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International and Area Studies

Latin America

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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Becoming A Superpower: China’S Rise And The Belt And Road Initiative In Latin America, Garrett Bullock Jul 2019

Becoming A Superpower: China’S Rise And The Belt And Road Initiative In Latin America, Garrett Bullock

History Summer Fellows

Is China a Superpower? Will it become one? After half a century of establishing a strong international military presence, thriving economic growth, domestic/international political authority, and considerable cultural “soft power”, the PRC has emerged as a hegemon capable of competing in international geopolitics. Nevertheless, these questions remain unanswered. For this reason, this research explores what it means to be a superpower, whether China is or will be a superpower, and, importantly, what impact China’s rise has on the world. To do this, this research explores existing debates surrounding China’s current global status, the historical emergence of the ...


Prevalence And Correlates Of Diagnosed And Undiagnosed Hypertension In The Indigenous Kuna Population Of Panamá, Daniel R. Hanna, Rebekah J. Walker, Brittany L. Smalls, Jennifer A. Campbell, Aprill Z. Dawson, Leonard E. Egede Jun 2019

Prevalence And Correlates Of Diagnosed And Undiagnosed Hypertension In The Indigenous Kuna Population Of Panamá, Daniel R. Hanna, Rebekah J. Walker, Brittany L. Smalls, Jennifer A. Campbell, Aprill Z. Dawson, Leonard E. Egede

Center for Health Services Research Faculty Publications

Background: To determine the prevalence of hypertension and investigate sociodemographic correlates in an indigenous Kuna community living on the San Blas islands of Panama.

Methods: Data was collected from adults using a paper-based survey using a cross sectional study design. Blood pressure was measured, and hypertension defined at two cut-points: 130/80 mmHg and 140/90 mmHg. Individuals with undiagnosed hypertension had a blood pressure measurement that indicated hypertension, however, the individual had not been told by a doctor they had hypertension. Whereas individuals with diagnosed hypertension had been told by a healthcare provider that they had hypertension. Univariate tests ...


Pink Tape: Leftist State Bureaucracy And Neoliberalism In The Mining Sectors Of Bolivia And Ecuador, Cristina Nicole Mendez Feb 2019

Pink Tape: Leftist State Bureaucracy And Neoliberalism In The Mining Sectors Of Bolivia And Ecuador, Cristina Nicole Mendez

Senior Theses

Latin America is the locus of various policy experiments and social movements, where political and economic leaders have vacillated between prioritizing neoliberalism and social security since the 1960s. Scholars have observed Latin American leftist governments for viable alternatives to neoliberal economics, but such projects have effectively failed to truly change the course of economic development in Latin America (Weyland, 2010; Escobar, 2010). One of the most salient contemporary instances of this ideological conflict has been the issue of land use rights and neo-extractivism, particularly in mining conflicts in the Andes of South America. This thesis posits that so-called leftist political ...


Small Scale Sport Events And Sustainability: A Case Study In Torres Del Paine National Park, Chile, Jennifer Valarde-Menary Jan 2019

Small Scale Sport Events And Sustainability: A Case Study In Torres Del Paine National Park, Chile, Jennifer Valarde-Menary

University of the Pacific Theses and Dissertations

Small-scale sport events have been argued to be sustainable form of tourism development for communities (Gibson, 1999). The purpose of this study was to analyze four small-scale sport events all operated by NIGSA (Nómadas International Group SA) in the Magallanes region of Chile. The four events at the core of this study were: Patagonian Expedition Race, Patagonian International Marathon, Ultra Trail Torres del Paine, and the Ultra Fiord which operate partially or completely inside the Torres del Paine National Park. As a biosphere reserve established by the United Nations, Torres del Paine National Park requires a sustainable perspective of event ...


Crashing Waves: Policies And Opportunities In The Venezuelan Migration Crisis, Hannah Daniel Jan 2019

Crashing Waves: Policies And Opportunities In The Venezuelan Migration Crisis, Hannah Daniel

Undergraduate Honors Theses

This research seeks to understand migration, by asking the question, what shapes migration patterns in a crisis? To answer this question, the Venezuelan Migration Crisis, a situation emerging in 2014 and continuing to cause large flows of migration throughout Latin America into 2018, is used as a case study. This research presents unique policies and opportunities in Peru and Colombia, showing that migrants and policymakers have a cyclical relationship, which dictates flows of migration. Finding that policy strongly influences the opportunities available in a country, migrants have preferences to move toward countries that have crafted emergency-specific responses. The level to ...


