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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Intergenerational Differences In Income Among Asian Americans, Siqi Chen May 2019

Intergenerational Differences In Income Among Asian Americans, Siqi Chen

Sociology Senior Seminar Papers

Using three generational cohorts, this paper compares the effects of generational status on earnings among seven Asian ethnic groups: Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Vietnamese, Korean, Japanese, and multi-race. Data from the 2014, 2016, and 2018 Current Population Survey were used to investigate income differences between first, second, and third and higher generations of Asian Americans. Total personal incomes of a sample of 16,521 individuals were analyzed. The findings showed that only Chinese, Filipino, and Korean individuals demonstrate income differences between first and second generations, where those who are second generation have higher incomes on the average than those who are ...


The Patterns Of Women Serial Killers In A Climate Of Changing Gender Norms, Lizzie Benkart May 2019

The Patterns Of Women Serial Killers In A Climate Of Changing Gender Norms, Lizzie Benkart

Sociology Senior Seminar Papers

Existing research suggests that patterns of both men and women serial killers are hyper-gendered. In American society, however, gender norms for women have dramatically changed over time. This study proposes that the patterns of women serial killers reflect the femininity ideals of the time period in which they operated in. The shifts in gender norms are operationalized by three time periods representative of the waves of feminism. The Radford/Florida Gulf Coast University’s serial killer database is used to establish a sample of 1,321 serial killers. Using multivariate regression analyses and controlling for age of last kill, which ...


A Silver Lining: The Role Of Optimism In Overcoming Poverty In Early Life, Mary Brimmer May 2019

A Silver Lining: The Role Of Optimism In Overcoming Poverty In Early Life, Mary Brimmer

Sociology Senior Seminar Papers

Who is able to overcome adversity and experience upward mobility? Using cumulative inequality theory, which posits that the disadvantage or advantage associated with one’s social location impacts life trajectory and perceptions of such, I propose that level of optimistic outlook in individuals from low-income backgrounds increases their chances of financial success in adulthood. Analyzing data from the 2016 General Social Survey, a nationally representative survey administered to randomly sampled adults in the U.S., I examine a subset of 1,269 individuals from backgrounds of far below average or below average family income levels. In doing so, I determine ...


Does The Stigma Of Hooking Up Predict Sexual Assault At College?, Wanjun Chen May 2019

Does The Stigma Of Hooking Up Predict Sexual Assault At College?, Wanjun Chen

Sociology Senior Seminar Papers

This study examines the relationship between the stigma of hooking up and reported sexual assault. Guided by Goffman’s (1963) social stigma theory and Gagnon and Simon’s (1973) sexual script theory, I propose that 1) the more strongly the respondent agrees he or she would disrespect women who hook up frequently, the fewer times he or she reports nonconsensual sex; 2) the more strongly the respondent agrees he or she would disrespect for men who hook up frequently, the fewer times he or she reports nonconsensual sex; and 3) the more strongly the respondent agrees he or she would ...


Is Friendship Political In The Land Of Opportunity? How Conservative Values Affect Helping Behavior Towards Friends, Adele Fantasia May 2019

Is Friendship Political In The Land Of Opportunity? How Conservative Values Affect Helping Behavior Towards Friends, Adele Fantasia

Sociology Senior Seminar Papers

Abstract Individualism operates as a dominant ideology in American society, so how does individualism pervade both people’s larger views on society as well as their dyadic relationships? Do world views about the value of hard work and if people deserve help permeate the private sphere in tangible ways? I propose a relationship between individualistic tendencies and the frequency with which individuals help their friends and family who are feeling depressed. I hypothesize that the more the respondent believes that those in need have to learn to take care of themselves, the less frequently they will help a relative, friend ...


C'S Get Degrees And Degrees Lead Too…Healthier Mental Health? The Effect Of Cultural And Social Capital On Mental Health, Samantha Garcia May 2019

C'S Get Degrees And Degrees Lead Too…Healthier Mental Health? The Effect Of Cultural And Social Capital On Mental Health, Samantha Garcia

Sociology Senior Seminar Papers

Does social and cultural capital have beneficial outcomes that extend to the mental well-being of First Generation College graduates? Obtaining higher levels of educational degrees is known to produce positive rewards in lifestyle, opportunities, and income. Educational mobility is directly linked to social mobility. As one climbs the social ladder, one builds a broader network of people to rely on. This study analyzes 2010-2014 General Social Survey (GSS) data to report on the relationship between first-generation graduate status and self-reported days of mental health among 1654 non-institutionalized respondents in the U.S. All the parents of the respondents in the ...


