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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Social-Ecological And Protective Factor Approach To Managing Parental Incarceration, Jacquelyn Harris Jun 2020

Social-Ecological And Protective Factor Approach To Managing Parental Incarceration, Jacquelyn Harris

Dissertations

Mass imprisonment does not only impact the incarcerated individual; it also affects approximately five million children in the United States. Researchers identified and compare the impact of parental incarceration on child development. They acknowledged the protective factors across the lifecycle from a social-ecological perspective and specifically related to parental incarceration. The comprehensive literature review inspired an innovative model, the social-ecological and protective factor approach to managing parental incarceration. The primary goal of this model is to combat the detrimental effects of parental incarceration by identifying protective factors across the lifecycle and throughout the microsystem, mesosystem, and exosystem. This model is ...


Felony Disenfranchisement: Factors Relating To Support For Restoration, Alexis K. Karpf Jun 2020

Felony Disenfranchisement: Factors Relating To Support For Restoration, Alexis K. Karpf

Student Theses

Felony Disenfranchisement, a collateral consequence, strips justice-involved individuals of their voting rights. While this policy is enacted in 48 states and the District of Columbia, a majority of community members are unaware of its existence. The current study used three hypotheses to guide its research about how education about disenfranchisement policy impacts a community member's opinion:1) Participants exposed to information about the effects of disenfranchisement will be more supportive of enfranchisement than those in the control condition; 2) Participants who receive the vignette featuring the White justice-involved individual will indicate a higher level of support for enfranchisement compared ...


A Database Of Two-Dimensional Images Of Footwear Outsole Impressions, Soyoung Park, Alicia L. Carriquiry Jun 2020

A Database Of Two-Dimensional Images Of Footwear Outsole Impressions, Soyoung Park, Alicia L. Carriquiry

CSAFE Publications

Footwear outsole images were obtained from 150 pairs of used shoes. The motivation for constructing the database was to enable a statistical analysis of two-dimensional (2D) images of shoe outsoles, to understand within shoe (between replicate images of the same shoe) and between shoe variability, and to develop methods for the evaluation of forensic pattern evidence of shoeprints. Since we scanned the outsole of the used shoes, the images capture not only the outsole pattern design but also the marks that arise from wear and tear and that may help identify the shoe that made the impression. Each shoe in ...


Sanctuary Cities And Their Respective Effect On Crime Rates, Adam R. Schutt May 2020

Sanctuary Cities And Their Respective Effect On Crime Rates, Adam R. Schutt

Undergraduate Economic Review

According to the U.S. Center for Immigration Studies (2017), cities or counties in twenty-four states declare themselves as a place of “sanctuary” for illegal immigrants. This study addresses the following question: Do sanctuary cities experience higher crime rates than those cities that are not? Using publicly available data, this regression analysis investigates the relationship between crime rates in selected cities and independent variables which the research literature or the media has linked to criminal activity. Results of this research reveal that sanctuary cities do not experience higher violent or property crime rates than those cities that are not sanctuary ...


Mindfulness And The Need To Minimize The Risk Of Harm: A Proposal To Implement And Enforce Standards For Secular Mindfulness Practice, Michael Falick May 2020

Mindfulness And The Need To Minimize The Risk Of Harm: A Proposal To Implement And Enforce Standards For Secular Mindfulness Practice, Michael Falick

Mindfulness Studies Theses

While Western mindfulness practice is indeed beneficial for many participants, the research now clearly demonstrates that for some meditators, there are attendant potential risks. These potential risks to practitioners require a level of care from those individuals (and corporations) that disseminate mindfulness practice. Historically, in traditional Buddhist practice, mindfulness was but one of the eight factors on the Noble Eightfold Path. An important component of traditional practice strongly relies on ethics in the delivery of the practice. A formalized standard of care for modern, secular mindfulness practices, and a method to implement and enforce that standard, will greatly enhance safety ...


Congressional Committee Resources On Space Policy During The 115th Congress (2017-2018): Providing Context And Insight Into Us Government Space Policy, Bert Chapman May 2020

Congressional Committee Resources On Space Policy During The 115th Congress (2017-2018): Providing Context And Insight Into Us Government Space Policy, Bert Chapman

Libraries Faculty and Staff Presentations

Article 1 of the US Constitution assigns the US Congress numerous responsibilities. These include creating new laws, revising existing laws, funding government programs, and conducting oversight of these programs' performance. Oversight of US Government agency space policy programs is executed by various congressional space policy committees including the House and Senate Science Committees, Armed Services, and Appropriations Committees. These committees conduct many public hearings on space policy, which invite expert witnesses to testify on US space policy programs and feature debate on the strengths and weaknesses of these programs. Documentation produced by these committees is widely available to the public ...


