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Articles 1 - 30 of 44324

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Designing Policies In Uncertain Contexts: Entrepreneurial Capacity And The European Emission Trading Scheme, Ishani Mukherjee, Sarah Giest Sep 2019

Designing Policies In Uncertain Contexts: Entrepreneurial Capacity And The European Emission Trading Scheme, Ishani Mukherjee, Sarah Giest

Research Collection School of Social Sciences

The paper focuses on enterprising agents in policy formulation and design by looking at their capacity of dealing with different levels of uncertainty. In climate policy specifically, different degrees and types of uncertainties pose a challenge to policymakers. Policy entrepreneurs and the combination of their analytical, operational and political competences are a relevant component in reducing ambiguity in policy design and translating broad policy goals to operational programmes and specific policy instruments. Using the case of the European Emission Trading Scheme, we suggest that the success of policy entrepreneurs in catalysing policy change is determined by their capacity to work ...


Evaluating Oyster Aquaculture’S Cost-Effectiveness As A Nitrogen Removal Best Management Practice – A Case Study Of The Delaware Inland Bays, Jefferson F. Flood Jun 2019

Evaluating Oyster Aquaculture’S Cost-Effectiveness As A Nitrogen Removal Best Management Practice – A Case Study Of The Delaware Inland Bays, Jefferson F. Flood

Journal of Ocean and Coastal Economics

Disease and overfishing have led to a dramatic decline in wild populations and subsequent harvests of the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica over the past few decades in Delaware and other states along the Atlantic Coast. However, in addition to their value as food to consumers, oysters, whether wild populations or cultured stocks, can provide ecosystem services such as nutrient removal, which may result in localized water quality improvements. Consequently, recent policies in Delaware have sought to establish and grow an oyster aquaculture industry. However, a key challenge to achieving efficient levels of industry growth and water quality improvements is that ...


Interdependent Infrastructure As Linked Social, Ecological, And Technological Systems (Setss) To Address Lock-In And Enhance Resilience, Samuel A. Markolf, Mikhail Chester, Daniel A. Eisenberg, David Iwaniec, Cliff I. Davidson, Rae Zimmerman, Thaddeus R. Miller, Benjamin Ruddell, Heejun Chang Jun 2019

Interdependent Infrastructure As Linked Social, Ecological, And Technological Systems (Setss) To Address Lock-In And Enhance Resilience, Samuel A. Markolf, Mikhail Chester, Daniel A. Eisenberg, David Iwaniec, Cliff I. Davidson, Rae Zimmerman, Thaddeus R. Miller, Benjamin Ruddell, Heejun Chang

Heejun Chang

Traditional infrastructure adaptation to extreme weather events (and now climate change) has typically been techno-centric and heavily grounded in robustness—the capacity to prevent or minimize disruptions via a risk-based approach that emphasizes control, armoring, and strengthening (e.g., raising the height of levees). However, climate and nonclimate challenges facing infrastructure are not purely technological. Ecological and social systems also warrant consideration to manage issues of overconfidence, inflexibility, interdependence, and resource utilization—among others. As a result, techno-centric adaptation strategies can result in unwanted tradeoffs, unintended consequences, and underaddressed vulnerabilities. Techno-centric strategies that lock-in today’s infrastructure systems to vulnerable ...


Al-Qaeda Versus Boko Haram: Ideologies, Goals, And Outcomes, Radhika Shah Jun 2019

Al-Qaeda Versus Boko Haram: Ideologies, Goals, And Outcomes, Radhika Shah

International Journal of Security Studies

Since the 9/11 attacks, Islam has remained at the center of the global terrorism debate. In order to weaken Islamist terrorist groups, it is crucial to understand nuance differences in their ideologies and goals. This research focuses on two such groups, Boko Haram and al-Qaeda, and argues that despite the two groups’ Salafi-jihadist roots, the groups harbor sharply different ideologies and goals—and thus, different outcomes. The research finds that al-Qaeda adheres to a rigid organizational and goal-oriented structure, while Boko Haram’s bureaucracy is less clear and less organized. While al-Qaeda has a number of stated goals, Boko ...


