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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Identifying The Masked Perpetrator: A New Hope, Krista D. Manley Jan 2019

Identifying The Masked Perpetrator: A New Hope, Krista D. Manley

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

During a premeditated crime, perpetrators often wear a disguise such as a ski mask to hinder subsequent identification. Ski masks occlude facial features, which impedes holistic processing—an important component of face recognition (Tanaka & Simonyi, 2016). Despite significant advances in eyewitness identification research, there are no evidence-based recommendations for lineup construction for cases involving a masked perpetrator. The purpose of this dissertation was to examine identification accuracy of a masked perpetrator as a function of lineup type (i.e., full-face or masked-face lineups) and target presence (i.e., target-absent or target-present). Participants completed four trials (one per condition). For each ...


Comparative Assessment Of The Economic And Environmental Impacts Of Food Waste Fermentation On Value-Added Products, Noor Intan Shafinas Muhammad Jan 2019

Comparative Assessment Of The Economic And Environmental Impacts Of Food Waste Fermentation On Value-Added Products, Noor Intan Shafinas Muhammad

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The increasing amount of food waste (FW) is one of the most challenging problems around the world. The remarkable amount of FW produced is driven by various factors such as population growth, modernization, safety policy, culture, lifestyle, and human behavior. FW commonly will end up in the landfills and create more problems to the environment, ecosystem, human health, and economy. This organic waste is easy to decompose and emits greenhouse gases which will increase the global warming effect. Additionally, leachate from the landfill has the potential to contaminate nearby groundwater systems. It is important to divert FW from landfills and ...


Victims As Aggressors: Does Victim-Bystander Status Influence Eyewitness Decision-Making In Showup Procedures?, Ryan Edward Ditchfield Jan 2019

Victims As Aggressors: Does Victim-Bystander Status Influence Eyewitness Decision-Making In Showup Procedures?, Ryan Edward Ditchfield

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Police rely on eyewitness identifications to solve crimes, but eyewitnesses can make mistakes. These mistakes in decision-making can have serious consequences for the criminal justice system. Eyewitnesses can erroneously identify an innocent suspect as the culprit, which could result in a wrongful conviction, or fail to identify a guilty suspect as the culprit, which could result in the culprit avoiding punishment. Drawing on Berkowitz’s (1989) frustration-aggression hypothesis, the current study tested whether eyewitnesses' status as either a victim or a bystander influenced their decision-making processes in a showup procedure after eliminating attention and encoding as possible mediators of the ...


Distinguishing Between Investigator Discriminability And Eyewitness Discriminability: A Method For Creating Full Receiver Operating Characteristic Curves Of Lineup Identification Performance, Andrew M. Smith, Yueran Yang, Gary L. Wells Jan 2019

Distinguishing Between Investigator Discriminability And Eyewitness Discriminability: A Method For Creating Full Receiver Operating Characteristic Curves Of Lineup Identification Performance, Andrew M. Smith, Yueran Yang, Gary L. Wells

Psychology Publications

The conceptual frameworks provided by both the lineups-as-experiments analogy and Signal Detection Theory have proven important to furthering understanding of performance on eyewitness identification-procedures. The lineups-as-experiments analogy proposes that when investigators carry out a lineup procedure, they are acting as experimenters, and should therefore follow the same tried-and-true procedures that experimenters follow when executing an experiment. Signal Detection Theory offers a framework for distinguishing between factors that improve the trade-off between culprit and innocent-suspect identifications (discriminability) and factors that impact the frequency of suspect identifications (conservativeness). The present work offers an integration of these two conceptual frameworks. We argue that ...


Do Masked-Face Lineups Facilitate Eyewitness Identification Of A Masked Individual?, Krista D. Manley, Jason C.K. Chan, Gary L. Wells Dec 2018

Do Masked-Face Lineups Facilitate Eyewitness Identification Of A Masked Individual?, Krista D. Manley, Jason C.K. Chan, Gary L. Wells

Psychology Publications

Perpetrators often wear disguises like ski masks to hinder subsequent identification by witnesses or law enforcement officials. In criminal cases involving a masked perpetrator, the decision of whether and how to administer a lineup often rests on the investigating officer. To date, no evidence-based recommendations are available for eyewitness identifications of a masked perpetrator. In 4 experiments, we examined lineup identification performance depending on variations in both encoding (studying a full face vs. a partial/masked face) and retrieval conditions (identifying a target from a full-face lineup vs. a partial/masked-face lineup). In addition, we manipulated whether the target was ...


Cases, Regulations And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr Feb 2018

Cases, Regulations And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr

Agricultural Law Digest

No abstract provided.