Indoctrination And Social Influence As A Defense To Crime: Are We Responsible For Who We Are?, Paul H. Robinson, Lindsay Holcomb May 2020

Indoctrination And Social Influence As A Defense To Crime: Are We Responsible For Who We Are?, Paul H. Robinson, Lindsay Holcomb

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

A patriotic POW is brainwashed by his North Korean captors into refusing repatriation and undertaking treasonous anti-American propaganda for the communist regime. Despite the general abhorrence of treason in time of war, the American public opposes criminal liability for such indoctrinated soldiers, yet existing criminal law provides no defense or mitigation because, at the time of the offense, the indoctrinated offender suffers no cognitive or control dysfunction, no mental or emotional impairment, and no external or internal compulsion. Rather, he was acting purely in the exercise of free of will, albeit based upon beliefs and values that he had not ...


Minority Vetoes In Consociational Legislatures: Ultimately Weaponized?, Devin Haymond May 2020

Minority Vetoes In Consociational Legislatures: Ultimately Weaponized?, Devin Haymond

Indiana Journal of Constitutional Design

In societies emerging from or at risk for conflict, dividing power among rival groups—called power-sharing—can be an appropriate arrangement to maintaining peace. But how can groups, who are often emerging from violent conflict, trust sharing a government with rival groups that were just recently shooting at them?

A potential solution is the minority veto, which is allows minority groups to block the government from harming those groups’ vital interests. But what sorts of change blocking mechanisms constitute a minority veto? Who gets the veto power, and when can they be used? Do minority vetoes function as effective incentives ...


Taxonomy Of Powers And Roles Of Upper Chambers In Bicameral Legislatures, Carolyn Griffith May 2020

Taxonomy Of Powers And Roles Of Upper Chambers In Bicameral Legislatures, Carolyn Griffith

Indiana Journal of Constitutional Design

Bicameral legislatures exist around the world, with power divisions to create checks and balances on the constitutional order as a whole. In the context of constitutional design, this presents a variety of options of roles and rights given to each chamber at each step in both the legislative process and beyond. Taken as a whole, this taxonomy demonstrates there are nearly an infinite number of possibilities for separating powers between upper and lower chambers in bicameral legislatures. Often, these decisions are guided by the history of the country. For each federal legislature that places powers or votes in one chamber ...


Models Of Pre-Promulgation Review Of Legislation, Rachel Myers May 2020

Models Of Pre-Promulgation Review Of Legislation, Rachel Myers

Indiana Journal of Constitutional Design

Pre-promulgation review seeks to harmonize legislation with the constitution by engaging in a dialogue among government institutions that seeks to prevent unconstitutional legislation from becoming law. Pre-promulgation review is an integral part of the lawmaking process, and this study seeks to unite scholarship on different methods of this review in a comparative survey to assist lawyers, policymakers, and scholars. A wide range of institutions may fulfill the function of reviewing proposed legislation for compliance with the constitution or other codes of national importance prior to their passage into law. Because of this diversity, scholarship on the topic of pre-promulgation review ...


The Impact Of Police Officer Age On Leadership And Workplace Preferences, Abigail H. Lauer May 2020

The Impact Of Police Officer Age On Leadership And Workplace Preferences, Abigail H. Lauer

Ed.D. Dissertations

Police departments are experiencing low levels of police applicants and high turnover rates due to the current climate of policing and internal and external stressors. Police department management desires to be proficient in recruiting and managing police officers of different generations who may have varying desires and needs. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the impact of generational differences on police officer leadership and workplace preferences in order to make recommendations to police department management about how to better engage, manage, recruit and retain police officers of different generations. The current study employed a quantitative design made ...


Multigenerational Perceptions Of The Law Enforcement Work Environment, William K. Akin May 2020

Multigenerational Perceptions Of The Law Enforcement Work Environment, William K. Akin

Ed.D. Dissertations

Leaders struggle to address shifting characteristics between generational cohorts in a multigenerational workforce. Research has shown that law enforcement culture supports an antiquated approach to leadership and that popular generational stereotypes are not consistent with behaviors in the workplace. This research was designed to help the law enforcement community understand generational values, beliefs, and work ethics, and to recommend ways to reduce generational stereotypes, address employee shortages, and improve the overall connection to their communities. The Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire II was used in an online survey to anonymously collect data from 441 law enforcement participants within the Baby Boomer, Generation ...


