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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

On The Social And Political Effects Of Opening In Rural China, Housi Cheng, Qian Forrest Zhang, John A. Donaldson Dec 2015

On The Social And Political Effects Of Opening In Rural China, Housi Cheng, Qian Forrest Zhang, John A. Donaldson

Research Collection School of Social Sciences

What are the economic, social and political effects when previously isolated villages are opened to the outside world? Scholars from different traditions expect different sorts of positive or negative affects to occur. Rural China presents an ideal environment to study this question empirically. Villages within rural China are in the process of being opened to the outside world in different forms, such as through being connected by road, the investment of agribusiness, or urbanization. Moreover this opening is being driven and shaped by different actors, including local residents, government and businesses. The different ways and actors that this opening occurs ...


The Effects Of The One-Child Policy On The Social Status Of Women In China, Josephine Toh Oct 2015

The Effects Of The One-Child Policy On The Social Status Of Women In China, Josephine Toh

Josephine Toh

No abstract provided.


Theravada Buddhism, Identity, And Cultural Continuity In Jinghong, Xishuangbanna, James H. Granderson Oct 2015

Theravada Buddhism, Identity, And Cultural Continuity In Jinghong, Xishuangbanna, James H. Granderson

Student Publications

This ethnographic field study focuses upon the relationship between the urban Jinghong and surrounding rural Dai population of lay people, as well as a few individuals from other ethnic groups, and Theravada Buddhism. Specifically, I observed how Theravada Buddhism and Dai ethnic culture are continued through the monastic system and the lay community that supports that system. I also observed how individuals balance living modern and urban lifestyles while also incorporating Theravada Buddhism into their daily lives. Both of these involved observing the relationship between Theravada monastics in city and rural temples and common people in daily life, as well ...


Challenges For The Aging Family In The People's Republic Of China, David Rosser Phillips, Zhixin Feng Sep 2015

Challenges For The Aging Family In The People's Republic Of China, David Rosser Phillips, Zhixin Feng

Staff Publications

The People's Republic of China has the largest population of older persons of any country in the world. It is a nation that has experienced enormous economic, social, and demographic changes over the past three and a half decades. Traditionally, the family was the main social support for older persons; this changed somewhat under early socialism, but in recent years, the importance of family support has been reasserted. However, over this time, the family's ability to support its older members has been considerably altered and arguably weakened. This article reviews four key issues (population change, the hukou system ...


Class Differentiation In Rural China: Dynamics Of Accumulation, Commodification And State Intervention, Forrest Qian Zhang Jul 2015

Class Differentiation In Rural China: Dynamics Of Accumulation, Commodification And State Intervention, Forrest Qian Zhang

Research Collection School of Social Sciences

This paper develops a classification of the emerging agrarian class positions in China today. Using an instrument based on rural households' combination of market positions in four markets – land, labour, means of production and product – I identify five agrarian classes: the capitalist employer class, the petty‐bourgeois class of commercial farmers, two labouring classes of dual‐employment households and wage workers, and subsistence peasants. This classification is then used as a heuristic device to organize the empirical analysis that examines how dynamics of agrarian change drive class differentiation in rural China. For the capitalist employer class, the analysis focuses on ...


Bringing Agriculture Back In: The Central Place Of Agrarian Change In Rural China Studies, Qian Forrest Zhang, Carlos Oya, Jingzhong Ye Jul 2015

Bringing Agriculture Back In: The Central Place Of Agrarian Change In Rural China Studies, Qian Forrest Zhang, Carlos Oya, Jingzhong Ye

Research Collection School of Social Sciences

Since the mid-2000s, rural development and politics in China has entered a new phase that revolves around what the central government calls ‘agricultural modernization’. Transforming the once-dominant smallholding, family-based agriculture has become a focal point of the government's programme of rural rejuvenation, where a range of economic changes unleashed by urbanization and industrialization also converge. We argue that in this new context, agrarian change has become the key vantage point from which to study rural China. We review key contributions of the papers in this special issue and highlight their insights on rural differentiation, land politics and rural livelihoods ...


The Evolution Of Population Census Undertakings In China, 1953–2010, Xiaogang Wu, Guangye He Apr 2015

The Evolution Of Population Census Undertakings In China, 1953–2010, Xiaogang Wu, Guangye He

Xiaogang Wu

No abstract provided.


Rural China In Transition: Changes And Transformations In China’S Agriculture And Rural Sector, John A. Donaldson, Forrest Q. Zhang Apr 2015

Rural China In Transition: Changes And Transformations In China’S Agriculture And Rural Sector, John A. Donaldson, Forrest Q. Zhang

Research Collection School of Social Sciences

Agribusiness companies operating in China are transacting in various forms with small agricultural producers, and in doing so, transforming the household-based agriculture in rural China. We argue that the presence of these distinct forms and the diverging relations between agribusiness and producers show the central importance of China’s collective land rights. China’s unique system of land rights – featuring collective ownership but individualized usage rights – has acted as a powerful force in shaping interactions between agribusiness and direct producers. It provides farmers a source of economic income as well as political bargaining power – albeit to various degrees – and restricts ...