Religiosity As A Moderator Between Income And Happiness, Nkosingiphile Mabaso May 2019

Religiosity As A Moderator Between Income And Happiness, Nkosingiphile Mabaso

Sociology Senior Seminar Papers

Does religiosity act as a buffer to all negative life circumstances? To explore this question, I study the relationship between income and happiness and I analyze the effect religiosity has on this relationship. I propose that income will have a bigger impact on the happiness of those who are non- or less religious compared to those who are very religious. The very religious believe that tough times are tests and they believe that God will, in due season, bless them too. This helps them stay happy and hopeful, even if they are not living in the best conditions. I use ...


American Beauty Standards: “Paling” In Comparison To The White Norm, Kristen Marrinan May 2019

American Beauty Standards: “Paling” In Comparison To The White Norm, Kristen Marrinan

Sociology Senior Seminar Papers

America has a culturally accepted norm of what makes someone beautiful. A standard that is hard to meet. Being light-skinned, blonde and blue-eyed is the benchmark of beauty, of what is most desirable. But is that really what it takes to be attractive in America? This research examines the relationship between race, birth-place, ethnicity and self-rated attractiveness. The General Social Survey (2016) provides the quantitative data for this study. While past literature explores the connections between identity, self-esteem, and attractiveness, it does not explore the intersection of different identifying characteristics. Group position and Colourism approaches provide the theoretical foundations for ...


The Effect Of Social Class On Political Party Affiliations In The African American Community, Sindiso Mafico May 2019

The Effect Of Social Class On Political Party Affiliations In The African American Community, Sindiso Mafico

Sociology Senior Seminar Papers

Does social class affect political party affiliation in the African-American community? Drawing on two contrasting theories: the theory of group interests and class-based theories of stratification put forth by Wilson and Shelton (2006), I propose that African -Americans who report being of a high socio-economic class are more likely to be Republican than African Americans of a lower socio-economic class. Through secondary analysis of data provided by the General Social Survey (GSS), I investigate the relationship between political party affiliation and social class in the African-American community. By combining data across 20 years between 1996 and 2016, the sample size ...


Music Performance Attendance And Happiness, Byron Smith May 2019

Music Performance Attendance And Happiness, Byron Smith

Sociology Senior Seminar Papers

How are the performing arts and happiness sociologically connected? I propose that people who have attended a music performance in the last 12 months will report an increase in happiness. Additional knowledge-besides attending Arts-related events-is required in order to understand what makes people happy. I analyzed 2016 General Social Survey (GSS) data. The N for this sample is 1,272. Personal happiness is directly tied to one’s financial situation and their educational attainment levels and not to attendance at music performances. The results indicate that satisfaction with finances has a greater impact on happiness, and that White people also ...


Thank God? The Effect Of Religious Attitudes And Behaviors On Emotions, Jadon Sokoll-Ward May 2019

Thank God? The Effect Of Religious Attitudes And Behaviors On Emotions, Jadon Sokoll-Ward

Sociology Senior Seminar Papers

What is the effect of one’s religious attitudes and behaviors on the frequency of different emotions? I propose that a stronger religious affiliation and a higher frequency of attending religious services will lead to feeling happy and ashamed more often and feeling sad, anxious, and mad less often. Further, I propose that a higher frequency of prayer will lead to feeling sad, anxious, mad, and ashamed more often and feeling happy less often. I analyze the frequency of these emotions in 892 respondents to the 1996 General Social Survey, a nationally representative dataset obtained via face to face interviews ...


Gendered Socialization And Racism, Kellianna Staier May 2019

Gendered Socialization And Racism, Kellianna Staier

Sociology Senior Seminar Papers

Does gender influence racial attitudes? I propose that the differences in men and women’s emotional processing as a result of gendered socialization have an effect on their attitudes towards improving the lives of Blacks. I performed a secondary analysis on 2016 survey responses from a subset of 533 White, American, English or Spanish-speaking, non-institutionalized adults who responded to the General Social Survey. Respondents were asked about their attitudes towards spending to improve the conditions of Blacks. I found no statistically significant relationship between self-identified sex and a respondent’s attitude towards spending to improve the conditions of Blacks. These ...