Investigation Of The History Of Fingerprinting, Advancements In The Field, And Development Of Potential Methods That Could Improve The Detection Of Endogenous And Exogenous Drugs In Latent Prints, Kristen Malloy May 2020

Investigation Of The History Of Fingerprinting, Advancements In The Field, And Development Of Potential Methods That Could Improve The Detection Of Endogenous And Exogenous Drugs In Latent Prints, Kristen Malloy

Honors Theses

When someone thinks of fingerprinting, they are most likely going to picture how a latent print is matched to the fingerprint of a suspect based on ridge pattern analysis. However, there is much more information that can be obtained from a latent print. The work performed in this thesis focuses the detection of exogenous and endogenous drugs in latent prints. The experiments performed analyzed fingerprints from volunteers that were contaminated with one of three common painkillers: acetaminophen, acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), and ibuprofen. Three different instruments were tested for this purpose: MALDI-MS, ATR-FTIR, and LC-MS. Based on the results gathered, it ...


Youtube Is Unsafe For Children: Youtube's Safeguards And The Current Legal Framework Are Inadequate To Protect Children From Disturbing Content, Heather Wilson May 2020

Youtube Is Unsafe For Children: Youtube's Safeguards And The Current Legal Framework Are Inadequate To Protect Children From Disturbing Content, Heather Wilson

Seattle Journal of Technology, Environmental & Innovation Law

For America’s children, the amount of screen time they consume has not changed much over the years. Children under eight have steadily spent about two hours a day in front of a screen, with those under age two averaging 42 minutes a day. Children from low-income families spend roughly an hour and forty minutes longer in front of a screen. According to the American Academy of Pediatrics, screen time should be limited to two hours a day for children ages two to five; whereas, for those youngest children—under two years—they recommend zero screen time.

While the average ...


Criminal Justice News, Georgia Southern University May 2020

Criminal Justice News, Georgia Southern University

Criminal Justice & Criminology News

  • GS Criminal Justice and Criminology Faculty Contribute to Special Issue of ‘Policing: An International Journal”


Keep Kids Out Of Prison: Community-Based Alternatives For Nonviolent Juvenile Offenders, Anessa L. Pennington May 2020

Keep Kids Out Of Prison: Community-Based Alternatives For Nonviolent Juvenile Offenders, Anessa L. Pennington

Intuition: The BYU Undergraduate Journal of Psychology

Abstract

While juvenile crime has dropped over the past 20 years, tens of thousands of juvenile offenders are still incarcerated around the country, many of whom are nonviolent offenders. Researchers have found that detention centers, sometimes indistinguishable from adult prisons, do little to reduce recidivism and rehabilitate the offender. Rather, detention brings about more adverse effects than it does benefits. If incarceration isn’t working, how are the United States and other countries to deal with and deter juvenile crime? Community-based programs are a promising alternative to incarceration; instead of jumpsuits and cramped cells, community-based programs rely on community resources ...


Parricidal Juveniles And Young Adults: Why Do They Kill? An In-Depth Look At Literature And Case Study, Madison Barber May 2020

Parricidal Juveniles And Young Adults: Why Do They Kill? An In-Depth Look At Literature And Case Study, Madison Barber

Honors Theses

This paper explores the leading factors that could cause a juvenile or young adult to murder one or both of their biological, step, or adoptive parents. Through analysis of current research and case study, this paper aims to explore juvenile and early adulthood parricide through the scope of mental illness and the presence of abuse or neglect in the perpetrator’s home. Contradicting research shows disagreement in the leading cause of parricide and the ability to predict, and therefore prevent, these types of murders. This paper focuses largely on prevention through intervention of law enforcement and the criminal justice realm ...


Gender And Judicial Decision-Making, Alexandra Just May 2020

Gender And Judicial Decision-Making, Alexandra Just

Undergraduate Theses

This study employs a unique two-tiered approach, involving both quantitative and qualitative methodology to analyze the influences – specifically, a judge’s gender – on the judicial decision-making process. First, a quantitative bivariate regression analysis was conducted to determine whether a Federal District Court judge’s gender had a statistically significant influence on the ideological direction of case outcomes (which is either liberal, meaning the decision was in favor of the petitioner, or conservative, meaning the decision was against the petitioner). Data was analyzed using the statistical program SPSS and was pulled from the 2016 Carp-Manning database, which contains over 110,000 ...