After Repeal Of The “Small Partnership” In 2015, What Next?, Neil E. Harl Feb 2018

After Repeal Of The “Small Partnership” In 2015, What Next?, Neil E. Harl

Agricultural Law Digest

After a shocking and unannounced repeal of the “small partnership” provision in late 2015, as part of the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2015,1 which was enacted as part of the Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility of 1982, the stunned users of that part of the 1982 Act began to raise questions. When does it go into effect? Will I end up with partnership status? Will I have a choice on what I can shift to? Will that shift be automatic or will it be an election? In the 27 months which have elapsed since enactment, not one word has ...


Cases, Regulations And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr Feb 2018

Cases, Regulations And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr

Agricultural Law Digest

No abstract provided.


The “Gallenstein” Rule: Slowly Slipping Away, Neil E. Harl Feb 2018

The “Gallenstein” Rule: Slowly Slipping Away, Neil E. Harl

Agricultural Law Digest

Most legal rules exist until the rule is repealed, the rule comes to the end of its stated term or is held to be unconstitutional. But one, the so-called “Gallenstein” Rule, which has been in existence only for 26 years, is slowly slipping into oblivion. That rule, the indirect product of the 1976 amendment of joint tenancy rules,1 did not emerge until 1991 when the case of Gallenstein v. United States was decided by the Federal District Court of the Eastern District of Kentucky and the case was later affirmed by the Sixth Circuit Court of Appeals.2


Points To Watch With Revocable Trusts, Neil E. Harl Jan 2018

Points To Watch With Revocable Trusts, Neil E. Harl

Agricultural Law Digest

Revocable trusts go by several names – living trusts, inter vivos trusts, revocable trusts, grantor trusts – but regardless of name, the trusts bearing any of the names are basically the same, although such trusts should be read with care because the language used in the trust may affect the ultimate disposition of the property held in the trust. With such a trust, the grantor creates the trust by executing a trust agreement and ordinarily funds the trust by transferring property to the trust during the life of the grantor.


Cases, Regulations And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr Jan 2018

Cases, Regulations And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr

Agricultural Law Digest

No abstract provided.


Tax Cut And Jobs Act, Neil E. Harl, Charles F. Curtiss Jan 2018

Tax Cut And Jobs Act, Neil E. Harl, Charles F. Curtiss

Agricultural Law Digest

Periodically, the Federal Government schedules a systematic view of issues confronting the country. The latest was concluded in late December 2017. The event was identified as focusing on “Tax Cuts and Jobs Act.” In this issue we focus on a range of issues and the results of tax rates and other important concerns.


Cases, Regulations And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr Jan 2018

Cases, Regulations And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr

Agricultural Law Digest

No abstract provided.


Eyewitness Identification, Gary L. Wells Jan 2018

Eyewitness Identification, Gary L. Wells

Psychology Publications

Mistaken eyewitness-identification testimony is at the heart of a large share of the convictions of people whose innocence was later proven using forensic DNA testing. A considerable amount is now known about how to lower the rate of mistaken identifications through the use of better procedures for conducting identification. Several procedural reforms are described, such as double-blind lineups and pristine assessments of eyewitness-identification confidence. Although numerous jurisdictions have made improvements to their identification procedures in recent years, a large share of jurisdictions have still not made significant reforms. Although some courts have been making better use of the scientific findings ...


Eyewitness Identification Performance On Showups Improves With An Additional-Opportunities Instruction: Evidence For Present–Absent Criteria Discrepancy, Andrew M. Smith, Gary L. Wells, R. C. L. Lindsay, Tiffany Myerson Dec 2017

Eyewitness Identification Performance On Showups Improves With An Additional-Opportunities Instruction: Evidence For Present–Absent Criteria Discrepancy, Andrew M. Smith, Gary L. Wells, R. C. L. Lindsay, Tiffany Myerson

Psychology Publications

We tested the proposition that when eyewitnesses find it difficult to recognize a suspect (as in a culprit-absent showup), eyewitnesses accept a weaker match to memory for making an identification. We tie this proposition to the basic recognition memory literature, which shows people use lower decision criteria when recognition is made difficult so as to not miss their chance of getting a hit on the target. We randomly assigned participant–witnesses (N = 610) to a condition in which they were told that if they did not believe the suspect was the culprit, they would have additional opportunities to make an ...


Index To Volume 28, Agricultural Law Digest Dec 2017

Index To Volume 28, Agricultural Law Digest

Agricultural Law Digest

No abstract provided.


