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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

The Influence Of Household Income, Education, Gender On Fertility Willingness In Contemporary China, Cheng Zhu May 2019

The Influence Of Household Income, Education, Gender On Fertility Willingness In Contemporary China, Cheng Zhu

Sociology Senior Seminar Papers

Why does the birthrate in China continuously decline? Why are Chinese people unwilling to have children now even after the One-Child Policy has been abandoned? I propose that the government policy was not the single crucial factor affecting the reduction of births in China. Household income, education, and gender also may have played a role. I use the 2015 Chinese General Social Survey to analyze the relationships between these three factors and the ideal number of children. The sample size of this subset is 2,373. Ordinary least square regression reveals that the ideal number of children increases as household ...


Chinese Government’S Inability To Use Film – One Of The Most Powerful Cultural Tools Of Soft Power Expansion – To Achieve Its Soft Power Expansion Goals: Lessons For China To Tackle Its Soft Power-Deficit Problem, Kyungin Kim Nov 2018

Chinese Government’S Inability To Use Film – One Of The Most Powerful Cultural Tools Of Soft Power Expansion – To Achieve Its Soft Power Expansion Goals: Lessons For China To Tackle Its Soft Power-Deficit Problem, Kyungin Kim

International Political Economy Theses

Many scholars of Chinese soft power commonly believe that despite the fact that China has been working hard to achieve successful soft power expansion, one of the biggest factors that leads to Chinese soft power deficit or failure of the Chinese government to effectively trump “China threat” is its inability to use its cultural industries as a tool to fulfill its soft power expansion goals. This is a major obstacle to China in achieving its goal of successful Chinese soft power expansion, as it is said that culture is the most traditional and powerful source of soft power expansion. This ...


Party, Class, And Mobility: An Empirical Investigation Of Parents' Chinese Communist Party Membership's Effects On Children's Social Class In Contemporary China, Tongtian Xiao Jan 2018

Party, Class, And Mobility: An Empirical Investigation Of Parents' Chinese Communist Party Membership's Effects On Children's Social Class In Contemporary China, Tongtian Xiao

Sociology Senior Seminar Papers

Sociological interest in post-reform China has burgeoned since sociologists such as Victor Nee and Andrew Walder had initiated a debate of whether the market transition of former socialist countries benefit the direct producers of the market rather than political elites. Informed by the market transition debate, stratification theories, and intergenerational mobility studies, this study aims to examine whether under the party-state political structure, ruling party membership is a substantial exogenous source of social class stratification. Data in this study is drawn from the 2013 Chinese General Social Survey (n = 2,209). The ordinary least square (OLS) regression suggests that for ...


The Expansion Of The Mandarin Mind, Tyler Okney Jun 2017

The Expansion Of The Mandarin Mind, Tyler Okney

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This study will examine and contrast two periods of xenophobia and stagnation, late Qing dynasty China, and the PRC under Mao, with a genuine market place of ideas, Shanghai and the other foreign treaty ports in the period 1849 to 1949, and explain how this period of cosmopolitan ferment has had beneficial effects on China today. Countries that have shut themselves off from the outside world have frequently suffered first stagnation, and then decay. While this might appear a commonplace in the abstract, the application of this insight in the development of particular nations has been neither as thorough or ...


A Political Ecology Of Information: Media And The Dilemma Of State Power In China, Michael L. Miller Jun 2017

A Political Ecology Of Information: Media And The Dilemma Of State Power In China, Michael L. Miller

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

In this dissertation, I employ a Weberian concept of social power in order to theorize the challenges posed by, and the varieties of state response to, the dilemma of state power: the need of all states to empower societies with social capacities that may, in turn, threaten state interests. Through a comparison of traditional and new forms of media in China, I show that rather than posing qualitatively new types of challenges to authoritarian states, new media exacerbate the dilemma of state power. They do so because along each of three dimensions of social control, new media shift the relationship ...


Due Distinction: Elite Student Status Hierarchies In China, Yi-Lin Chiang Jan 2017

Due Distinction: Elite Student Status Hierarchies In China, Yi-Lin Chiang

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

How do students sort each other into different status groups in school? Research primarily conducted in the United States conceptualizes student status hierarchies as multidimensional systems. Scholars portray multidimensional status systems as exclusionary, constructed by and in the best interests of high status students, and disconnected from adult society. However, these theories are less useful for understanding a unidimensional status hierarchy that determines student status based on a single dimension. This study challenges several assumptions based on multidimensional status hierarchies about status hierarchies by providing insights into how unidimensional status hierarchies are constructed, maintained, and justified. Data for this study ...


