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Sociology

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2004

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Articles 1 - 30 of 177

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Entrepreneurship And Small Business Development As A Rural Development Strategy, Kenneth L. Robinson, Wylin Dassie, Ralph D. Christy Dec 2004

Entrepreneurship And Small Business Development As A Rural Development Strategy, Kenneth L. Robinson, Wylin Dassie, Ralph D. Christy

Journal of Rural Social Sciences

Many social scientists believe that supporting entrepreneurship development within low-income communities is a viable development strategy to combat poverty. Some even suggest that if economic development is to be effective, new businesses in low income areas must be started through local initiatives, and that entrepreneurship is critical to the maintenance of a healthy economy. Underpinned by recent scholarship and grassroots movements that suggest that presence of smaller scale, locally-controlled enterprises can help determine whether communities prosper or decline, this paper explores the links between entrepreneurship and rural development. Using a theory of change framework (Oldsman and Hallberg 2002), the authors ...


University-Wide Entrepreneurship Education: Alternative Models And Current Trends, Deborah H. Streeter, John P. Jaquette Jr. Dec 2004

University-Wide Entrepreneurship Education: Alternative Models And Current Trends, Deborah H. Streeter, John P. Jaquette Jr.

Journal of Rural Social Sciences

The paper examines the trend towards university-wide programs in entrepreneurship education. We present a conceptual framework for dividing university-wide programs into two categories: "magnet programs," which draw students into entrepreneurship courses offered in the business school, and "radiant programs," which feature entrepreneurship courses outside the business school, focused on the specific context of the nonbusiness students. Examining 38 ranked entrepreneurship programs, we found that about 79 percent now have university-wide programs, most of which follow a magnet model. In interviews with stakeholders at sample institutions, we found that magnet and radiant programs differ in terms of program definition, motivation for ...


Entrepreneurship Among Black Americans: A Theoretical Perspective On Modes Of Adjustment And Entrepreneurial Education, John Sibley Butler Dec 2004

Entrepreneurship Among Black Americans: A Theoretical Perspective On Modes Of Adjustment And Entrepreneurial Education, John Sibley Butler

Journal of Rural Social Sciences

In this paper Butler argues that despite a stronger, group-wide emphasis on new venture creation among black Americans in the past, entrepreneurship continues to be a means of economic security and wealth creation for this group. To frame his argument, Butler examines Modes of Adjustment theory and the decline of venture development among African Americans. His emphasis is on understanding the theory's implication for black entrepreneurship and for the entrepreneurial education of future generations. Using data from both the Survey of Minority-owned Business Enterprises and Characteristics of Business Owners, Butler highlights the present status of black entrepreneurship to explain ...


Entrepreneurship Education At 1890 Land Grant Institutions: A Profile Of Programs And Consideration Of Opportunities, Caroline E. W. Glackin Dec 2004

Entrepreneurship Education At 1890 Land Grant Institutions: A Profile Of Programs And Consideration Of Opportunities, Caroline E. W. Glackin

Journal of Rural Social Sciences

Entrepreneurship education at U.S. universities formally began at Harvard University in 1947 with a single course and most significant efforts began in the past 30 years (Katz 2003). This paper provides entrepreneurship education profiles of top ranked programs, emerging campus-wide programs, and 1890 Land Grant Institution programs. Entrepreneurship Centers (ECs), typically in Schools of Business, are components of entrepreneurship education at many institutions. ECs have programs and services from research to academic instruction to community outreach and programming. This paper introduces a typology of ECs predicated upon their academic programs and community outreach. Detailed program information on and recommendations ...


So What? A Primer On Methods For Identifying, Measuring, And Analyzing Program Impacts And Outcomes, Ronald L. Williams Dec 2004

So What? A Primer On Methods For Identifying, Measuring, And Analyzing Program Impacts And Outcomes, Ronald L. Williams

Journal of Rural Social Sciences

This paper offers insights on the need for increased program accountability and the benefits that arise from the use of better performance measures. Examples of impact and accountability reports are presented to highlight the best practices. Weaker impact reports are analyzed so as to emphasize more effective ways to demonstrate outputs and impact to funders.


Assessing Program Effects Or Impact In Enterprise Development Programs, Tristi C. Nichols Dec 2004

Assessing Program Effects Or Impact In Enterprise Development Programs, Tristi C. Nichols

Journal of Rural Social Sciences

Responding to questions increasingly posed by finders regarding what works best in assisting small businesses and what impacts are caused by program interventions, this paper aims to help program administrators answer these questions. Focusing on business development service provision, specific conceptual measures and quantitative variables are presented with examples in an effort to provide some guidance for collecting and analyzing data. The paper elucidates how program planners may emphasize the impact of their interventions, thereby explaining to finders what works best and how to prove it. It presents two major reflections about measures that yield robust results. The first conceptual ...