The U.S. Needs A National Vision For Housing Policy, Vincent Reina Jun 2019

The U.S. Needs A National Vision For Housing Policy, Vincent Reina

Penn Wharton Public Policy Initiative

Recent demographic changes—the sharp increase in single-person households, especially among single individuals over the age of 65, as well as racial disparities in homeownership and the increasing cost burden of home rentals—are underscoring the need for a new vision with respect to U.S. housing policy. This Issue Brief

lays out several policy prescriptions for improving housing affordability and fairness, both for renters and owners: modifying the federal Housing Choice Voucher program as well as local and state land-use regulations; investing in the maintenance of existing affordable housing stock; making good on HUD’s Affirmatively Furthering Fair Housing ...


If Jeremiah Is Going To Stay, He Needs To Change His Tone: Reframing Apocalyptic Discourse, Bernard Kondenar Jun 2019

If Jeremiah Is Going To Stay, He Needs To Change His Tone: Reframing Apocalyptic Discourse, Bernard Kondenar

Inter-Text: An Undergraduate Journal for Social Sciences and Humanities

No abstract provided.


21st Century Teenagers And Young Adults Who Are Deaf Or Hard Of Hearing: Outcomes And Possibilities, Jean S. Moog, Amanda M. Rudge 3730756 Jun 2019

21st Century Teenagers And Young Adults Who Are Deaf Or Hard Of Hearing: Outcomes And Possibilities, Jean S. Moog, Amanda M. Rudge 3730756

Journal of Early Hearing Detection and Intervention

The purpose of this study was to document demographics, characteristics, and long-term outcomes of teenagers and young adults who are deaf or hard of hearing (DHH) and who all attended the Moog Center for Deaf Education for preschool and/or a portion of elementary school. Data were obtained via an online survey that was designed to assess educational, personal, and professional outcomes of individuals who were currently in high school and beyond. Survey questions were about the lives of these individuals after leaving the Moog Center. Participants included 108 individuals who were DHH, ranging from 15 to 32 years of ...


The Perils And Promises Of Artificial General Intelligence, Brian S. Haney Jun 2019

The Perils And Promises Of Artificial General Intelligence, Brian S. Haney

Journal of Legislation

No abstract provided.


Lands Of Opportunity: An Analysis Of The Effectiveness And Impact Of Opportunity Zones In The Tax Cuts And Jobs Act Of 2017, Joseph Bennett Jun 2019

Lands Of Opportunity: An Analysis Of The Effectiveness And Impact Of Opportunity Zones In The Tax Cuts And Jobs Act Of 2017, Joseph Bennett

Journal of Legislation

No abstract provided.


The Gendered Burdens Of Conviction And Collateral Consequences On Employment, Joni Hersch, Erin E. Meyers Jun 2019

The Gendered Burdens Of Conviction And Collateral Consequences On Employment, Joni Hersch, Erin E. Meyers

Journal of Legislation

Ex-offenders are subject to a wide range of employment restrictions that limit the ability of individuals with a criminal background to earn a living. This Article argues that women involved in the criminal justice system likely suffer a greater income-related burden from criminal conviction than do men. This disproportionate burden arises in occupations that women typically pursue, both through formal pathways, such as restrictions on occupational licensing, and through informal pathways, such as employers’ unwillingness to hire those with a criminal record. In addition, women have access to far fewer vocational programs while incarcerated. Further exacerbating this burden is that ...