Pro-Government Militias And The Legacy Of Military Rule In Latin America, Alexander Mendelsohn Jan 2019

Pro-Government Militias And The Legacy Of Military Rule In Latin America, Alexander Mendelsohn

Honors Undergraduate Theses

Currently Latin America experiences a phenomenon of widely varying levels of violence across the region. Many countries, such as El Salvador and Honduras, have exceptionally high murder rates upwards of 40 homicides per 100,000 people (UNODC 2015). Other countries, such as Uruguay and Argentina, have relatively low rates, below 10 homicides per 100,000 people (UNODC 2015). I believe this variation stems from the use of pro-government militias specifically employed in the past by military governments as tools of suppression. Under the guise of combating subversive elements within their countries, these groups were used to silence and repress those ...


Democracy And Civil Society In Latin America And The Caribbean In A Time Of Change, Susan Appe, Daniel Barragán, Anabel Cruz Dec 2018

Democracy And Civil Society In Latin America And The Caribbean In A Time Of Change, Susan Appe, Daniel Barragán, Anabel Cruz

Gobernar: The Journal of Latin American Public Policy and Governance

No abstract provided.


‘Haciendas And Plantations’: History And Limitations Of A 60-Year-Old Taxonomy, Marc Edelman Dec 2018

‘Haciendas And Plantations’: History And Limitations Of A 60-Year-Old Taxonomy, Marc Edelman

Publications and Research

In 1957, Eric R Wolf and Sidney W Mintz published ‘Haciendas and Plantations in Middle America and the Antilles’ in the Jamaican journal Social and Economic Studies. This article discusses the production of the Wolf and Mintz article, its analytical framework and the theoretical tensions it contains, and its subsequent influence, mainly though not exclusively on anthropological and historical scholarship about large landed properties in Latin America and the Caribbean. ‘Haciendas and Plantations’ appeared at a time when anthropologists such as Elman Service, Charles Wagley, and Marvin Harris were trying to make sense of agrarian Latin America by developing typologies ...


Fernando Rosenberg. After Human Rights: Literature, Visual Arts, And Film In Latin America, 1990-2010 (Book Review), Karina Elizabeth Vázquez Oct 2018

Fernando Rosenberg. After Human Rights: Literature, Visual Arts, And Film In Latin America, 1990-2010 (Book Review), Karina Elizabeth Vázquez

Latin American, Latino and Iberian Studies Faculty Publications

Review of the book After Human Rights: Literature, Visual Arts, and Film in Latin America, 1990-2010 by Fernando Rosenberg. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2016.


Jlag Perspectives: China's Belt And Road Initiative: What Role For Latin America?, Margaret Myers Aug 2018

Jlag Perspectives: China's Belt And Road Initiative: What Role For Latin America?, Margaret Myers

Journal of Latin American Geography

Though excluded from the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) in its earliest phases, the Latin American and the Caribbean (LAC) region was recently designated as a potential destination for Belt and Road investors. However, the extent to which LAC stands to benefit from enhanced Chinese engagement will depend more on the region’s capacity for policy coordination and strategic planning than on its official inclusion in the Belt and Road.


The Economy Of Divorce: Pensions In Latin America, The Effects On Women, And The Decision To Divorce, Mary Walsh May 2018

The Economy Of Divorce: Pensions In Latin America, The Effects On Women, And The Decision To Divorce, Mary Walsh

Undergraduate Honors Theses

This thesis addresses the gender inequalities produced in pension systems in Latin America, discusses pension reform, and specifically describes gender inequalities that exist for divorced women, and the relationship between divorce and pensions.This topic is important in the discussion in analyzing pension reform in Latin America, as well as analyzing the nuanced degrees of inequalities present for women in Latin America. It is crucial to understand this relationship, in order to address gender inequality as divorce rates continue to rise . To analyze this relationship,I looked at both qualitative and quantitative data.To start I examined the inequalities present ...


