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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Roma In The European Union: Structural Barriers To Fundamental Rights, Maria Lovetere Jun 2019

Roma In The European Union: Structural Barriers To Fundamental Rights, Maria Lovetere

Honors Theses

This thesis focuses on the effects of European Union expansion on Roma populations throughout Europe. The EU instituted a number of policies intended to help European Roma, one of the most persecuted minority groups on the continent, but rather than significantly improving quality of life for this population, in many places relations between Roma and greater European society have worsened. I introduce the topic by reviewing the legal frameworks created for this purpose, and discussing existing literature that examines the pitfalls of EU Roma policies.

Next, I argue that through europeanization and profit-oriented migration policies, the EU has furthered the ...


The Neighbor Before The House: Jordan's Internal And External Drivers Regarding The Refugee Crisis, Katherine G. Levingston May 2019

The Neighbor Before The House: Jordan's Internal And External Drivers Regarding The Refugee Crisis, Katherine G. Levingston

Honors Theses

Jordan has the second highest number of refugees in the world per capita next to Lebanon and relies very heavily on aid from the global community, such as the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and the European Union (EU). Furthermore, they lack a legal framework regarding the high amount of refugees that inhabit the country. This raises the question: What are the drivers of Jordanian refugee policy? I argue that the drivers of Jordan’s current refugee policies are their internal pressures, which are Jordan’s ongoing water crisis, unemployment, and education, as well as external funding that ...


Trafficking Of Haitians On The Island Of Hispaniola After The 2010 Earthquake, Caroline Bass May 2019

Trafficking Of Haitians On The Island Of Hispaniola After The 2010 Earthquake, Caroline Bass

Honors Theses

On January 12th, 2010 a 7.0 magnitude earthquake hit the nation of Haiti. The people of Haiti suffered many losses of life, homes, and livelihood. Later that year, as a result of the earthquake, a cholera outbreak occurred in Haiti taking the lives of thousands more. This study attempts to determine if Haitians were at a higher risk of being trafficked and if human trafficking increased on the island after the earthquake. I analyze how human trafficking in Haiti and the Dominican Republic was impacted as a result of the earthquake and the consequent reaction of the Dominican Republic ...


How Non-Centrist Parties Gain Electoral Success In German Politics: An Analysis Of The Alternative Für Deutschland’S Success In The 2017 Federal Election., Madison B. Bickert May 2019

How Non-Centrist Parties Gain Electoral Success In German Politics: An Analysis Of The Alternative Für Deutschland’S Success In The 2017 Federal Election., Madison B. Bickert

Honors Theses

[No Abstract was provided]


Intervening In Wartime Rape: Lessons From Bosnia And Herzegovina And Guatemala, Liv Salinger May 2019

Intervening In Wartime Rape: Lessons From Bosnia And Herzegovina And Guatemala, Liv Salinger

Honors Theses

Rape and sexual violence has been a part of war throughout history. Wartime rape that occurred during the 20th century was often marked by public spectacle and brutality, which caught the attention of the world in new ways. Scholars, policymakers and the general public now consider how militaries and armed groups use rape as a tool of ethnic cleansing and genocide, meaning that this form of violence is used to hinder the health and growth of the enemy population. This study draws upon feminist literature, humanitarian intervention discourse, and international relations literature to develop a feminist intersectional framework with ...


The Diversionary Use Of Media Within The Land Dispute Between Chile And Bolivia, Rebecca Restani Apr 2019

The Diversionary Use Of Media Within The Land Dispute Between Chile And Bolivia, Rebecca Restani

Honors Theses

The land dispute between Bolivia and Chile has been an ongoing conflict that dates back to British decolonization. The War of the Pacific, which ended in 1904 and allowed Chilean sovereignty over land that was formerly Bolivia’s remains the root of the problem, as it rendered Bolivia a landlocked nation. In 2013 Bolivia filed a case with the International Court of Justice demanding negotiations of access to the Pacific Ocean. Within this land dispute, I analyzed the use of Twitter as a method of diversionary politics, which has been largely speculated over the years, that when presidential approval ratings ...