Cultural Commentary: Won For All And All For Won, William C. Levin Dec 2004

Cultural Commentary: Won For All And All For Won, William C. Levin

Bridgewater Review

No abstract provided.


Sodomy And Prostitution: Laws Protecting The “Fabric Of Society”, Nicole A. Hough Dec 2004

Sodomy And Prostitution: Laws Protecting The “Fabric Of Society”, Nicole A. Hough

The University of New Hampshire Law Review

[Excerpt] “Throughout history many people have viewed sodomy and prostitution as moral evils, because sex has often been linked to sin and, therefore, to immorality and guilt. For example, in ancient Hebrew, a sodomite was known as a qadhesh, a male temple prostitute who was associated with heathen deities and impure forms of worship. The female version of qadhesh, qedheshah, is translated directly as prostitute. This archaic view of labeling prostitution and sodomy as impure has been challenged over time, and both topics are still a source of great controversy. […]

This note is a comparative analysis of sodomy and prostitution ...


"Curiously Uninvolved": Social Work And Protest Against The War In Vietnam, Susan Kerr Chandler Dec 2004

"Curiously Uninvolved": Social Work And Protest Against The War In Vietnam, Susan Kerr Chandler

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

This article reviews four leading social work journals from 1965-1975 for content on the War in Vietnam and the social issues arising from it. It finds that social work's major journals carried nearly no articles, letters, editorials, or short subjects related to the war and concludes that the dominant discourse constructed in the journals excluded meaningful engagement with the war or protest against it.


Examining The Relationship Between Community Residents' Economic Status And The Outcomes Of Community Development Programs, Christopher R. Larrison, Eric Hadley-Ives Dec 2004

Examining The Relationship Between Community Residents' Economic Status And The Outcomes Of Community Development Programs, Christopher R. Larrison, Eric Hadley-Ives

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

In designing and implementing community development interventions the economic status of targeted participants is a demographic characteristic worth considering. The findings from this research indicate that even within the limited economies of rural Mexican villages there are variations in economic status that affect the ways in which the outcomes of community development programs are perceived. The poorest of the poor are likely to be less satisfied with development projects than those with average or better-off economic status. This is true whether a development project uses a bottomup approach or a top-down approach. The more participatory approach does not attenuate the ...


The Benefits Of Marriage Reconsidered, Barbara Wells, Maxine Baca Zinn Dec 2004

The Benefits Of Marriage Reconsidered, Barbara Wells, Maxine Baca Zinn

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

This paper suggests that analyses of marriage experience take into account both structures of inequality and context. Although marriage is widely viewed as producing economic well-being and family stability, this analysis of a sample of White rural families finds the likelihood of realizing these benefits to be closely related to social class position. Marriage failed to produce these benefits for many working class and poor families. Although gains in economic self-sufficiency are viewed as an explanation for White women's perceived retreat from marriage, the limited opportunity structure for women in this rural place provides a context in which women ...


Adoption In The U.S.: The Emergence Of A Social Movement, Frances A. Dellacava, Norma Kolko Phillips, Madeline H. Engel Dec 2004

Adoption In The U.S.: The Emergence Of A Social Movement, Frances A. Dellacava, Norma Kolko Phillips, Madeline H. Engel

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

The Adoption Movement, which has been evolving in the U.S. since the late 1970s, is now fully formed. As a proactive, reformative social movement, adoption has reached the organizational, or institutional, stage. Evidence is seen in the roles assumed by government and voluntary agencies and organizations, as well as other systems in society, to support adoption, and in the extent to which adoption has been infused in the American culture, making it a part of our everyday landscape. Implications of the adoption movement for the helping professions are discussed, as is its impact on increasing cultural and racial diversity ...


Intimate Partner Violence And Use Of Welfare Services Among California Women, Rachel Kimerling, Nikki Baumrind Dec 2004

Intimate Partner Violence And Use Of Welfare Services Among California Women, Rachel Kimerling, Nikki Baumrind

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

The current study is a population-based investigation of the association between past-year exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) and current welfare use, while also accounting for the effects of other violence experienced in adulthood and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). These data indicate that acute exposure to intimate partner violence is significantly over-represented among women currently on welfare. However, it appears to be a woman's cumulative exposure to interpersonal violence and associated symptoms of PTSD that are uniquely associated with welfare participation. These data highlight the prevalence of violence against women and its consequences for this population. Results ...