Empresa Social E Innovación Sustentable: Soluciones Para El Desarrollo, Marco Tavanti Apr 2018

Empresa Social E Innovación Sustentable: Soluciones Para El Desarrollo, Marco Tavanti

Public and Nonprofit Administration

Keynote presentation to define the lessons and fields and Latin American context of social enterprise. The slides introduce and clarify the notion of social enterprise from global lessons in poverty reduction and sustainable development and in relation to social economy.


Artesana De Sí Misma: Gabriela Mistral, Una Intelectual En Cuerpo Y Palabra, Claudia Cabello Hutt Apr 2018

Artesana De Sí Misma: Gabriela Mistral, Una Intelectual En Cuerpo Y Palabra, Claudia Cabello Hutt

Purdue University Press Book Previews

Artesana de sí misma by Claudia Cabello Hutt reevaluates the place of Nobel laureate Gabriela Mistral in the literary and intellectual history of Latin America, illuminating and filling a number of lingering voids in the study of this canonical figure. Cabello Hutt introduces readers to Mistral’s vast but scarcely studied journalistic prose as well as her unpublished manuscripts, letters, and images held in the United States and in newly opened Chilean archives. Moving beyond her amply discussed poetry, Cabello Hutt demonstrates that Mistral’s essays, visual representations, and gender performance are key to understanding Mistral’s self-construction as a ...


The Importance Of Language In Cross-Cultural Interaction, Lacy Norton Apr 2018

The Importance Of Language In Cross-Cultural Interaction, Lacy Norton

Senior Honors Theses

Language and culture are connected. Because of this connection, people have a preferred language with which they have an emotional or cultural connection. In Latin American cultures, it is beneficial to speak to a person in their preferred language. Using a person’s preferred language as opposed to any other language will facilitate a deeper connection with that person, cross cultural barriers that may separate them, and be more effective when attempting to share the gospel.


The Production Of Space: Indigenous Resistance Movements In The Peruvian Amazon, Christian Calienes Feb 2018

The Production Of Space: Indigenous Resistance Movements In The Peruvian Amazon, Christian Calienes

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The resistance movement that resulted in the Baguazo in the northern Peruvian Amazon in 2009 was the culmination of a series of social, economic, political and spatial processes that reflected the Peruvian nation’s engagement with global capitalism and democratic consolidation after decades of crippling instability and chaos. The recently discovered oil and natural gas reserves that occupy the subsoil of much the Peruvian Amazon provide the latest natural resource upon which the national project can continue to be implemented. In a context of neo-imperialism and neo-extractivism where through accumulation by dispossession, new markets are introduced into global capitalist structures ...


Asilo Para Las Mujeres: The Hesitation To Recognize Women As A Particular Social Group Under U.S. Asylum Legislation And Its Effects On The Central American Migrant Crisis Of Women, Yamilet Eliezet Cortes Gil Jan 2018

Asilo Para Las Mujeres: The Hesitation To Recognize Women As A Particular Social Group Under U.S. Asylum Legislation And Its Effects On The Central American Migrant Crisis Of Women, Yamilet Eliezet Cortes Gil

Senior Projects Spring 2018

Under U.S. Asylum Law a person can seek protection by proving that they have been subject to persecution on account of their : 1) political opinion 2) race 3) religion 4) nationality 5) membership in a particular social group (Nexus)[1]. The Board of Immigration Appeals (BIA), Federal Circuit Courts, and the Supreme Court continue to hesitate to establish “women” as a particular social group that faces persecution. The current Central American migrant crisis of women is the first challenge of this magnitude to U.S. asylum law rethinking its stance on qualifying women as a particular social group. I ...


Truth And Reconciliation Commissions And The Search For Justice: A Comparative Study Of Chile, Argentina And Guatemala, Pastor Jose Arroyo Jan 2018

Truth And Reconciliation Commissions And The Search For Justice: A Comparative Study Of Chile, Argentina And Guatemala, Pastor Jose Arroyo

CMC Senior Theses

During the mid to late 1900s many Latin American countries found themselves under the rule of violent military regimes and in civil war. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the atrocities committed in the late 20th century throughout Latin America and to discuss the ways in which these societies, affected by state violence, were able to overcome the past. In this paper, I will look at the purpose of truth and reconciliation commissions and their outcomes in Chile, Argentina, and Guatemala in order to find some similarities and compare and contrast the successes and failures of the different ...