Criminal Justice News, Georgia Southern University May 2020

Criminal Justice News, Georgia Southern University

Criminal Justice & Criminology News

  • Virtual Spring 2020 Award Ceremony


College Student Perceptions Of System-Culpability In The Frequency Of Wrongful Convictions: Gauging The Importance Of Respondent Characteristics, Merideth Smith May 2020

College Student Perceptions Of System-Culpability In The Frequency Of Wrongful Convictions: Gauging The Importance Of Respondent Characteristics, Merideth Smith

Honors Theses

Prior literature has highlighted several factors that contribute to wrongful convictions and described the frequency in which these factors influence wrongful convictions; they include mistaken eyewitness identification, mishandling of forensic evidence, and misconduct among criminal justice professionals. The literature concerning perceptions of the influence of these factors on wrongful convictions is limited, however, by its failure to consider the impact of respondent characteristics on their perceptions. In this study, I extend this line of research by examining the influence of respondent characteristics on perceptions of the culpability of criminal justice actors, contamination of forensic evidence, and mistaken eyewitness identification in ...


The Violence Against Women's Act: From The Criminalization Of Domestic Violence Through Modern Political Challenges, Carrie Anderson May 2020

The Violence Against Women's Act: From The Criminalization Of Domestic Violence Through Modern Political Challenges, Carrie Anderson

Theses/Capstones/Creative Projects

The Violence Against Women’s Act, or VAWA, is a landmark piece of federal legislation to combat domestic violence in the United States. It passed in 1994 following various state efforts to stop intimate partner violence. Broad federal legislation was needed to end domestic violence because of the unique nature of the crime including the strong connection between victims and perpetrators, the vast scale of the problem, and the reoccurring nature of domestic violence (Fagan, p. 28-29, 1996). VAWA has been expanded through reauthorization efforts in 2000, 2005, and 2013. Reform efforts have focused on increasing protections for victims especially ...


Students’ Perceptions Of Campus Sexual Assault Resources: An Appalachian Perspective, Rychelle Moses May 2020

Students’ Perceptions Of Campus Sexual Assault Resources: An Appalachian Perspective, Rychelle Moses

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Research relating to campus sexual assault has traditionally focused on its prevalence and factors that serve to influence risk of victimization. Less attention has been directed toward the presence and effectiveness of campus sexual assault resources. In addition, few studies have explored the role that culture and other geographical factors may play in this process. The current study seeks to address this limitation in two unique ways: (1) determining whether an Appalachian upbringing influences knowledge of and willingness to utilize campus sexual assault resources and (2) exploring its impact on adherence to common rape myths. Survey data are gathered from ...


Waiving Barriers For The Homeless To Obtain Independent Housing, Corinne M. Schnadelbach May 2020

Waiving Barriers For The Homeless To Obtain Independent Housing, Corinne M. Schnadelbach

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Improving Indigent Defense: An Evaluation Of Program Effectiveness For The California Defense Investigators Association’S Defense Investigator Training Academy, Sheree Martinek May 2020

Improving Indigent Defense: An Evaluation Of Program Effectiveness For The California Defense Investigators Association’S Defense Investigator Training Academy, Sheree Martinek

Master's Projects

Training is a crucial component of investigation work; however, there is a significant discrepancy regarding the training mandated and received by prosecution-oriented and defense-oriented investigators. Prosecution investigators (such as law enforcement detectives or District Attorney investigators) have considerable resources and require extensive training aside from one’s education. In respect to training, investigators who work for the prosecution are required to complete the California Peace Officer Standards and Training (POST). Completion of POST is a minimum of 664 hours of training (POST, 2020). However, there is no mandatory training program, academy, or number of cumulative training hours required for an ...


Analyses Of Prosecutorial Power And Discretion In Mississippi: Evaluating Proposals To Address Misconduct And Abuse, Lucy Pruitt Apr 2020

Analyses Of Prosecutorial Power And Discretion In Mississippi: Evaluating Proposals To Address Misconduct And Abuse, Lucy Pruitt

Honors Theses

This thesis seeks to create a policy proposal in order to address incidences of prosecutorial misconduct and abuse of discretion in the Mississippi criminal justice system. To do so, the author has summarized and analyzed seven criminal cases in which defendants have become victims of prosecutorial misconduct in order to shed light on the lack of prosecutorial accountability in the state’s criminal justice system. In an attempt to solve the problem, the author has developed a novel grading rubric in order to objectively and systematically analyze and evaluate previously proposed policy recommendations by legal experts and justice organizations. The ...