Review Of Western Welfare In Decline: Globalization And Women's Poverty. Catherine Kingfisher. Reviewed By Silvia Borzutsky., Silvia Borzutzky Dec 2004

Review Of Western Welfare In Decline: Globalization And Women's Poverty. Catherine Kingfisher. Reviewed By Silvia Borzutsky., Silvia Borzutzky

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Book review of Catherine Kingfisher, Western Welfare in Decline: Globalization and Women's Poverty. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2003. $49.95 hardcover, $21.95 papercover.


Review Of Newcomers To Old Towns: Suburbanization Of The Heartland. Sonya Salamon. Reviewed By Joseph Deering., Joseph A. Deering Dec 2004

Review Of Newcomers To Old Towns: Suburbanization Of The Heartland. Sonya Salamon. Reviewed By Joseph Deering., Joseph A. Deering

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Book review of Sonja Salamon, Newcomers to Old Towns: Suburbanization of the Heartland. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003. $35.00 hardcover.


Legislating The Family: Heterosexist Bias In Social Welfare Policy Frameworks, Amy Lind Dec 2004

Legislating The Family: Heterosexist Bias In Social Welfare Policy Frameworks, Amy Lind

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

This article addresses the effects of heterosexist bias in social welfare policy frameworks on lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) individuals and families in the United States. It discusses the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA), the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA), federal definitions of family and household, and stereotypes about LGBT individuals. It argues that poor LGBT individuals and families lack full citizen rights and access to needed social services as a result of these explicit and implicit biases.


Journal Of Sociology & Social Welfare Vol. 31, No. 4 (December 2004) Dec 2004

Journal Of Sociology & Social Welfare Vol. 31, No. 4 (December 2004)

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

TABLE OF CONTENTS

  • "CURIOUSLY UNINVOLVED": SOCIAL WORK AND PROTEST AGAINST THE WAR IN VIETNAM - Susan Kerr Chandler
  • LEGISLATING THE FAMILY: HETEROSEXIST BIAS IN SOCIAL WELFARE POLICY FRAMEWORKS - Amy Lind
  • EXAMINING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN COMMUNITY RESIDENTS' ECONOMIC STATUS AND THE OUTCOMES OF COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS - Christopher R. Larrison, Eric Hadley-Ives
  • THE BENEFITS OF MARRIAGE RECONSIDERED - Barbara Wells, Maxine Baca Zinn
  • MEASURING AND INDIGENIZING SOCIAL CAPITAL IN RELATION TO CHILDREN'S STREET WORK IN MEXICO: THE ROLE OF CULTURE IN SHAPING SOCIAL CAPITAL
  • INDICATORS - Kristin M. Ferguson
  • THE WELFARE MYTH: DISENTANGLING THE LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF POVERTY AND WELFARE RECEIPT FOR YOUNG SINGLE ...


The Welfare Myth: Disentangling The Long-Term Effects Of Poverty And Welfare Receipt For Young Single Mothers, Thomas P. Vartanian, Justine M. Mcnamara Dec 2004

The Welfare Myth: Disentangling The Long-Term Effects Of Poverty And Welfare Receipt For Young Single Mothers, Thomas P. Vartanian, Justine M. Mcnamara

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

This study investigates the effects of receiving welfare as a young woman on long-term economic and marital outcomes. Specifically, we examine if there are differences between young, single mothers who receive welfare and young, single mothers who are poor but do not receive welfare. Using the 1968-1997 Panel Study of Income Dynamics, our findings suggest those who receive welfare for an extended period as young adults have the same pre-transfer income over a 10 to 20 year period as those who are poor but do not receive welfare as young adults. While we found some differences between the two groups ...


Qualitative Evaluation Of Emotional Intelligence In-Service Program For Secondary School Teachers , Seval Fer Dec 2004

Qualitative Evaluation Of Emotional Intelligence In-Service Program For Secondary School Teachers , Seval Fer

The Qualitative Report

This paper is an attempt to evaluate the Emotional Intelligence (EQ) In-Service Program on the basis of experiences of 20 secondary school teachers who attended the program in a private school in Turkey. A phenomenological approach, with a focus group method was used. The first objective of this study was to evaluate EQ program on the basis of teachers’ experiences. The second was to explore the teachers’ perceptions about the implications of EQ skills in classroom situations. The results were discussed in terms of the evaluation of the EQ program and its implications for learning and teaching activities in the ...