You've Got A Friend In Me: The Effects Of Lgbtqia+ Legislators On Same-Sex Partnership Rights In Latin America, Danica Genners Jan 2018

You've Got A Friend In Me: The Effects Of Lgbtqia+ Legislators On Same-Sex Partnership Rights In Latin America, Danica Genners

Senior Independent Study Theses

Scholars have debated how descriptive representation might operate as a vehicle for furthering minority rights. Rarely discussed in this literature is the role that the election of LGBTQIA+ politicians can have on overall approval of LGBTQIA+ rights within a country. This study aims to identify the various effects that LGBTQIA+ sexual minority federal representatives in Latin America have on public opinion on pro-LGBTQIA+ policies. Using a multi-year, cross-national survey of eleven Latin American countries my study tests whether the election of a LGBTQIA+ representative is related to more progressive views on same-sex marriage. This study finds that the election of ...


Climate Control: The Case Of Chilean Destabilization, Andrew Arlotto Jan 2018

Climate Control: The Case Of Chilean Destabilization, Andrew Arlotto

Senior Projects Spring 2018

Senior Project submitted to The Division of Social Studies of Bard College.


From The Table Of My Memory: Identity, Political Change, And Shakespeare In Mexico And Argentina, Helena Von Nagy Jan 2018

From The Table Of My Memory: Identity, Political Change, And Shakespeare In Mexico And Argentina, Helena Von Nagy

CUREJ - College Undergraduate Research Electronic Journal

In Mexico and Argentina, the localization of Shakespeare marks the crystallization of a new nationalist, political identity rooted in a reshaped collective memory. The development of this identity and the role of memory form a new kind of national citizenship. This group citizenship gives an individual a connection to a nation established around the collective memory of events, or what I term the memory-nation. The localization of Shakespeare, then, marks the complete formation of a citizenship in a new memory-nation. In Mexico, the localization of Shakespeare and its use in cinema was part of a larger process of defining post-Revolutionary ...


Chinatowns In Latin America, Wendy W. Tan Nov 2017

Chinatowns In Latin America, Wendy W. Tan

Publications and Research

The author has visited many of the Chinatowns in Latin America. The impressions after visiting those Chinatowns were the driving force to write about the journeys, mainly about the criticism of “Chinatown without Chinese” and those astonishing Chinatown Paifangs


Gangs And The Culture Of Violence In El Salvador (What Role Did The Us Play?), Norma Roumie Oct 2017

Gangs And The Culture Of Violence In El Salvador (What Role Did The Us Play?), Norma Roumie

The Great Lakes Journal of Undergraduate History

Gang violence in El Salvador has resulted in conditions that have perpetuated an environment of terror and culture of violence. This paper aims to understand the emergence of transnational gangs in El Salvador and the US involvement in this process. The article is divided into the following subtitles; 1980s civil war and the repercussions of US involvement, Salvadorans migration to the US and reverse migration (with a focus on Los Angeles and San Salvador), and US exportation of heavy-handed policies to El Salvador’s institutionalized use of political violence. The paper concludes that US involvement in El Salvador created a ...


Latin American Gender Politics: Examining The Relationship Between Gender And Political Participation, Haley B. Lawrie May 2017

Latin American Gender Politics: Examining The Relationship Between Gender And Political Participation, Haley B. Lawrie

Senior Honors Projects, 2010-current

Political participation highlights a great deal about the political system in a given country and how the system responds in turn. Women have a distinct way of participating in politics, particularly in the culture of machismo in contemporary Latin America. In this thesis, I examine the relationship between gender and political participation within two Latin American countries, Peru and Argentina. Through an analysis of voter turnout, political interest, cabinet participation, and political movements, I examine how gender impacts the political sphere. I ultimately argue that gender by itself is not distinctly tied to levels of participatory action for the average ...


Addressing Conundrums For Urban Environmental Planning Under Climate Change In Mexico City, Mexico And Rosario, Argentina, Eric Pasay May 2017

Addressing Conundrums For Urban Environmental Planning Under Climate Change In Mexico City, Mexico And Rosario, Argentina, Eric Pasay

International Development, Community and Environment (IDCE)

Urban centers in Latin America are experiencing rapid growth and a host of intertwined environment and development problems related to climate change. In response, cities have started implementing sustainability initiatives and climate action plans. These plans generally target key sectors, ranging from transportation to water and sanitation, and focus on infrastructure improvements. Often, the objectives of sustainability plans are not met and tend to be mitigation-centric, despite explicit calls to address urban poverty. This paper analyses two case studies in Mexico City, Mexico and Rosario, Argentina to illustrate three risk conundrums that limit the success of sustainability initiatives in cities ...