Wrack Lines Volume 19, Number 1, Spring/Summer 2019, Nancy Balcom, Syma Ebbin, David Gregorio, Richard Telford, Judy Benson Jun 2019

Wrack Lines Volume 19, Number 1, Spring/Summer 2019, Nancy Balcom, Syma Ebbin, David Gregorio, Richard Telford, Judy Benson

Wrack Lines

Issue theme is: "Making Connections: As the Climate Changes, People and Nature Intertwine in New Ways." Articles include: "As More Roads Become Rivers, Communities Search for Solutions;" "Solving an Engineering Conundrum: As Coastal Homes Get Elevated, New Research Looks at Whether Vulnerability to Wind Damage Is Increasing;" "Along the Coast, Residents Consider How to Heed Sandy's Warning of What's to Come;" "All Rivers, All Lives Run to the Sea," about the intersection of waterways and the world of nature writer Edwin Way Teale; and "Crosscurrents: Connecticut Sea Grant's Retrospective Exhibition Makes Waves," about reaching new audiences and ...


Agent-Based Models In Supporting Pedestrian Transportation Planning And Design, Nicholas A. Perdue Jun 2019

Agent-Based Models In Supporting Pedestrian Transportation Planning And Design, Nicholas A. Perdue

Humboldt Journal of Social Relations

Agent-based models offer a new approach to understanding human-urban interactions in transportation systems, allowing individual entities within a system to be characterized with cognitive and behavioral properties. This paper discussed the role of agent-based representations of pedestrian transportation systems, detailing the underlying assumptions and techniques behind different types of pedestrian models and illustrating the differences between aggregate and individual agent representations. It then turns attention to the case study and the development of a cognitive pedestrian model as a way to illustrate the spectrum of potential spatial behaviors that are enabled by material changes to the transportation network. The paper ...


Port Performance From A Policy Perspective – A Systematic Review Of The Literature, Eamonn Oconnor, Natasha Evers Dr., Amaya Vega Jun 2019

Port Performance From A Policy Perspective – A Systematic Review Of The Literature, Eamonn Oconnor, Natasha Evers Dr., Amaya Vega

Journal of Ocean and Coastal Economics

Owing to their diverse functionality, seaports as entities produce a mix of private and public goods that have significant welfare implications for the regions they serve. In effect, performance in seaports can be viewed as multi-dimensional. When forming policy that affects multiple stakeholders it is therefore desirable to measure performance across all relevant dimensions, as they are likely to have differing effects on concerned stakeholders. The objective of this study is to conduct a systematic literature review of published studies on seaport performance measurement to identify, critically evaluate and integrate the various dimensions of seaport performance measurement. A review of ...


Any Port In A Storm: Vessel Activity And The Risk Of Iuu-Caught Fish Passing Through The World’S Most Important Fishing Ports, Gilles Hosch, Bradley Soule, Max Schofield, Trevor Thomas, Charles Kilgour, Tim Huntington Jun 2019

Any Port In A Storm: Vessel Activity And The Risk Of Iuu-Caught Fish Passing Through The World’S Most Important Fishing Ports, Gilles Hosch, Bradley Soule, Max Schofield, Trevor Thomas, Charles Kilgour, Tim Huntington

Journal of Ocean and Coastal Economics

This study assesses the risk of fish from illegal, unregulated and unreported (IUU) sources passing through the world’s most important fishing ports and explores the drivers of this risk.

Like previous studies it has attempted to rank ports and States based on landings and vessel visits reported by governments by using Automatic Identification System (AIS) positional data transmitted by fishing and fish carrier vessels to identify the locations of ports and rank them based on the frequency of visits by foreign-flagged and domestic-flagged vessels. It advances our thinking in that (i) the analysis includes an estimation of the hold ...


Sueños De Tánger: Extraterritorial Basque Crime Fiction On Immigration To Spain, Shanna Lino Jun 2019

Sueños De Tánger: Extraterritorial Basque Crime Fiction On Immigration To Spain, Shanna Lino

Studies in 20th & 21st Century Literature

As the world increasingly turns its attention to the European refugee crisis and to the 1.8 million who have arrived on that continent since 2014 as a consequence of being forced to flee their native countries’ war-torn cities and villages, questions continue to arise regarding the ethical and political responsibilities of Western nations to facilitate this exodus and to provide refugee and immigration services en route and at destination. Spain remains the intended port of arrival for thousands of Malians, Mauritanians, Moroccans, and Western Saharans who sometimes manage to escape war and extreme poverty only to find themselves stalled ...


