faso, soil erosion has long been a concern. The national government has perceived soil erosion a problem for over a quarter of a century. Although institutional support and practices to control the severity of soil erosion are available, attempts to address the problem have met with limited success. This limited success may be related to lack of consideration of the local indigenous knowledge as a restraining factor. Farmers may be reluctant to adopt conservation practices unfamiliar to them;This study, conducted in two villages in the northwestern Burkina Faso investigates the important role ...


A Theoretical Perspective For Explaining Factors Associated With Cooperative Membership In The Qassim Region Of Saudi Arabia , Muhamad Suliman Al-Sakran Jan 1992

A Theoretical Perspective For Explaining Factors Associated With Cooperative Membership In The Qassim Region Of Saudi Arabia , Muhamad Suliman Al-Sakran

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The focus of this study is on voluntary membership of farmers in agricultural cooperatives. Communication channels and personal motives of farmers are investigated in an effort to understand the problems hindering the agricultural cooperation movement. The main purpose of this study is to critique the traditional diffusion model in its application to cooperative membership in Saudi Arabia. Suggestions are made to expand the traditional model beyond utilitarian considerations to consider cooperation as a moral obligation. This comes out of a deontological perspective where cultural (moral) conditions are combined with perceived individual benefits for understanding how farmers decide on whether or ...


Family Social Structure, Farm Operation Characteristics And The Adoption Of New Technologies For Sustainable Farming Systems In Mali , Mahamadou Tangara Jan 1992

Family Social Structure, Farm Operation Characteristics And The Adoption Of New Technologies For Sustainable Farming Systems In Mali , Mahamadou Tangara

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to investigate to what extent the social structure of the family farm production unit and farm operation characteristics are related to the adoption of new farming technologies in the OHV area;This study relates the adoption/diffusion model to the farming system research and extension (FSR/E) approach applied to farming families of the "Operation Haute Vallee" area in Mali. Adoption is defined as a decision to use fully an innovation, and diffusion can be considered as the spreading of a practice perceived as new from its source of creation to adopters as individuals ...


The Impact Of Network Formation On Technology Use Among Female Headed Households In Rural Southern Philippines , Enrico Neri Imperio Jan 1990

The Impact Of Network Formation On Technology Use Among Female Headed Households In Rural Southern Philippines , Enrico Neri Imperio

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study was undertaken to investigate the farming activities of female headed households in the Philippines. In particular. how resource-poor households utilize networks to access resources and technology;To accomplish the above purpose, a survey questionnaire was prepared in the Department of Sociology in Iowa State University. After approval. it was translated and taken to the sampled 8 rural barrios which had previously been stratified according to population and migration status. All female heads of households in these barrios were interviewed by females who were residents of the barrios;Results indicate that FHHs' and households' characteristics are important factors in ...


The Impact Of The Farm Economic Crisis On The Career Aspirations Of Iowa Farm Youth , Kazi Aziz Ahmed Jan 1989

The Impact Of The Farm Economic Crisis On The Career Aspirations Of Iowa Farm Youth , Kazi Aziz Ahmed

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The impact of the farm economic crisis on the career aspiration of the Iowa farm-reared undergraduate students of Iowa State University is examined. More than half of the sample studied reported that the crisis has affected their career plans to some extent. A selected number of variables, background and attitudinal in nature, were examined to predict the students' alternative career choices. A path model was formulated and tested. The LISREL computer program was used to estimate and test several versions of the model. Results show that parents' economic status, son's ideological commitment to agricultural, and his assessment of the ...


Agricultural Cooperatives As A Means For Agricultural Development: The Case Of Western Sudan Small Farmers' Cooperatives , Siddig El Tayeb Muneer Jan 1989

Agricultural Cooperatives As A Means For Agricultural Development: The Case Of Western Sudan Small Farmers' Cooperatives , Siddig El Tayeb Muneer

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Generally, a sound agricultural development is one that realizes both increases in agricultural production and justice in its distribution (that is, growth with equity). To achieve this, particularly in the Third-World countries, there is a growing recognition that special attention has to be given to modernization of traditional small farmers so that their agricultural production can increase (Kahn, 1978). Consequently, there is need for a development strategy that can reach the small, traditional farmers. Along this line, the government of Sudan hopes that agricultural cooperatives can play this role; this is reflected in the emphasis on cooperatives in the government ...