China Twenty Years After: Substance Use Under Rapid Social Changes, Xiaozhao Y. Yang Aug 2016

China Twenty Years After: Substance Use Under Rapid Social Changes, Xiaozhao Y. Yang

Open Access Dissertations

This dissertation discusses how China’s rapid modernization and social transformation over the last twenty years since a series of reforms at the end of 1980s contribute to the changes in substance use behaviors. Specifically, there are three individual empirical chapters in this dissertation, each exploring one dimension of social change and its association with substance use. First, I have demonstrated how substance use can be a protective factor against unemployment over the long term, especially against the background of massive layoffs among former socialist industrial workers and landless peasants during this period. Second, another chapter examines how social mobility ...


The Rise Of China's Hacking Culture: Defining Chinese Hackers, William Howlett Iv Jun 2016

The Rise Of China's Hacking Culture: Defining Chinese Hackers, William Howlett Iv

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

China has been home to some of the most prominent hackers and hacker groups of the global community throughout the last decade. In the last ten years, countless attacks globally have been linked to the People’s Republic of China (PRC) or those operating within the PRC. This exploration attempts to investigate the story, ideology, institutions, actions, and motivations of the Chinese hackers collectively, as sub-groups, and as individuals. I will do this using sources ranging from basic news coverage, interviews with experts and industry veterans, secondary reportage, leaked documents from government and private sources, government white papers, legal codes ...


In The Shadow Of The Great Firewall: Censorship And Surveillance During Hong Kong's Umbrella Movement, Christine Andrelczyk Mar 2016

In The Shadow Of The Great Firewall: Censorship And Surveillance During Hong Kong's Umbrella Movement, Christine Andrelczyk

Theses and Dissertations

Through a case-study analysis, this project investigates why the People's Republic of China eschewed overtly repressive tactics and instead relied on subtle methods of coercion, such as surveillance and censorship, to mitigate activism during Hong Kong's pro-democracy Umbrella Movement. Drawing on historical evidence, reports, and quantitative data, this research explores the significance of subtle repression and coercion as it relates to the process of authoritarian consolidation in China and Hong Kong.


The Hermeneutics Of International Trade Conflicts: U.S. Punitive Trade Policy Towards China And Japan, Barry F. Murdaco Feb 2016

The Hermeneutics Of International Trade Conflicts: U.S. Punitive Trade Policy Towards China And Japan, Barry F. Murdaco

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This dissertation analyzes punitive trade conflicts between the U.S. and two trading partners: China and Japan. Punitive trade conflicts can be defined as trade wars between two states, retaliatory tariffs, or other forms of conflict, e.g. preventing the acquisition of foreign assets or sanctions for an undervalued exchange rate. I will examine several trade conflicts between the U.S. and Japan in the 1980s and several trade conflicts between the U.S. and China from 2001 to the present. This study is situated within a larger debate concerning the resolution of four theoretical "puzzles" in political science. The ...


Friends With Benefits: The Evolution Of Chinese Guanxi In Conjunction With The One Child Policy And Improvements In Communicative Technologies, Heidi M. Weingardt Jan 2016

Friends With Benefits: The Evolution Of Chinese Guanxi In Conjunction With The One Child Policy And Improvements In Communicative Technologies, Heidi M. Weingardt

Undergraduate Honors Theses

This thesis examines the role of “guanxi,” or the Chinese social phenomenon of complex relationship building through reciprocal favor exchange, also referred to as form of social networking. In conjunction with the implementation of the One Child Policy and the spread of communicative technology, guanxi has changed greatly in China. China’s previously large family networks have been reduced and people are using social media, and friendship networks more than ever. As a result, guanxi has become more social, expansive, and shallow and less geographically-valued, kinship-based, and emotionally profound. Guanxi’s role in hiring practices and the interaction of labor ...


Caring In Transition: Home Care Workers’ Experiences Of Care Relationships In Shanghai, China, Liu Hong Jan 2016

Caring In Transition: Home Care Workers’ Experiences Of Care Relationships In Shanghai, China, Liu Hong

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

This dissertation reports a qualitative study of 23 care workers in the home care program for older people in Shanghai, China. Using grounded theory methodology, a model was developed to account for care workers’ experiences of relationships with older clients. Care workers were found to resist the image of care work as demeaning labour performed by lowly migrant workers and re-construct care as valuable work for those in need accomplished by a caring self. As a mechanism of care relationship formation, care workers engage in tuning, a dynamic process of identity negotiation that shifts in between two contrasting states: dissonance ...