Determining The Level Of Cultural Competence Of College Police Departments: A Study Of Three Different Campuses, Michelle Fletcher, Randolph Burnside, Stephanie Pink-Harper Jun 2019

Determining The Level Of Cultural Competence Of College Police Departments: A Study Of Three Different Campuses, Michelle Fletcher, Randolph Burnside, Stephanie Pink-Harper

Journal of Public Management & Social Policy

This research examines the understanding that police chiefs on three college campuses have about cultural competence and determines how organizationally integrated cultural competence is in their police departments. This article uses semi-structured interviews and surveys to determine the levels and organizational integration of cultural competence. The findings indicate that there are varying degrees of cultural competence across the three departments. This was primarily based on three factors: the level of understanding of cultural competence, the emphasis placed on promoting cultural competence by departmental leadership, and administrative or legal barriers. Given the complexity of cultural competence, the article concludes by offering ...


Assessment Of Public Sector Service Quality: Gauging Experiences And Perceptions Of Racial Profiling, Aaron C. Rollins Jr. Jun 2019

Assessment Of Public Sector Service Quality: Gauging Experiences And Perceptions Of Racial Profiling, Aaron C. Rollins Jr.

Journal of Public Management & Social Policy

The absence of a culturally competent public sector workforce has led to increased public scrutiny and heightened levels of distrust. In the field of public safety, this is particularly important due to the sensitive nature of the task performed and the historically strained relationships that exist between racial minorities and law enforcement. Using national survey data to gauge the prevalence of citizen’s experiences and perceptions of racial profiling, this research reveals significant discrepancies amongst minorities and their white counterparts. In response, this research encourages public officials and agencies to eliminate inconsistencies in their interactions with the citizenry as a ...


Exploring The Link: Administrative Exclusion And Second Order Devolution, Rhucha Samudra Jun 2019

Exploring The Link: Administrative Exclusion And Second Order Devolution, Rhucha Samudra

Journal of Public Management & Social Policy

Devolution was embedded in the 1996 welfare reform. Using the National Survey of America’s Families, this article explores the relationship between living in a Second Order Devolution (SOD) state and administrative exclusion from a welfare program. Results from the logistic model indicate that low-income clients and single mothers living in a SOD state had an increased likelihood of administrative exclusion. Administrative exclusion reflects bureaucratic choices and rules violations—implying some of these individuals and families may be leaving welfare without having achieved self-sufficiency. Results suggest that a careful evaluation of the state welfare performance measure and of the devolution ...


Reexamining The Impact Of Medicaid Expansion In A Post-Affordable Care Act Environment From A Critical Race Perspective, Ty Price Dooley Jun 2019

Reexamining The Impact Of Medicaid Expansion In A Post-Affordable Care Act Environment From A Critical Race Perspective, Ty Price Dooley

Journal of Public Management & Social Policy

The passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) in 2010 drastically transformed the health care system in the United States. This paper examines the factors influencing state decisions relative to Medicaid expansion in a post-ACA environment through the lens of Critical Race Theory. This study incorporates economic, geographic and health variables into a model of post-ACA-Medicaid decision-making by using logistic regression to examine State Medicaid expansion from 2010 to 2014. The size of the minority population in state, tobacco use and southern distinctiveness are significant predictors of decision making relative to Medicaid expansion. Findings support that racialized ...


Municipal Diverging From “Bureaucracy:” A Case Study Of Organizational Image In Housing Services, Shawn T. Flanigan Ph.D. Jun 2019

Municipal Diverging From “Bureaucracy:” A Case Study Of Organizational Image In Housing Services, Shawn T. Flanigan Ph.D.