Using Nvivo To Analyze Qualitative Classroom Data On Constructivist Learning Environments, Betul C. Ozkan Dec 2004

Using Nvivo To Analyze Qualitative Classroom Data On Constructivist Learning Environments, Betul C. Ozkan

The Qualitative Report

This article describes how a qualitative data analysis package, NVivo, was used in a study of authentic and constructivist learning and teaching in the classroom. The paper starts with a summary of the research study in which NVivo was used to analyze the data and overviews the methodology that was adopted in this study. It, then, describes how NVivo was used in the analysis of observational (video) data, interviews and field notes.


A Qualitative Look At Leisure Benefits For Taiwanese Nursing Students, Shwu-Ching Hsieh, Angela Spaulding, Mark Riney Dec 2004

A Qualitative Look At Leisure Benefits For Taiwanese Nursing Students, Shwu-Ching Hsieh, Angela Spaulding, Mark Riney

The Qualitative Report

The purpose of this study was to determine attitudes of first year nursing students toward leisure participation at the Jen-Te Junior College of Medicine Nursing and Management in Miao-Li, Taiwan. The three research questions used for this study were: What types of leisure activities do first year nursing students at Jen-Te Junior College participate in?, what are the attitudes of first year nursing students at Jen-Te Junior College toward leisure?, and what is the relationship between leisure attitudes and leisure participation of first year nursing students in Jen-Te Junior College? The grounded theory method was used to generate the research ...


Perceptions On School-Based English Teacher Education: A Qualitative Study, Leyla Tercanlioglu Dec 2004

Perceptions On School-Based English Teacher Education: A Qualitative Study, Leyla Tercanlioglu

The Qualitative Report

The National Education Development Project (NEDP) is one of the most important attempts to improve the quality of teacher education in Turkey. NEDP focused on the development of practice in pre-service secondary school language teacher education in Turkey. NEDP supported this research to explore student, mentor, teacher educator, and mentor trainer opinions and experiences in depth and understand the actual implementation of school-based teacher education at schools. Individual interviews were conducted in a British University to explore participants' perceptions. This paper will discuss each issue which emerged from the data separately to highlight the issues that appeared important.


Phd Students Perceptions Of The Relationship Between Philosophy And Research: A Qualitative Investigation, Joan Efinger, Nancy Maldonado, Geri Mcardle Dec 2004

Phd Students Perceptions Of The Relationship Between Philosophy And Research: A Qualitative Investigation, Joan Efinger, Nancy Maldonado, Geri Mcardle

The Qualitative Report

This study explored, described, and discovered meaning in the lived experiences of PhD students regarding two courses: Philosophy of Science and Qualitative Methods. The philosophical underpinning was constructivism. The phenomenological methodology employed a structured questionnaire to collect data. It involved mailed computer disks with questions. Twenty of 43 students returned the disks. Content analysis and QSR N6 software were employed in data analysis. Findings included three broad areas: Thinking about Thinking, The Ah-Ha of Me and Thee, and The Never-Ending Journey of Darkness to Light. Philosophy of Science appears to have value for students in every aspect of their lives ...


Enhancing The Interpretation Of Significant Findings: The Role Of Mixed Methods Research, Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie, Nancy L. Leech Dec 2004

Enhancing The Interpretation Of Significant Findings: The Role Of Mixed Methods Research, Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie, Nancy L. Leech

The Qualitative Report

The present essay outlines how mixed methods research can be used to enhance the interpretation of significant findings. First, we define what we mean by significance in educational evaluation research. With regard to quantitative-based research, we define the four types of significance: statistical significance, practical significance, clinical significance, and economic significance. With respect to qualitative-based research, we define a significant finding as one that has meaning or representation. Second, we describe limitations of each of these types of significance. Finally, we illustrate how conducting mixed methods analyses can be used to enhance the interpretation of significant findings in both quantitative ...


You Were Hired To Teach! Ideological Struggle,Education, And Teacher Burnout At The New Prison For Women , Randall L. Wright Dec 2004

You Were Hired To Teach! Ideological Struggle,Education, And Teacher Burnout At The New Prison For Women , Randall L. Wright

The Qualitative Report

Critical theorists consider schools as sites of ideological struggle. The following is an account of Suzettes (pseudonym) attempts to define the educational practices in a women’s prison according to the democratic principles suggested in the Task Force Report on Federally Sentenced Women: Creating Choices, (Correctional Service of Canada, 1990). This report led to the construction of five new prisons for women across Canada. Suzettes case illustrates how ideological struggles are experienced personally, and how they contribute to her burnout disillusionment and resignation. Habermass critical research program and his concept of system and lifeworld undergirds this interpretation of this teachers ...