Hong Kong, Alvaro Harrison Hucker '22, Blake Barth '22, Philip Yi '22 Apr 2020

Hong Kong, Alvaro Harrison Hucker '22, Blake Barth '22, Philip Yi '22

Student Leadership Exchange (SLX)

The relationship between China and Hong Kong has been very tense for years ever since Britain allowed Hong Kong to become for 50 years in 1997, before the region would have to officially return to China. Knowing that their 50 years of having a self-governing body will end in 2047, Hong Kong citizens are constantly afraid of their rights. Now to add to the tension, China attempted to pass the Extradition Bill, which would have any citizen of Hong Kong, Taiwan, Macau who has committed a crime, be tried in China instead of where they live. This created an uproar ...


You Don’T Need A Weatherman To Know Which Way The Wind Blows: The Prison Break Of Timothy Leary, Phoebe N. Holman Apr 2020

You Don’T Need A Weatherman To Know Which Way The Wind Blows: The Prison Break Of Timothy Leary, Phoebe N. Holman

Young Historians Conference

This paper examines the revolutionary merit of the Weather Underground Organization’s prison break of LSD guru Timothy Leary. Was Leary truly an activist willing to risk everything to introduce the public to the healing powers of psychedelics? Or was he an unprofessional mad scientist using his students to further his own agenda? It also provides an explanation of how the WUO and other anti-war organizations like it brought the United States to the brink of a massive societal shift—and then disappeared.


Women In Law: Exploring Expectations For Women In A Man's Profession, Taylor Carroll, Jacqueline M. Zalewski Dr. Apr 2020

Women In Law: Exploring Expectations For Women In A Man's Profession, Taylor Carroll, Jacqueline M. Zalewski Dr.

Anthropology & Sociology Student Work

Over the winter break I read the following about gender inequality in the workforce: (a) Gender Trials by Jennifer L. Pierce, (b) Women in Engineering: Gender Power and Workplace Culture by Judith S. McIlwee and J. Gregg Robinson, in preparation for an independent research project on Women in Law. I am planning to do interviews with several female attorneys that I have contacted via the West Chester University Alumni Association. These attorneys will be surveyed about their experiences with pursuing law as undergraduates, Law School students, and as licensed attorney. Working with Dr. Zalewski, I will then compile the data ...


Volume 12, Haleigh James, Hannah Meyls, Hope Irvin, Megan E. Hlavaty, Samara L. Gall, Austin J. Funk, Karyn Keane, Sarah Ghali, Antonio Harvey, Andrew Jones, Rachel Hazelwood, Madison Schmitz, Marija Venta, Haley Tebo, Jeremiah Gilmer, Bridget Dunn, Benjamin Sullivan, Mckenzie Johnson Apr 2020

Volume 12, Haleigh James, Hannah Meyls, Hope Irvin, Megan E. Hlavaty, Samara L. Gall, Austin J. Funk, Karyn Keane, Sarah Ghali, Antonio Harvey, Andrew Jones, Rachel Hazelwood, Madison Schmitz, Marija Venta, Haley Tebo, Jeremiah Gilmer, Bridget Dunn, Benjamin Sullivan, Mckenzie Johnson

Incite: The Journal of Undergraduate Scholarship

Introduction, Dr. Roger A. Byrne, Dean

From the Editor, Dr. Larissa "Kat" Tracy

From the Designers, Rachel English, Rachel Hanson

Immortality in the Mortal World: Otherworldly Intervention in "Lanval" and "The Wife of Bath's Tale" by Haleigh James

Analysis of Phenolic Compounds in Moroccan Olive Oils by HPLC by Hannah Meyls

Art by Hope Irvin

The Effects of Cell Phone Use on Gameplay Enjoyment and Frustration by Megan E. Hlavaty, Samara L. Gall, and Austin J. Funk

Care, No Matter What: Planned Parenthood's Use of Organizational Rhetoric to Expand its Reputation by Karyn Keane

Analysis of Petroleum Products ...


The Relationship Between Age And Gender And Its Effect On Intergenerational Patterns Of Incarceration, Sominishia Wright Apr 2020

The Relationship Between Age And Gender And Its Effect On Intergenerational Patterns Of Incarceration, Sominishia Wright

Virginias Collegiate Honors Council Conference

Mass incarceration has been a dominant concern within the criminal justice system since the 1970s. Criminologists and other researchers have looked at the effects crime has on the steadily increasing incarceration rate but to little avail. Intergenerational patterns of incarceration further oppress minority and low-income communities. Although researchers have been able to identify some forms of causation, much more research needs to be done to understand why certain people, according to race, age, gender, and socioeconomic status, are more likely to be incarcerated, arrested, and convicted than others. Current research identifies deviant parents and paternal incarceration as factors that increase ...