Building An Inclusive Peace: Lessons From El Salvador, Patrick C. Seed May 2017

Building An Inclusive Peace: Lessons From El Salvador, Patrick C. Seed

International Development, Community and Environment (IDCE)

This paper argues that the peace created after a conflict becomes more sustainable when peace processes are inclusive. The Salvadoran peace process shows how including certain actors reduced political violence while excluding other actors allowed for social and economic marginalization to continue. Based on secondary literature, this paper addresses who was involved in the peace process and how their involvement shaped the evolution of violence within El Salvador. While the peace process erased political violence, not including the unique needs of women and men led to continued social and economic exclusion and marginalization of vulnerable populations. The lessons from El ...


Examining The Link Between Press Freedom And Politics., Megan Wollerton May 2017

Examining The Link Between Press Freedom And Politics., Megan Wollerton

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Freedom of the press is a hallmark of liberal democracy. Denying this civil liberty emboldens a government to exert an undue degree of influence over its citizens. By comparing the media discourse in a democratic country to the media discourse in an authoritarian country, one could reasonably expect to identify unique language markers, which shed light on their divergent political climates. This study specifically sourced articles from the Venezuelan publication El Universal and the Costa Rican publication The Tico Times. The author then analyzed every article related to politics published by both newspapers in March 2014 and in March 2017 ...


Falta De Derechos Humanos Y Violencia: La Crisis Ambiental En América Latina, Vincent J. Gandolfo Iii Apr 2017

Falta De Derechos Humanos Y Violencia: La Crisis Ambiental En América Latina, Vincent J. Gandolfo Iii

Senior Theses and Projects

The purpose of this research is to identify the growing problems associated with environmental degradation in Latin America. For decades, a combination of corrupt governments and lack of environmental legislation has allowed large companies to exploit the environmental resources of many different Latin American countries. Latin America is an extremely biodiverse region of the world and environmental resources are valuable. Large companies have monopolized environmental resources for profit, which has caused protests and violence. Most these large international companies have been allowed to harvest valuable resources, pollute the environment, and leave without any consequences. Because many Latin American governments prioritize ...


Adam Goodman Interview, Jennifer Thomson Feb 2017

Adam Goodman Interview, Jennifer Thomson

Bucknell: Occupied

Jennifer Thomson, assistant professor of History at Bucknell University, interviews Adam Goodman, assistant professor of Latin American and Latino Studies and History at the University of Illinois at Chicago. Thomson and Goodman discuss the Trump administration's Executive Order Protecting the Nation from Foreign Terrorist Entry into the United States issued January 27, 2017. Dr. Goodman reviews past executive orders related to immigration and specific issues which may affect higher education. Dr. Thomson mentions community interest in adopting sanctuary campus policies at Bucknell University.


El Camp Latinoamericano Y La Manifestación Del Exceso En Tres Casos: José Asunción Silva, Copi Y Arturo Ripstein, Sergio Alberto Macias Jan 2017

El Camp Latinoamericano Y La Manifestación Del Exceso En Tres Casos: José Asunción Silva, Copi Y Arturo Ripstein, Sergio Alberto Macias

Spanish and Portuguese Graduate Theses & Dissertations

At the end of the 19th Century, a unique style associated with homosexuality known as Camp arrived in Latin America. Despite previous statements explaining Camp aesthetics as a postmodern cultural manifestation, this study argues that Camp can be traced in Latin America to the end of the 19th Century with the founding text of Latin American Camp, De sobremesa (1894) by José Asunción Silva. This novel shows similarities with the literary work of Oscar Wild, who was facing trial for being a sodomite (homosexual) at the time. Camp semiotics are employed in De sobremesa to articulate both gay identity and ...


Tainted Ideals: The Rise And Fall Of The Tupamaros, Jennifer Ann Dufau Jan 2017

Tainted Ideals: The Rise And Fall Of The Tupamaros, Jennifer Ann Dufau

Senior Projects Spring 2017

Senior Project submitted to The Division of Social Studies of Bard College.