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Sociology

China

Reza Hasmath

Articles 1 - 11 of 11

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

What Explains The Rise Of Majority-Minority Tensions And Conflict In Xinjiang?, Reza Hasmath Dec 2018

What Explains The Rise Of Majority-Minority Tensions And Conflict In Xinjiang?, Reza Hasmath

Reza Hasmath

In the past few years there has been a rise of inter-ethnic violence in China. While ethno-cultural repression and ineffective state policies are correctly attributed as key culprits behind this reality, this article suggests that socio-economic factors play a fundamental contributory role as well. Using the Xinjiang case, the article maps ethnic tensions and violence as a manifestation and expression of a growing and heighten ethno-cultural consciousness stemming from ethnic minorities’ low socio-economic status due, in part, to internal Han migration, and a labour market process – involving agency and structure – that has shaped a split and segmented labour market.


Outsider Ethnic Minorities And Wage Determination In China, Andrew Macdonald, Reza Hasmath Dec 2018

Outsider Ethnic Minorities And Wage Determination In China, Andrew Macdonald, Reza Hasmath

Reza Hasmath

The literature on ethnic minorities in China has a significant puzzle: in some studies, urban minorities perceive lower wages relative to the majority Han, while in other studies there is little to no evidence of this wage gap. There is not a clear theoretical expectation as to how these findings could simultaneously be true suggesting that new theory-building is necessary. We propose that the primary issue, and a potential solution, is the failure to fully disaggregate ethnic minority groups’ labour market experiences. We leverage a new, large dataset solely looking at ethnic minorities in China to explore this divergence. Our ...


When A Joke Is More Than A Joke: Humor As A Form Of Networked Practice In The Chinese Cyber Public Sphere, Mathew Yates, Reza Hasmath Dec 2016

When A Joke Is More Than A Joke: Humor As A Form Of Networked Practice In The Chinese Cyber Public Sphere, Mathew Yates, Reza Hasmath

Reza Hasmath

Received wisdom views political humor, viz. egao, in the Chinese cyber public sphere as a form of resistance. This study creates and tests a framework that best conceptualizes how different functions of egao are connected with one another: to analyze the patterns of ties that link the different facets of the phenomenon together. The study contends that by framing egao within network society theory, we can appreciate its fluidity and better understand its online ubiquity. Analysis of survey data suggests that it is not the content solely but the networked practice of egao that dictates its true function. Namely, the ...


Navigating Uncertainty: The Survival Strategies Of Religious Ngos In China, Jonathan Tam, Reza Hasmath Dec 2014

Navigating Uncertainty: The Survival Strategies Of Religious Ngos In China, Jonathan Tam, Reza Hasmath

Reza Hasmath

This article looks at the strategies religious non-governmental organizations (RNGOs) with strong transnational linkages use to maintain a continued presence in mainland China. It does so by utilizing neo-institutional theory as an instrument for analysis, with an emphasis on outlining the coercive, mimetic, and normative pressures RNGOs face. One of the key findings of the study is that there is creative circumvention of isomorphic pressures by working with local agents, fostering trust with the local government, and keeping a low profile. Moreover, RNGOs dealt with the uncertain institutional environment in China through staff exchanges, denominational supervision, tapping into global platforms ...


The Contemporary Ethnic Minority In China: An Introduction, Margaret Maurer-Fazio, Reza Hasmath Dec 2014

The Contemporary Ethnic Minority In China: An Introduction, Margaret Maurer-Fazio, Reza Hasmath

Reza Hasmath

This article introduces the historical context behind the practice of fixed ethnic identification currently employed in the People’s Republic of China. Notwithstanding the major problems to clearly delineate the boundaries of many ethnic groups in the Chinese context, the article contends there was a strong pragmatism for officially classifying ethnic minority groups rather than adopting the self-identification method used in many Western nations. Finally, the article poses the query whether ethnic minority status continues to hold a meaningful category of analysis in contemporary China.


Job Acquisition, Retention, And Outcomes For Ethnic Minorities In Urban China, Reza Hasmath, Benjamin Ho Dec 2014

Job Acquisition, Retention, And Outcomes For Ethnic Minorities In Urban China, Reza Hasmath, Benjamin Ho

Reza Hasmath

This article estimates wage differentials between ethnic minorities and the Han majority in China. While Han-minority wage differentials estimated with regression analysis demonstrate little evidence for ethnic minority disadvantages, evidence looking at the process of ethnic minority job acquisition and retention suggests that minorities perceive they are at a disadvantage in the job search process. The article assesses potential factors for perceived disadvantages in China’s labor market such as discrimination, social network capital, and working culture.