An Organizational Basis For Facilitating Increased Agricultural Productivity In Central Province, Zambia , Robert E. Meyer Jan 1989

An Organizational Basis For Facilitating Increased Agricultural Productivity In Central Province, Zambia , Robert E. Meyer

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The focus of this research is the organizational basis of increased agricultural productivity. The study reviews both the organizational structure and the effectiveness of interorganizational relations of 18 organizations which comprise the agricultural support network in Central Province, Zambia;An examination of modified Aiken and Hage scales of centralization, formalization task routineness reveal the applicability of their use cross-culturally as well as the centralized nature of most Zambian organizations. The study reveal a corporate system of administrative arrangement with policy decisions and directives originating at the center;The study also reveals that most interorganizational linkages are mandated by law and ...


Determinants Of Household Off-Farm Labor Activity: The Case Of Six Villages In Cimanuk River Basin, West Java, Indonesia , Andin Hadiwinarno Taryoto Jan 1989

Determinants Of Household Off-Farm Labor Activity: The Case Of Six Villages In Cimanuk River Basin, West Java, Indonesia , Andin Hadiwinarno Taryoto

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

According to modernization theorists, the development processes in developing countries should follow the development pattern of the now-developed countries. One of the development characteristics is the sectoral movement from agriculture to industry, services, or other nonagricultural sectors, in terms of the share of the economy and labor absorption. It remains unclear whether this movement can be best understood at the macrolevel, where the unit of analysis is the nation-state, or at the microlevel, where analysis is at the local level. By considering off-farm labor activities as an indicator of the movement, the study identified modernization processes at the village level ...


Power Structure And Social Participation In Community Action: A Case Study , Abdel-Hamid Mohamed Hasab-Elnaby Jan 1988

Power Structure And Social Participation In Community Action: A Case Study , Abdel-Hamid Mohamed Hasab-Elnaby

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study identifies the community power structure and the pattern of leadership in a Midwestern city besides describing the social participation of those individuals who were active in the most important issues carried out in their community through the three years prior to 1981. The reputational approach and social exchange theory are included in the theoretical framework to guide the study. The study involves a survey performed by the Department of Sociology, Iowa State University, in 1981. Participants were selected through a snowball technique starting with ten knowledgeables in the community. The final size of the sample was 120. In ...


Perceptions Of Development Problems And Solutions: A Contextual Approach , Daisy Kabagarama Jan 1988

Perceptions Of Development Problems And Solutions: A Contextual Approach , Daisy Kabagarama

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Based on perceptions from two groups of experts, problems and solutions of development have been found to vary across the three Third World regions. Further, some societal conditions affect these perceptions more significantly than others.


Sociological Factors Influencing The Decisions Of Iowa Farmers To Adopt Needed Soil Conservation Practices , Donald Joseph Wagener Jan 1987

Sociological Factors Influencing The Decisions Of Iowa Farmers To Adopt Needed Soil Conservation Practices , Donald Joseph Wagener

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Public concern about soil erosion has increased in recent years. It is now a high-priority issue among rural and urban residents alike. Given the seriousness of soil erosion, both nationally and in Iowa, the question can be posed as to why many farmers have failed to adopt needed soil conservation measures. The present study examines some sociological factors that are of presumed importance for the speed with which farmers adopt needed soil conservation practices;Findings are presented in four interrelated papers. The first paper examined the "Cancian thesis," which poses a challenge to previous findings on the relationship between socioeconomic ...


Structural Change, Individual Modernity And Fertility Preference In Taiwan , Konadu Acheampong Jan 1987

Structural Change, Individual Modernity And Fertility Preference In Taiwan , Konadu Acheampong

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Using data from interviews with 973 Taiwanese women of childbearing age (15-44 years), having at least one child and living with husbands, a general theory of human fertility preference is derived and tested. Drawing from socio-structural, social-psychological and economic theories, the proposed theory posits that human fertility preference is a function of the changing socioeconomic and demographic milieu as well as some specific modal characteristics of the individual;First, the interrelationships among selected socioeconomic status and individual modernity variables are examined. Second, the individual's attitudes, her perceptions about the costs associated with childbearing, her knowledge of contraceptives and her ...