Three Essays On Marriage, Health And Social Stratification In China, Li-Chung Hu Jan 2015

Three Essays On Marriage, Health And Social Stratification In China, Li-Chung Hu

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

China has undergone remarkable socioeconomic and demographic transitions in recent decades. In the wake of these changes, a large body of research has investigated the ways that socioeconomic status shapes family formation, labor market outcomes, and health and wellbeing. While sociological research in China disproportionately focuses on socioeconomic status as an important factor in understanding family formation, labor market outcomes and health disparities, there is little attention to health as an important human capital dimension—one that might matter for labor market outcomes, and might be related to marriage. By utilizing the China Health and Nutrition Survey, a large-scale, longitudinal ...


Making Sense Of The Distrust Of The Chinese Government In Light Of China’S Successes In Economic Modernization, Rachel L. Neuhauser Jan 2015

Making Sense Of The Distrust Of The Chinese Government In Light Of China’S Successes In Economic Modernization, Rachel L. Neuhauser

University Honors Program Theses

This paper explores the contrast of China’s spectacular economic development and the low scores of trust for the Chinese Communist Party’s (CCP) legitimacy among the Chinese people. The sharp contrast may reflect flaws in the shaping of de facto authority of the Chinese government. The de facto authority is examined in connection to the notion of the Mandate of Heaven from the Confucian tradition. The severe imbalance of economic growth and lack of political reform is discussed against the backgrounds of the domestic and international political circumstances. This paper argues that, in spite of the phenomenal economic development ...


The Structuration Of Chinese Migrant Workers: Institutional Transitions, Life Experiences And Subjective Experiences, Fayin Xu Jan 2015

The Structuration Of Chinese Migrant Workers: Institutional Transitions, Life Experiences And Subjective Experiences, Fayin Xu

Theses and Dissertations--Sociology

Chinese migrant workers are workers who (1) migrate from the countryside, where they have the rights to contract farm land, work in agricultural production, and build houses on allotted residential site, and (2) work in non-agricultural sectors of cities and towns, where they don’t receive the same urban welfare benefits as local urban residents. Chinese migrant workers are characterized by their dagong lifestyle, which means “leaving their home in rural villages, going into cities, and working for others, in order to make money.” Though this group of people emerges in the rural-urban migration process associated with the rapid industrialization ...


The Influence Of Key Socioeconomic And Health Factors On Rural Migrants' Health Satisfaction In China, Jingfeng Liu Jan 2015

The Influence Of Key Socioeconomic And Health Factors On Rural Migrants' Health Satisfaction In China, Jingfeng Liu

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Migrants, especially those working as unskilled laborers, often experience social, cultural, economic exclusion which can negatively impact their health. Rural-to-urban migrants in China, a country with more than 166 million rural migrants in 2013, suffer serious institutional discrimination under the household registration system (Hukou). The influence of several key socioeconomic and health related factors on China's rural migrants' health satisfaction were analyzed, using data from the Longitudinal Survey on Rural Urban Migration in China (RUMiC) 2009. Using OLS regression, factors that are significantly and positively associated with health satisfaction level are education, urban-rural income differences, low expenditures on medical ...


Participatory Democracy In The Chinese Cyber World: Case Studies From Weibo, Duyi Li Dec 2014

Participatory Democracy In The Chinese Cyber World: Case Studies From Weibo, Duyi Li

Master's Theses

This thesis discusses features of citizen communication on Weibo, the Chinese social media platform, and its relationship to participatory democracy in China. Weibo is a complex social space due to the interplay of different forces and social actors. On the one hand, Weibo provides the space for bottom-up political participation: it expands the horizontal discursive space where plural discourses coexist and interact; provides a social sphere where counter-discourses are created; a space where the culture of resistance is formed; and serves as an alternative source for information. On the other hand, the vertical political control of the state, and the ...