A Division Iii Study: Does Being A Collegiate Athlete Cause Lower Gpas, While Also Causing Negative Treatment In The Classroom By Other Students?, Gabriela Tanaka May 2019

A Division Iii Study: Does Being A Collegiate Athlete Cause Lower Gpas, While Also Causing Negative Treatment In The Classroom By Other Students?, Gabriela Tanaka

Sociology Senior Seminar Papers

There are many debates about the relationship between athletics and academic performance in the American liberal arts system. This study proposes that there is a negative treatment of athletes by other students in the classroom. It also reveals that athletes have lower GPAs than non-athletes. Using a data set collected at Skidmore College in 2006, these questions are analyzed. This study investigates the degree to which athletes perform compared to non-athletes and their treatment by other students. The sample had 361 valid respondents of whom 50 percent were athletes, and 66 percent of the sample were women. The results demonstrate ...


An Examination Of The Attitudes Towards Immigration Across U.S. Demographic Groups, Siyuan Yu May 2019

An Examination Of The Attitudes Towards Immigration Across U.S. Demographic Groups, Siyuan Yu

Sociology Senior Seminar Papers

What demographic backgrounds are associated with a person’s attitudes toward immigrants and immigration policies? Applying group threat theory and contact theory, I propose that race, age, education, political views, and religiosity all affect how people view immigration. To test the hypotheses, I analyze data from the 2014 General Social Survey, in which adults living in households in the United States are randomly selected and interviewed. A subset containing 1,022 respondents who answered every question relevant to this study is selected from the 2014 GSS. The univariate analysis shows that most Americans do not agree with the statement that ...


Searching For Silver Linings In Foreign Grounds: Children Of Immigrants And Their Quest To Post-Secondary Education, Ashley Mejia May 2019

Searching For Silver Linings In Foreign Grounds: Children Of Immigrants And Their Quest To Post-Secondary Education, Ashley Mejia

Sociology Senior Seminar Papers

In recent years there has been an increase of immigrants in the United States and upward mobility has become extremely challenging through secondary education. Higher education is deemed to be one of the most important factors associated with upward mobility and economic stability. While the achievement gap continues to widen, children of immigrants continue to struggle to assimilate and in gaining access to the white middle-class mainstream. Ultimately, the snowball effect of intergenerational low socioeconomic status rolls over on to the disadvantage immigrant children in the new generation. I propose that children of U.S. born parents have a greater ...


Unwanted Sexual Behavior And Women's Sexual Agency: Gendered Experiences Of Pleasure In Casual Sex, Sofia Mirtz May 2019

Unwanted Sexual Behavior And Women's Sexual Agency: Gendered Experiences Of Pleasure In Casual Sex, Sofia Mirtz

Sociology Senior Seminar Papers

Description: Dichotomous discourse surrounding sexual behavior frames sexual experiences as either consensual or non-consensual. This rhetoric suggests that all consensual sexual activity is desired sexual activity, and does not account for the effect of heteronormative sexual scripts and gendered power dynamics. What are the consequences of engaging in unwanted, yet consensual, sexual activity for heterosexual cis-women? In casual hookups, motivations to engage in sexual activities such as emotional commitment and reproduction are removed from the sexual equation, leaving sexual pleasure as the primary goal. However, in heterosexual sexual activity, women’s pleasure is often not prioritized. This reality creates a ...


Women Faculty's Perceptions Of Departmental Belonging Across Academic Disciplines, Samantha Olarsch May 2019

Women Faculty's Perceptions Of Departmental Belonging Across Academic Disciplines, Samantha Olarsch

Sociology Senior Seminar Papers

Women’s growing numerical representation in gender atypical careers, including the professoriate, has not necessarily meant that they are being accepted, included and integrated in these traditionally male-dominated spaces. This study explores female faculty members’ feelings of isolation within their department across academic disciplines. Drawing on the theory of tokenism, I hypothesize that women faculty members in STEM disciplines, which have been historically male-dominated, are more likely to express a lesser sense of belonging in their department, than women faculty members in the Social Sciences, Arts and Humanities. I analyzed data from a 2009 online survey administered to tenure-track and ...


Social Media Usage And Its Effect On Quality Of Adolescent Social Relationships, Sadie Saltzman May 2019

Social Media Usage And Its Effect On Quality Of Adolescent Social Relationships, Sadie Saltzman

Sociology Senior Seminar Papers

Does the number of social media platforms that an adolescent uses have an effect on the quality of their social relationships? As social media continues to grow and evolve, sociologists have begun to explore its effect on an individual’s everyday life. I propose that the more social media platforms that an adolescent uses, the more they will experience negative effects on their social relationships. Using survey data from 786 respondents living in the United States, ages 13 to 17 and collected by the Pew Research Center in 2014 and 2015, regression analyses were conducted to determine the relationship between ...