Threats And Aggression Directed At Soccer Referees: An Empirical Phenomenological Psychological Study, Margareta Friman, Claes Nyberg, Torsten Norlander Dec 2004

Threats And Aggression Directed At Soccer Referees: An Empirical Phenomenological Psychological Study, Margareta Friman, Claes Nyberg, Torsten Norlander

The Qualitative Report

A descriptive qualitative analysis of in-depth interviews involving seven provincial Soccer Association referees was carried out in order to find out how referees experience threats and aggression directed to soccer referees. The Empirical Phenomenological Psychological method (EPP-method) was used. The analysis resulted in thirty categories which were summarized in six themes. The main themes described the perceived causes of threat, reactions to threat, how the referees manage stressful situations, and their motives to referee.


The Relationship Between Health Professionals And The Elderly Patient Facing Drug Prescription: A Qualitative Approach , Fernando Lefevre, Jorge Juarez Vieira Teixeira, Ana Maria Cavalcanti Lefevre, Lia Lusitana Cardozo De Castro, Aracy Witt De Pinho Spínola Dec 2004

The Relationship Between Health Professionals And The Elderly Patient Facing Drug Prescription: A Qualitative Approach , Fernando Lefevre, Jorge Juarez Vieira Teixeira, Ana Maria Cavalcanti Lefevre, Lia Lusitana Cardozo De Castro, Aracy Witt De Pinho Spínola

The Qualitative Report

Aiming at identifying the relationship between the elderly patient facing drug prescription and health professionals, an exploratory and descriptive study of a qualitative cut was carried out using semi-structured interviews. To this end, the Collective Subject Discourse analysis technique was employed. Thirty elderly patients living in the urban area of Maring (Paran State, Brazil) were sampled. They were interviewed from February 25 to March 22, 1998 and selected from the Co-participatory pharmacy database of the Department of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, Universidade Estadual de Maring . The finding supplied eleven central Collective Subject ideas, with different discourses. The rich material provided by ...


Beyond Abstraction: Philosophy As A Practical Qualitative Research Method , Eric Sheffield Dec 2004

Beyond Abstraction: Philosophy As A Practical Qualitative Research Method , Eric Sheffield

The Qualitative Report

In this paper, I take up a discussion of what philosophic method is, and why it should be viewed as an important qualitative research method. After clarifying the nature of philosophic method within the larger framework of social practices, I argue that philosophy is important to both practice and research, and I suggest that philosophers work in concert with other qualitative researchers. I argue that recently (relatively speaking) philosophy has been viewed with some understandable disdain among both practitioners and researchers as an enjoyable but abstract (and therefore useless) social practice. That perception can be fixed but only if philosophical ...


The Ellison Unitary Model In Conflict Resolution Training, Claire Michele Rice, Deryl G. Hunt Nov 2004

The Ellison Unitary Model In Conflict Resolution Training, Claire Michele Rice, Deryl G. Hunt

Peace and Conflict Studies

The Ellison Model Executive Mentoring Inclusive Community Building Model (The Ellison Model) is used in training people to initiate and implement inclusive community building (ICB) projects using executives and professionals from a variety of fields and industries to mentor university and pre-college students, all serving as mentors at each succeeding level of function. The model promotes ethical values and inclusion in community development. Participants at ICB conferences receive conflict resolution, relationship management and cultural sensitivity/diversity training through interactive and dramatic techniques. This essay examines the theoretical premises upon which The Model bases its philosophies. Theories examining the nexus between ...


Conflict-Free Conflict Resolution Process And Method, Roshan Danesh, Hossain Danesh Nov 2004

Conflict-Free Conflict Resolution Process And Method, Roshan Danesh, Hossain Danesh

Peace and Conflict Studies

Conflict-free Conflict Resolution (CFCR) is an emerging theory and practice of conflict resolution. Building upon traditions of innovation within the field of dispute resolution, as well as insights from a variety of disciplines including conflict studies, peace studies and developmental psychology, CFCR aims to be a unity-centered practice. Both the method and outcomes of CFCR are attempts to reflect the possibilities of helping to create conditions of unity between individuals and communities. The purpose of this article is primarily descriptive, aiming to give an initial overview of CFCR as a practice. This description is rooted in the initial applications of ...