The Development Of Christianity In Contemporary China, Chu Yi Lu Dec 2014

The Development Of Christianity In Contemporary China, Chu Yi Lu

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this research is to study the development of Christianity in contemporary China. It adds to the limited literature that explores how Christianity has developed as the fastest growing religion in China post the Chinese Cultural Revolution. The data derive from semi-structured and focus group interviews with Chinese Christians and field observation notes collected at both official and non-official Christian churches in Beijing. I found an ambivalent attitude toward the development of Christianity across different social levels in China. At the state level, the Chinese government expects Christianity to provide a much-needed stabilizing influence in an increasingly self-centered ...


Clothing And Social Movements: The Politics Of Dressing In Colonized Tibet, Dicky Yangzom Oct 2014

Clothing And Social Movements: The Politics Of Dressing In Colonized Tibet, Dicky Yangzom

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This study examines the relationship between clothing and social movements. Taking the case of Lhakar in the Tibetan Freedom Movement, it explores how Tibetans in Tibet and those in exile imagine national belonging. Second, it delineates how the multiple uses of clothing, both by the colonizing state and the colonial movement articulates its importance in serving as a symbolic boundary in nationalist identity formation. Lastly, using methods of visual analysis, the research explains how the convergence between clothing, social movements, and social media creates a non-violent transnational social movement.


Does Being An Only Child Affect The Attitudes Of Chinese Students?, Yuwei Wei May 2014

Does Being An Only Child Affect The Attitudes Of Chinese Students?, Yuwei Wei

Senior Theses

Three decades has passed since China started implementing regulations and policies for population control. Today, the ever-famous “One-Child Policy” is starting to not only lose its popularity, but also its effectiveness in spurring economic growth. This paper will discuss the heavy social cost the last generation had to pay for the growth of economy and the slowing down of population growth, as well as the challenges in social adaptation young adults face today. As part of the literature review, this paper examines the issue of the “Upside down pyramid” and analyzes the family planning policy’s impact on China’s ...


Social Context And The Pathways To Happiness, Christopher D. Reece Jan 2014

Social Context And The Pathways To Happiness, Christopher D. Reece

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Quantitative studies of human happiness often assume that the determinants of happiness are universal across time and place, reflecting inherent psychological needs. This dissertation challenges this assumption, exploring the idea that the determinants of happiness vary across social contexts. Chapter one tests the hypothesis that relationship between religiosity and happiness depends upon economic conditions; chapter two examines the impact of unemployment on happiness across four countries; chapter three explores the impact of private sector employment on happiness against the backdrop of the Chinese market reforms. Taken together, the findings suggest that researchers seeking to better understand the determinants of happiness ...


Field Work: Constructing A New Emergency Management Organizational Field In China In The Post-Sars Era, Wee Kiat Lim Jan 2014

Field Work: Constructing A New Emergency Management Organizational Field In China In The Post-Sars Era, Wee Kiat Lim

Sociology Graduate Theses & Dissertations

My dissertation traces the genesis and growth of the Chinese emergency management organizational field over the ten-year period since the 2003 Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) outbreak. I conducted my fieldwork in Beijing in 2012, using a multi-method approach that involved interviews, participant observation, and analysis of archival materials.

I found that governing elites and academic experts within the emerging field--what I call the "establishment"--relied upon insider cultural knowledge (e.g., myths) and party-state ideologies (e.g., communist folklore) to legitimize a new risk governance framework and create an emergency management policy domain separate from existing domains. The emergency ...


The Civic Engagement Of Social Media Users In Air Quality Issues In Beijing, China, Xinlei Ke Jan 2014

The Civic Engagement Of Social Media Users In Air Quality Issues In Beijing, China, Xinlei Ke

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This research examined the level of civic engagement in environmental issues in China, especially focused on the air quality issues in Beijing. To measure the severity of air quality issues and people's environmental awareness and response, an online survey was designed and distributed through social media in 2013 summer. After the data analysis process, air pollution in Beijing was proved to be the most serious problem resulted from industrialization and modernization. Three sets of regress models were created and analyzed to test the significance of possible predictors of the frequency of engagement in general discussion/online participation/offline participation ...


Division Of Labor And Marital Satisfaction In China And Taiwan, Bryan C. Kubricht Jun 2013

Division Of Labor And Marital Satisfaction In China And Taiwan, Bryan C. Kubricht

Theses and Dissertations

There is evidence that household division of labor is associated with marital satisfaction among Chinese populations. However, little research has compared different Chinese societies, as well as non-rural and rural regions. This study compared the division of household labor, and its association with marital satisfaction, between China and Taiwan, between non-rural and rural regions, and between males and females using data from a large, multinational study of countries in East Asia. The moderating effect of gender role ideology was examined as a potential moderating variable, as well. Overall, division of household labor was significantly associated with marital satisfaction. However, gender ...