Journal of Public Management & Social Policy

This article presents a case study of efforts of a workforce development unit within a local public housing authority to recraft its image as separate from the larger housing authority, in order to better attract participants to its optional supportive services. Using qualitative interview data with Section 8 voucher recipients and public housing authority staff, and descriptive quantitative data from a larger dataset, and drawing on theories of street-level bureaucracies and agency-client interactions, the case study finds that service recipients perceive the housing authority as a largely compliance-oriented organization that is overly bureaucratic, excessively regulating of private spheres of family ...


Housing, Medicaid Expansion, And Cultural Competence In Policing And Public Service Delivery, Andrew Ewoh Jun 2019

Housing, Medicaid Expansion, And Cultural Competence In Policing And Public Service Delivery, Andrew Ewoh

Journal of Public Management & Social Policy

No abstract provided.


Latino Political Leadership In Massachusetts – 2019, Bianca Ortiz-Wythe, Christa M. Kelleher, Fabián Torres-Ardila, Gaston Institute, University Of Massachusetts Boston, Center For Women In Politics And Public Policy, University Of Massachusetts Boston Jun 2019

Latino Political Leadership In Massachusetts – 2019, Bianca Ortiz-Wythe, Christa M. Kelleher, Fabián Torres-Ardila, Gaston Institute, University Of Massachusetts Boston, Center For Women In Politics And Public Policy, University Of Massachusetts Boston

Publications from the Center for Women in Politics and Public Policy

There is very limited Latino presence in the State Senate, with one Latina State Senator in office; having five Latinos in the Senate would be proportionate to the statewide Latino population. Six Latinos serve in the 160-member House of Representatives; eighteen would be proportionate. There are no Latinos in the state’s congressional delegation.

City councilors and members of school committees account for 83% of all Latinos serving in key elected leadership positions. The top 20 cities and towns with the largest proportions of Latino residents in Massachusetts account for 57% of the Latino population in the state. Among these ...


Accessing Children's Mental Health Services In A Rural Northern California County, Deborah Wingate Jun 2019

Accessing Children's Mental Health Services In A Rural Northern California County, Deborah Wingate

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

When children are detained and enter the foster care system, social workers screen them to determine if mental health services are needed. Formal referrals to mental health providers are made, however there is a significant wait time between referral and service delivery.

The focus of this study was to explore these barriers to mental health services in an effort to identify approaches that might improve service access. Qualitative face-to-face interviews were conducted with key stakeholders using an Ecological Systems Theory to fashion a hermeneutic dialect and a joint construct toward a shared action plan. Data was collected from the interviews ...


Food Insecurity Among South Asian Immigrant Communities In The Inland Empire Of Southern California, Farhan Danish Jun 2019

Food Insecurity Among South Asian Immigrant Communities In The Inland Empire Of Southern California, Farhan Danish

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Background: Food insecurity amongst South Asian Americans is a major public health issue. The South Asian American (SAA) community is the third largest Asian community in the United States. Despite this fact, very few specific studies have been conducted to investigate the food needs and barriers that exist within the SAA community so as to successfully help them improve dietary habits.

Methods: This study utilized a mixed methods convergent parallel design, where both qualitative and quantitative methods were conducted and analyzed separately and compared and contrasted at the end.

Results: The results of this study demonstrate that ethnic grocery stores ...


The Torch (June 2019), Crtp Jun 2019

The Torch (June 2019), Crtp

Torch: The Civil Rights Team Project Newsletter

Civic and Community Engagement | Civil Rights and Discrimination | Education | Gender and Sexuality | Inequality and Stratification | Politics and Social Change | Public Policy | Race and Ethnicity


Latino Political Leadership In Massachusetts: 2019, Bianca Ortiz-Wythe, Christa M. Kelleher, Fabián Torres-Ardila Jun 2019

Latino Political Leadership In Massachusetts: 2019, Bianca Ortiz-Wythe, Christa M. Kelleher, Fabián Torres-Ardila

Gastón Institute Publications

There is very limited Latino presence in the State Senate, with one Latina State Senator in office; having five Latinos in the Senate would be proportionate to the statewide Latino population. Six Latinos serve in the 160-member House of Representatives; eighteen would be proportionate. There are no Latinos in the state’s congressional delegation.