Community Size And Environmental Spending Views: Urban, Suburban, And Rural Attitudes On Environmental Protection And Improvement, Alexa Sisitzky May 2019

Community Size And Environmental Spending Views: Urban, Suburban, And Rural Attitudes On Environmental Protection And Improvement, Alexa Sisitzky

Sociology Senior Seminar Papers

Is community size tied to attitude towards environmental spending? Previous research has shown that whether one lives in an urban, suburban, or rural setting affects one’s environmental spending views and behaviors. I propose that living in an urban setting causes one to believe that the United States government is spending too little on the protection and improvement of the environment. Using 1,240 responses from interviews conducted in the 2016 General Social Survey, regression analyses were conducted to determine the relationship between community size and environmental spending views while controlling for political view, family income, and years of education ...


The Influence Of Household Income, Education, Gender On Fertility Willingness In Contemporary China, Cheng Zhu May 2019

The Influence Of Household Income, Education, Gender On Fertility Willingness In Contemporary China, Cheng Zhu

Sociology Senior Seminar Papers

Why does the birthrate in China continuously decline? Why are Chinese people unwilling to have children now even after the One-Child Policy has been abandoned? I propose that the government policy was not the single crucial factor affecting the reduction of births in China. Household income, education, and gender also may have played a role. I use the 2015 Chinese General Social Survey to analyze the relationships between these three factors and the ideal number of children. The sample size of this subset is 2,373. Ordinary least square regression reveals that the ideal number of children increases as household ...


Past Your Bedtime? How Much Sleep Are First Generation Students Getting Compared To Their Peers?, Lhia Hernandez Jan 2019

Past Your Bedtime? How Much Sleep Are First Generation Students Getting Compared To Their Peers?, Lhia Hernandez

Sociology Senior Seminar Papers

Do first-generation college students sleep less than their peers? College students whose parents did not earn a bachelor’s degree have less support from family members and therefore are at a disadvantage. Getting less sleep may cause poor physical and mental health which can lead to poor academic performance, so it is important that they have the proper resources necessary to succeed. I propose that first generation college students report getting fewer hours of sleep and would prefer to get more sleep at night compared to their colleagues. To analyze the relationships, I looked at a sample of 564 college ...


Birds Of A Feather Succeed Together? Racial Residential Segregation And Educational Attainment, Keara Sternberg Jan 2018

Birds Of A Feather Succeed Together? Racial Residential Segregation And Educational Attainment, Keara Sternberg

Sociology Senior Seminar Papers

Is racial residential segregation or integration a stronger predictor of educational attainment? Does the racialized direction of this relationship matter? Drawing from Wilson’s (1987) social isolation theory and Massey and Denton’s (1993) theory of racial segregation and poor neighborhood formation, I propose that 1) greater residential racial homogeneity and 2) greater white residential segregation will increase average educational attainment at the county level. I analyze data from the 2016 County Health Rankings and Roadmaps along with the 5-year 2011-2015 American Community Survey, both of which yield a total population size of 3,141 counties. The study reveals that ...


Life, Liberty And The Pursuit Of Social Media: Understanding The Relationship Between Facebook, Twitter, And Political Understanding, Ruby Siegel Jan 2018

Life, Liberty And The Pursuit Of Social Media: Understanding The Relationship Between Facebook, Twitter, And Political Understanding, Ruby Siegel

Sociology Senior Seminar Papers

Social media is ubiquitous and holds a significant place in modern society. Social media feeds are inundated with political content and are used by politicians and citizens alike to post political commentary. Neither mass media nor politics are new areas of study in sociology, but the entanglement of the two is proving to be of interest, as some scholarship argues that social media is driving changes in how politics works in the United States. We must consider how the citizenry consumes and processes political information in the modern era in view of the interplay between social media and current events ...


The Effect Of Conservative Politics On Sex Education And Teen Birth: A State-By-State Analysis Of Abstinence And Contraception-Focused Approaches, Isabelle Alley Jan 2018

The Effect Of Conservative Politics On Sex Education And Teen Birth: A State-By-State Analysis Of Abstinence And Contraception-Focused Approaches, Isabelle Alley

Sociology Senior Seminar Papers

Researchers and policy makers have looked at many factors that result in high teen birth rates, most notably sex education in public schools. Most often sex education policies fall to the state government, resulting in vast differences in policy across the US. In this study I look at two different approaches to sex education: programs in which abstinence is stressed and programs that include information on contraception. Using the Guttmacher Institute’s evaluation of state sex education laws (2015) and The National Campaign to End Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy’s teen birthrates (2015), I have compiled a data set that ...