Towards A Professional Sociology On China, Xiaogang Wu Mar 2015

Towards A Professional Sociology On China, Xiaogang Wu

Xiaogang Wu

This article identifies two internal tensions that Chinese sociology has constantly encountered since the discipline was reestablished in 1979: public versus professional and indigenization versus internationalization. I argue that professionalization is a necessary and crucial step to achieving unity in the study of social changes in contemporary China and to contributing to general knowledge in the discipline of sociology.


Improving The Efficacy Of Family Planning Policies In Indian, Chinese, Tanzanian Contexts, And Beyond, Jayce O'Shields Jan 2015

Improving The Efficacy Of Family Planning Policies In Indian, Chinese, Tanzanian Contexts, And Beyond, Jayce O'Shields

Student Scholarship

In this paper, I will first present the problem of global overpopulation and the solution of decreasing populations to replacement level fertility using effective family planning and contraceptive policies. I will then describe the Indian state of Kerala as a model cultural context in which fertility rates have significantly declined in recent history and explain how Kerala can provide insight into efficient family planning and contraceptive strategies. Next, I will examine extant state and non-governmental organization (NGO) family planning and contraceptive policies in in India, China, and Tanzania, and in comparison to the Kerala mode, make general recommendations on how ...


The Growth Of Chinese Professionals: A New Middle Class In The Making, Xiaogang Wu, Zhuoni Zhang Jan 2015

The Growth Of Chinese Professionals: A New Middle Class In The Making, Xiaogang Wu, Zhuoni Zhang

Xiaogang Wu

This chapter describes the growth of professional workers in the context of the expanding higher education system and the improving economic structure in China, especially since the late 1990s. Based on the analyses of data from the census/mini-census supplemented by the 2010 Chinese General Social Survey, the chapter illustrates the demographic profiles, socioeconomic positions, and political orientations and participation of Chinese professionals and compares them with managers, as the two groups form a major part of the emerging new middle classes in China.


Literature Review Of Popular Resistance In China (2015), Sean Yeo Jan 2015

Literature Review Of Popular Resistance In China (2015), Sean Yeo

Sean Yeo

No abstract provided.


Hs4008 Literature Review, Sheryl Chen Jan 2015

Hs4008 Literature Review, Sheryl Chen

Sheryl Chen

It has since been seven years since the Beijing 2008 Summer Olympics. This study will examine the effects of the Global Sporting Event on China today, and will also examine the influences responsible for these effects.


The Transformation Of Trust In China’S Alternative Food Networks: Disruption, Reconstruction, And Development, Raymond Yu Wang, Zhenzhong Si, Cho Nam Ng, Steffanie Scott Jan 2015

The Transformation Of Trust In China’S Alternative Food Networks: Disruption, Reconstruction, And Development, Raymond Yu Wang, Zhenzhong Si, Cho Nam Ng, Steffanie Scott

Hungry Cities Partnership

Food safety issues in China have received much scholarly attention, yet few studies systematically examined this matter through the lens of trust. More importantly, little is known about the transformation of different types of trust in the dynamic process of food production, provision, and consumption. We consider trust as an evolving interdependent relationship between different actors. We used the Beijing County Fair, a prominent ecological farmers’ market in China, as an example to examine the transformation of trust in China’s alternative food networks. We argue that although there has been a disruption of institutional trust among the general public ...


Three Essays On Marriage, Health And Social Stratification In China, Li-Chung Hu Jan 2015

Three Essays On Marriage, Health And Social Stratification In China, Li-Chung Hu

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

China has undergone remarkable socioeconomic and demographic transitions in recent decades. In the wake of these changes, a large body of research has investigated the ways that socioeconomic status shapes family formation, labor market outcomes, and health and wellbeing. While sociological research in China disproportionately focuses on socioeconomic status as an important factor in understanding family formation, labor market outcomes and health disparities, there is little attention to health as an important human capital dimension—one that might matter for labor market outcomes, and might be related to marriage. By utilizing the China Health and Nutrition Survey, a large-scale, longitudinal ...


The Power Of Creativity: How Web-Based Parody Encourages Chinese Civil Participation, Amber Boczar Jan 2015

The Power Of Creativity: How Web-Based Parody Encourages Chinese Civil Participation, Amber Boczar

International ResearchScape Journal

This article investigates that relationship between e’gao (parody using web-based media) and Chinese civil participation. E’gao (恶搞 EUH-gow) uses videos, images, and text based campaigns that use humor to remove fear of political commentary and action. By detailing the development of China’s internet use, and the creation of the e’gao movement, I argue that e’gao removes the fear of participating in campaigns and movements, which criticize government policy and actions on both local and state levels, by using humor and anonymity of large online numbers. E’gao can provide a way for the common citizens ...