City councilors and members of school committees account for 83% of all Latinos serving in key elected leadership positions. The top 20 cities and towns with the largest proportions of Latino residents in Massachusetts account for 57% of the Latino population in the state. Among these ...


Child Welfare: Trauma Informed Practice At Time Of Child Removal, Ester Garcia Jun 2019

Child Welfare: Trauma Informed Practice At Time Of Child Removal, Ester Garcia

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

As of 2018, approximately 442,995 children are in the foster care system in the United States according to the federal statistics from the Children’s Bureau. Entry into the foster system involves the removal of children from their home, making it a traumatic experience. The purpose of this study was to examine social workers’ perceptions of what trauma informed practice means and what it looks like in child welfare removals. The study also clarifies what trauma informed practice (TIP) is and how it can be applied in child welfare’s organizational structure. This was a qualitative study in which ...


Social Workers' Perception On The Needs And Services For Foster Children With Special Needs, Jessica Joanna Jimenez, Winnie Wing Yang Lee Jun 2019

Social Workers' Perception On The Needs And Services For Foster Children With Special Needs, Jessica Joanna Jimenez, Winnie Wing Yang Lee

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Foster children are already at a disadvantage given that they tend to live in a home without their parents. Social workers have direct interactions working with children with special needs, and through interviews with the workers, we aimed to understand whether or not the services available are able to meet foster children’s special needs. The research on special needs children in foster care is quite limited. The purpose of the study was to identify social workers’ perceptions of the needs of special needs foster children and their access to services.

This study used qualitative interviews with open-ended questions to ...


Opioid Overdose Deaths And Potentially Inappropriate Opioid Prescribing Practices (Pip): A Spatial Epidemiological Study, Thomas J. Stopka, Harsha Amaravadi, Anna R. Kaplan, Rachel Hoh, Dana Bernson, Kenneth K.H. Chui, Thomas Land, Alexander Y. Walley, Marc R. Larochelle, Adam J. Rose Jun 2019

Opioid Overdose Deaths And Potentially Inappropriate Opioid Prescribing Practices (Pip): A Spatial Epidemiological Study, Thomas J. Stopka, Harsha Amaravadi, Anna R. Kaplan, Rachel Hoh, Dana Bernson, Kenneth K.H. Chui, Thomas Land, Alexander Y. Walley, Marc R. Larochelle, Adam J. Rose

Open Access Articles

INTRODUCTION: Opioid overdose deaths quintupled in Massachusetts between 2000 and 2016. Potentially inappropriate opioid prescribing practices (PIP) are associated with increases in overdoses. The purpose of this study was to conduct spatial epidemiological analyses of novel comprehensively linked data to identify overdose and PIP hotspots.

METHODS: Sixteen administrative datasets, including prescription monitoring, medical claims, vital statistics, and medical examiner data, covering >98% of Massachusetts residents between 2011-2015, were linked in 2017 to better investigate the opioid epidemic. PIP was defined by six measures: > /=100 morphine milligram equivalents (MMEs), co-prescription of benzodiazepines and opioids, cash purchases of opioid prescriptions, opioid prescriptions ...


Book Review - Making Ubumwe: Power, State And Camps In Rwanda’S Unity-Building Projects, Claudine A. Kuradusenge-Mcleod Jun 2019

Book Review - Making Ubumwe: Power, State And Camps In Rwanda’S Unity-Building Projects, Claudine A. Kuradusenge-Mcleod

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

No abstract provided.