The Interactions Of Ethnic Minorities In Beijing, Reza Hasmath Dec 2013

The Interactions Of Ethnic Minorities In Beijing, Reza Hasmath

Reza Hasmath

Drawing on six years of fieldwork in Beijing, this article looks at the daily interactions of ethnic minorities in local neighbourhoods and places of economic activities. Moreover, it examines ethnic minorities’ negotiations with public institutions, the Han majority and other ethnic minority groups. The article suggests that celebratory ethno-festivals and ethnic oriented restaurants that showcase minority traditions serve as a mechanism to encourage Han interactions with ethnic minority groups. However, the attendant risk in utilizing this practice is that the socio-economic struggles of many ethnic minority groups are being masked when a celebratory version of their culture and traditions are ...


From Job Search To Hiring To Promotion: The Labour Market Experiences Of Ethnic Minorities In Beijing, Reza Hasmath Dec 2010

From Job Search To Hiring To Promotion: The Labour Market Experiences Of Ethnic Minorities In Beijing, Reza Hasmath

Reza Hasmath

Drawing on micro-level census data and interviews with individual workers and employers, this article examines the job-search, hiring and promotion experiences of ethnic minority workers and jobseekers in Beijing. Labour market data indicate that ethnic minorities are at a disadvantage relative to the dominant Han ethnic group, particularly when it comes to employment in high-wage, skilled jobs. The evidence provided here suggests this may be attributable to gaps in the institutional framework that encourage reliance on social-network capital for job search, hiring and promotion. [Winner of the Society for the Study of Social Problems’ Poverty, Class, and Inequality Division Paper ...


The Education Of Ethnic Minorities In Beijing, Reza Hasmath Dec 2010

The Education Of Ethnic Minorities In Beijing, Reza Hasmath

Reza Hasmath

This article investigates the operations of minority schools, and the subsequent on-the-ground experiences of ethnic minorities in Beijing at the primary, secondary and tertiary levels. The article suggests that the ‘inter-sectionality’ of ethnic identities, particularly minority-majority, rich-poor and urban-rural, must be factored in when examining the varying differences between minorities who have graduated from Beijing’s minority schools and non-Beijing ethnic minorities, who have enrolled in the capital city’s universities. The article draws upon recent statistical data, interviews with minority actors and public stakeholders, and participant observation in the city’s schools and universities.


De La Búsqueda De Empleo Al Ascenso. Experiencias De Las Minorías Étnicas En Pekín, Reza Hasmath Dec 2010

De La Búsqueda De Empleo Al Ascenso. Experiencias De Las Minorías Étnicas En Pekín, Reza Hasmath

Reza Hasmath

Valiéndose de datos del censo y de entrevistas personales, el autor estudia las experiencias laborales de los trabajadores y solicitantes de empleo de Pekín pertenecientes a minorías étnicas. Los datos del mercado de trabajo indican que estas personas se hallan en desventaja respecto de la etnia han, que es la dominante, sobre todo en el acceso a los puestos más cualificados y mejor remunerados. Las comprobaciones del autor dejan entrever que ello puede achacarse a las lagunas de que adolece el orden laboral y que fomentan la dependencia de las redes sociales en este terreno. [Winner of the Society for ...


The Big Payoff? Educational And Occupational Attainments Of Ethnic Minorities In Beijing, Reza Hasmath Dec 2007

The Big Payoff? Educational And Occupational Attainments Of Ethnic Minorities In Beijing, Reza Hasmath

Reza Hasmath

Ethnic minority development in Beijing has been marred by deep-seated historical experiences of strained ethnic relations. In spite of this situation, this article demonstrates that ethnic minorities in the capital city have achieved greater educational attainments than the dominant, Han group. Yet, when it comes to their occupational outcomes in high-wage, education-intensive (HWEI) sectors, minorities seemingly pay an ‘ethnic penalty’. That is, the Han demographic are disproportionately represented in HWEI occupational sectors. Building upon previous evidence, this article discusses this discrepancy and offers suggestions for improvement. [Winner of the European Association of Development Research and Training Institutes’ Research Prize for ...