Making Sense Of The Distrust Of The Chinese Government In Light Of China’S Successes In Economic Modernization, Rachel L. Neuhauser Jan 2015

Making Sense Of The Distrust Of The Chinese Government In Light Of China’S Successes In Economic Modernization, Rachel L. Neuhauser

University Honors Program Theses

This paper explores the contrast of China’s spectacular economic development and the low scores of trust for the Chinese Communist Party’s (CCP) legitimacy among the Chinese people. The sharp contrast may reflect flaws in the shaping of de facto authority of the Chinese government. The de facto authority is examined in connection to the notion of the Mandate of Heaven from the Confucian tradition. The severe imbalance of economic growth and lack of political reform is discussed against the backgrounds of the domestic and international political circumstances. This paper argues that, in spite of the phenomenal economic development ...


Freedom From Violence And The Law: A Global Perspective In Light Of Chinese Domestic Violence Law, 2015, Rangita De Silva De Alwis, Jeni Klugman Jan 2015

Freedom From Violence And The Law: A Global Perspective In Light Of Chinese Domestic Violence Law, 2015, Rangita De Silva De Alwis, Jeni Klugman

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

No abstract provided.


The Structuration Of Chinese Migrant Workers: Institutional Transitions, Life Experiences And Subjective Experiences, Fayin Xu Jan 2015

The Structuration Of Chinese Migrant Workers: Institutional Transitions, Life Experiences And Subjective Experiences, Fayin Xu

Theses and Dissertations--Sociology

Chinese migrant workers are workers who (1) migrate from the countryside, where they have the rights to contract farm land, work in agricultural production, and build houses on allotted residential site, and (2) work in non-agricultural sectors of cities and towns, where they don’t receive the same urban welfare benefits as local urban residents. Chinese migrant workers are characterized by their dagong lifestyle, which means “leaving their home in rural villages, going into cities, and working for others, in order to make money.” Though this group of people emerges in the rural-urban migration process associated with the rapid industrialization ...


The Influence Of Key Socioeconomic And Health Factors On Rural Migrants' Health Satisfaction In China, Jingfeng Liu Jan 2015

The Influence Of Key Socioeconomic And Health Factors On Rural Migrants' Health Satisfaction In China, Jingfeng Liu

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Migrants, especially those working as unskilled laborers, often experience social, cultural, economic exclusion which can negatively impact their health. Rural-to-urban migrants in China, a country with more than 166 million rural migrants in 2013, suffer serious institutional discrimination under the household registration system (Hukou). The influence of several key socioeconomic and health related factors on China's rural migrants' health satisfaction were analyzed, using data from the Longitudinal Survey on Rural Urban Migration in China (RUMiC) 2009. Using OLS regression, factors that are significantly and positively associated with health satisfaction level are education, urban-rural income differences, low expenditures on medical ...


Navigating Uncertainty: The Survival Strategies Of Religious Ngos In China, Jonathan Tam, Reza Hasmath Dec 2014

Navigating Uncertainty: The Survival Strategies Of Religious Ngos In China, Jonathan Tam, Reza Hasmath

Reza Hasmath

This article looks at the strategies religious non-governmental organizations (RNGOs) with strong transnational linkages use to maintain a continued presence in mainland China. It does so by utilizing neo-institutional theory as an instrument for analysis, with an emphasis on outlining the coercive, mimetic, and normative pressures RNGOs face. One of the key findings of the study is that there is creative circumvention of isomorphic pressures by working with local agents, fostering trust with the local government, and keeping a low profile. Moreover, RNGOs dealt with the uncertain institutional environment in China through staff exchanges, denominational supervision, tapping into global platforms ...


The Contemporary Ethnic Minority In China: An Introduction, Margaret Maurer-Fazio, Reza Hasmath Dec 2014

The Contemporary Ethnic Minority In China: An Introduction, Margaret Maurer-Fazio, Reza Hasmath

Reza Hasmath

This article introduces the historical context behind the practice of fixed ethnic identification currently employed in the People’s Republic of China. Notwithstanding the major problems to clearly delineate the boundaries of many ethnic groups in the Chinese context, the article contends there was a strong pragmatism for officially classifying ethnic minority groups rather than adopting the self-identification method used in many Western nations. Finally, the article poses the query whether ethnic minority status continues to hold a meaningful category of analysis in contemporary China.


Job Acquisition, Retention, And Outcomes For Ethnic Minorities In Urban China, Reza Hasmath, Benjamin Ho Dec 2014

Job Acquisition, Retention, And Outcomes For Ethnic Minorities In Urban China, Reza Hasmath, Benjamin Ho

Reza Hasmath

This article estimates wage differentials between ethnic minorities and the Han majority in China. While Han-minority wage differentials estimated with regression analysis demonstrate little evidence for ethnic minority disadvantages, evidence looking at the process of ethnic minority job acquisition and retention suggests that minorities perceive they are at a disadvantage in the job search process. The article assesses potential factors for perceived disadvantages in China’s labor market such as discrimination, social network capital, and working culture.