Can We Say More Now? A Closer Look At Online Public Opinion Change In China, Ran Duan Jan 2013

Can We Say More Now? A Closer Look At Online Public Opinion Change In China, Ran Duan

Theses and Dissertations--Sociology

This study examined the pattern of online public opinion change in China by investigating the top one hit blog and its following commentaries of every day from July 2009 to March 2012 on a famous Chinese website, and then discussed potential factors that affected the formation of online public opinion. The extent of freedom of online public opinion during this period presented regular fluctuations. Whether criticisms were registered by commentators was influenced by four factors. First and most important, the negative tone of bloggers increased criticism and the positive tone decreased criticism, which shows that the news that flows from ...


Beneficial Or Adverse? Exploring The Association Between Internet Content Consumption And Sexual Identity Among Single Gay Men Who Use The Internet In Guangdong, China, Liqi Huang Jan 2013

Beneficial Or Adverse? Exploring The Association Between Internet Content Consumption And Sexual Identity Among Single Gay Men Who Use The Internet In Guangdong, China, Liqi Huang

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this research is to explore the relationship between homosexual identity and the Internet, using an online sample from Southern China. The goals of this research are (1) to document the nature of participants' homosexual identity (including their history of sexual experiences, their level of self-acceptance, and their fears of disclosure); (2) to describe participants' Internet use and attitudes (including the functions they most frequently use, and how much they value the anonymity provided by the Internet); and (3) to explore the relationships between these two sets of factors.

Using secondary data from an LGBT oriented website in ...


Navigation And Immersion Of The American Identity In A Foreign Culture To Emergence As A Culturally Relative Ambassador, Lee H. Rosen Jan 2013

Navigation And Immersion Of The American Identity In A Foreign Culture To Emergence As A Culturally Relative Ambassador, Lee H. Rosen

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Abstract

Globalization is forcing many American college students to re-evaluate their perspective on foreign travel. If they are offered an opportunity to improve their cultural relativity skill set by immersing themselves into a new culture, the more astute students might choose to embark on that journey especially if it would result in resume enhancement. This paper focuses upon a group of twelve community college students' cross-cultural experiences, navigation techniques, and adaptation methods as student interns teaching conversational English in Changchun, China for a period of nine to thirteen weeks in spring 2011. Several areas of interest emerged from their experiences ...


The Development Of Community Cable Television In Taizhou And The Rise Of The Chinese Middle Class, Shangling Lin Jan 2013

The Development Of Community Cable Television In Taizhou And The Rise Of The Chinese Middle Class, Shangling Lin

Theses: Doctorates and Masters

This thesis looks at the development of community cable television in the eastern coastal town of Taizhou in China from its beginnings in the 1990s to 2007. The establishment of community cable television can be seen as a new form of media production in China, by which changes in economic and political power and social identity can be traced. My hometown of Taizhou serves as a good example of this societal development. Taizhou is famous for private economy. Its average income is ranked in the top six among more than three hundred cities in China, making the middle class the ...


Gender Differences In Work Values In China, Lulu Nie Aug 2012

Gender Differences In Work Values In China, Lulu Nie

All Theses

Based on a nationally representative sample of 10,332 adults from the China General Social Survey 2005 (CGSS2005), this study examines gender differences in work values in China, the mediating effects of marriage and family status, the mediating effects of SES and occupational characteristics and the interaction between gender and family status. Results from ordinal logistic regressions show that women are more likely to rank high earnings, job security, short work time and job autonomy higher, while men are more likely to rank job prestige, job authority, job interest, job promotion, serving others and sense of achievement higher. Marriage and ...


Foreigners From The Same Country, Adrian J. Lo Apr 2012

Foreigners From The Same Country, Adrian J. Lo

Senior Theses and Projects

My thesis aims to dissect the confounding factors that lead to the build up of social tension between the Hong Kong and Mainland Chinese population. The three main causes of this tension are the major increase in the wealthy population within China, Hong Kong’s “autonomous” political status, and Hong Kong’s resource constraints. My thesis also aims to provide suitable solutions to diminish or extinguish the tension and give a logical prediction of Hong Kong’s economic, political and social outlook in the upcoming years.