Social Media Usage: The Impact On Feelings Of Depression Or Loneliness, Sarah Jensen Jan 2018

Social Media Usage: The Impact On Feelings Of Depression Or Loneliness, Sarah Jensen

Sociology Senior Seminar Papers

Over the past decade, there has been a rapid growth of social media. Much of the problem lies with the new potential for constant social comparisons. Social media also adds a new layer of interaction that can occur anywhere, at any time, with anyone. This allows for a higher quantity of relationships, but strips the depth of these relationships. Does increased social media use affect quality of life? I hypothesize that the more social media sites a respondent is a member or regular user of, the more time he or she reports feeling depressed or lonely. I used a sample ...


Religious Mobility In The United States: The Effects Of Income And Economic Mobility On Religious Conversion, Ruby Thompson Jan 2018

Religious Mobility In The United States: The Effects Of Income And Economic Mobility On Religious Conversion, Ruby Thompson

Sociology Senior Seminar Papers

Why do people switch religions? Under the theoretical framework of interactionism theory of conversion, which posits that the interplay between active, negotiated, and socially constructed aspects of human behavior and different aspects of social context lead to religious conversion, I propose that economic mobility and income affect whether or not one chooses to switch religions from the one in which they were raised. I rely on the 2016 General Social Survey (GSS) that was administered to 2,867 randomly selected adults living in households in the United States in 2016. I analyze data from a subset of 1,068 married ...


There's No Place Like Home? Understanding The Relationship Between Racial Residential Segregation And Self-Reported Health, Abigail Gramaglia Jan 2018

There's No Place Like Home? Understanding The Relationship Between Racial Residential Segregation And Self-Reported Health, Abigail Gramaglia

Sociology Senior Seminar Papers

How does context influence health? County racial composition and racial residential segregation shape health outcomes by creating different contexts that influence access to health-related resources. White Americans disproportionately possess these material and intangible resources. Therefore, I propose that the higher the percent of non-Hispanic white residents in U.S. counties, and the higher the racial residential segregation in U.S. counties, the lower the percent of adult residents who report poor or fair health in U.S. counties. To explore these hypotheses, I analyze 2014 demographic and survey data from 2946 U.S. counties. Findings provide mixed support for my ...


High-Risk Behavior: Who's Engaging In It?, Rachel Licata Jan 2018

High-Risk Behavior: Who's Engaging In It?, Rachel Licata

Sociology Senior Seminar Papers

Why are people engaging in dangerous behaviors, putting themselves and society at risk, despite the detrimental consequences? I propose that with more years of education completed, an individual is less likely to participate in high-risk behaviors; and also, that those who lived in a two-parent household at age 16 are less likely to engage in these behaviors as well. In this research we analyze 345, unmarried respondents, from the 2004 General Social Survey, all whom have answered questions about their educational attainment, strength in religion, familial formation at age 16, employment status and age through an interview process. The data ...


Do Baby Boomers Want Another Baby Boom?: A Gendered Generational Analysis Of Abortion Attitudes, Dyanna Washington Jan 2018

Do Baby Boomers Want Another Baby Boom?: A Gendered Generational Analysis Of Abortion Attitudes, Dyanna Washington

Sociology Senior Seminar Papers

Building on research conducted by sociologists on the predictors of abortion attitudes, through a secondary analysis of 2016 General Social Survey (GSS) data, with a total of 1571 respondents, I investigate the relationship between demographic identifiers, specifically age, sex, and religious fundamentalism, and approval rates of legal abortion. Using the age variable in GSS and drawing from Generational Cohort Theory, I isolate the generational cohorts baby boomers and millennials and hypothesize that baby boomers will approve of legal abortion in fewer instances than millennials. Moreover, I create Abortion Attitude Indexes from GSS questions on abortion, which enable me to separate ...


Strike More, Spend Less?: The Correlation Between Opinions On Race Specific Government Spending And Feelings Towards Police Use Of Force, Olivia Irby Jan 2018

Strike More, Spend Less?: The Correlation Between Opinions On Race Specific Government Spending And Feelings Towards Police Use Of Force, Olivia Irby

Sociology Senior Seminar Papers

With the foundation of past research on the relationship between indicators of racial prejudice, police use of force and attitudes towards it, I use the General Social Survey (2016) to examine the relationship between feelings on government spending on the Black community and approval of police officers striking an adult male citizen under different circumstances. Using feelings towards government spending on the Black community as an independent variable enables me to interpret the coded and implicit anti-Black sentiments within police practices and approval towards them further. After analyzing a sample of 704 respondents, I found that those who believe that ...