Discounts For Co-Ownership Of Real Estate, Neil E. Harl Dec 2017

Discounts For Co-Ownership Of Real Estate, Neil E. Harl

Agricultural Law Digest

Today, discounts for co-ownership of interests in real estate are available generally and that has been the case since the late 1980s.1 Earlier cases involving undivided interests in tenancy in common were not eligible for a discount.2 The Youle case with a 12 ½ percent discount, the first case to allow a discount, was soon followed by discounts of up to 20 percent and, more recently, much larger discounts. For example, the case of Estate of Williams v. Commissioner,3 The discount allowed in that Tax Court decision for a gift of undivided interests in Florida timberland for ...


Cases, Regulations And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr. Dec 2017

Cases, Regulations And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr.

Agricultural Law Digest

No abstract provided.


Cases, Regulations And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr. Nov 2017

Cases, Regulations And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr.

Agricultural Law Digest

No abstract provided.


Unwarranted Downgrading Of “Partnerships And Partners”, Neil E. Harl Nov 2017

Unwarranted Downgrading Of “Partnerships And Partners”, Neil E. Harl

Agricultural Law Digest

The concepts of partners and partnerships have been firmly established in history from ancient times through the twentieth century but the harsh treatment by the United States Government over the past three or so decades has cast a dark shadow over the time-honored contributions that had become solidly anchored in history.1 From ancient times, the partnership has been viewed as a conduit-type entity that has provided flexible and effective service in the developing world.2


Cases, Regulations And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr. Nov 2017

Cases, Regulations And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr.

Agricultural Law Digest

No abstract provided.


The Two-Entity Business Model, Neil E. Harl Nov 2017

The Two-Entity Business Model, Neil E. Harl

Agricultural Law Digest

Without much doubt, one of the most difficult issues in farm estate and business planning, after the parents are either deceased or inactive, is leaving as direct heirs some of which are anticipating carrying on the farming (or ranching) operation and some of which are interested in obtaining a fair shake in terms of land ownership only.


Writing (And Living) A Succession Plan, Neil E. Harl Oct 2017

Writing (And Living) A Succession Plan, Neil E. Harl

Agricultural Law Digest

A half century ago, with land values hovering around $500 to $1,000 per acre, there was little talk of succession plans. The sons (and daughters) with farming in mind would usually strike out on their own and rent a half section (if they were lucky) and forge an agreement with the parents to use their equipment. In my case, after I fulfilled my military commitments, the half section I wanted to rent was suddenly unavailable because of the landlord’s conclusion that I posed too great a risk


Cases, Regulations And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr. Oct 2017

Cases, Regulations And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr.

Agricultural Law Digest

No abstract provided.


The Intricacies Of Income-In-Respect-Of Decedent, Neil E. Harl Sep 2017

The Intricacies Of Income-In-Respect-Of Decedent, Neil E. Harl

Agricultural Law Digest

Property held until death ordinarily is entitled to a new income tax basis, determined as of the date of death of the owner.1 However, property defined as “income-in-respect-of-decedent” at the death of the property owner is not eligible to receive a new income tax basis as of the death of the owner of the property.2 With the run-up in property values in recent years, the result can be a sharp difference in future income tax liability, depending upon the classification of the property at death. Without much doubt, the federal income tax provisions (as well as state income ...


Cases, Regulations And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr. Sep 2017

Cases, Regulations And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr.

Agricultural Law Digest

No abstract provided.


A Complete Misinterpretation Of The “Small Partnership” Exception, Neil E. Harl Sep 2017

A Complete Misinterpretation Of The “Small Partnership” Exception, Neil E. Harl

Agricultural Law Digest

The “small partnership” exception, enacted in 1982 as part of TEFRA,1 has been criticized in the past, mostly by the Joint Committee on Taxation, but never as irresponsibly as the recent release by the Office of Chief Counsel of the Internal Revenue Service, dated July 12, 2017 and released August 18, 2017.2 The author (or authors) write as though they had never read I.R.C. § 6231(a)(1)(B) of the Internal Revenue Code. The criticism comes less than six months before the “small partnership” exception is scheduled to be history unless an aggressive effort to save ...


Cases, Regulations And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr. Sep 2017

Cases, Regulations And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr.

Agricultural Law Digest

No abstract provided.


Retained And Granted Life Estates, Neil E. Harl Aug 2017

Retained And Granted Life Estates, Neil E. Harl

Agricultural Law Digest

Confusion sometimes reigns when mention is made of granted life estates and retained life estates. The two are quite different,1 and are governed by different rules. Retained life estates usually involve original ownership of property with the decision made to grant another a limited interest for a designated time but with retention of the remaining interest. A granted interest is the interest given to another but of less than the entire interest. As an example, the father as owner of a section of farmland purchased the land in 1970 and farmed the land himself but granted to his only ...


Cases, Regulations And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr. Aug 2017

Cases, Regulations And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr.

Agricultural Law Digest

No abstract provided.