Culture Without Borders: Intercultural Awareness Through Interviews And Images From International Asian Students, Zhi Xin Wee Apr 2019

Culture Without Borders: Intercultural Awareness Through Interviews And Images From International Asian Students, Zhi Xin Wee

Honors Theses

The purpose of this study is to understand and raise awareness of international Asian students’ culture and experiences at Western Michigan University. As an immigrant, I am interested in listening to personal stories about people’s culture and upbringing. I want to give students an opportunity to share their narratives and a chance to help contribute to a better understanding of culture and inclusion on campus.

Through this study, I will explore the unique stories from international Asian students at Western Michigan University to encourage and bring awareness of the many dimensions of diversity. At the end of this research ...


The Relationship Between Droughts And The Tourism Industry: A Case Study On Cape Town, South Africa, Katelyn Drummond Apr 2019

The Relationship Between Droughts And The Tourism Industry: A Case Study On Cape Town, South Africa, Katelyn Drummond

Honors Theses

The Cape Town water crisis has been a worsening problem for the city since its start in 2016, although there has been some alleviation in the second half of 2018. Several researchers have developed a framework for analyzing the impact that droughts have on a location, with some insight into the impact of this occurrence on the tourism industry specifically. This thesis aims to examine the relationship between droughts and the tourism industry through the case study of the Cape Town water crisis. The hypothesis of this study was that the number of tourists visiting Cape Town has been lower ...


The Immigration Crisis In Italy: A Convergence Of Crises And What It Means For Globalization, Emma Salachi Jan 2019

The Immigration Crisis In Italy: A Convergence Of Crises And What It Means For Globalization, Emma Salachi

Honors Theses

This paper is an analysis of what is deemed the “immigration crisis” in Europe as it affects the country of Italy. Originally, I had theorized that the effects of the immigration crisis on Italy were due solely to the failings of the Schengen Agreement. However, upon further research, I concluded the problems of the Schengen are only one part of a larger picture that finds its beginnings in the economic problems of Italy. The worldwide economic crisis of 2008 and the actions of the European Central Bank in the wake of the crisis created a separation in the European Union ...


Do Global Cities Make Green Cities? How Global Governance Impacts Transportation In Bogotá And Medellín, Eleanor Jackson Jan 2019

Do Global Cities Make Green Cities? How Global Governance Impacts Transportation In Bogotá And Medellín, Eleanor Jackson

Honors Theses

This thesis examines how global and local governance has combined to deliver effective and sustainable public transportation in cities by comparing Bogotá’s bus rapid transit (BRT) system, TransMilenio, with Medellín’s mass transit system, STIMVA, often referred to as Metro de Medellín. After considering the rationales used to justify local and global authority over climate change, this analysis problematizes the supposed benefits of empowering global and local actors by highlighting the conflicts of interest that plague the elites who mediate the global and the local. In analyzing the global and local interactions, this work draws from extensive literature to ...


Economic Advancement Across The European Playing Field, Zac Herring Jan 2019

Economic Advancement Across The European Playing Field, Zac Herring

Honors Theses

This project seeks to examine the relationship between economic history, soccer, and economic institutions in countries who have attained varying levels of success on the soccer field and economically. The work of several influential scholars in recent decades has drawn attention to the need for a shift in the goal for economic achievement from industrialization to institutional effectiveness. This study develops a model to further understand the relationship between economic achievement and soccer success. It then includes case studies of three countries from the model in order to further understand the impact of the institutions that have a significant presence ...


Japanese Mascots: Diplomatic Tool, Domestic Escapism, Gwenafaye Mccormick Jan 2019

Japanese Mascots: Diplomatic Tool, Domestic Escapism, Gwenafaye Mccormick

Honors Theses

In Japan, mascots are not only representatives of sports teams and sugary cereals, but are vital diplomatic tools of communication and domestic tools of escapism. Though a multitude of mascots exist, scholarship on the topic tends to portray the body of mascots as one-dimensional. This thesis analyzes the modern mascot field and provides previously undefined categories for mascots based on their application, as their absence hinders further analysis. These definitions also describe the subversive social space that mascots inhabit in Japanese society and allow the thesis to examine consumers’ relationships with mascots. An analysis of the U.S. and Israeli ...


The Holy See And The Syrian Refugee Crisis: A Study Of The Catholic Church's Soft Power, Lauren A. Newman Jan 2019

The Holy See And The Syrian Refugee Crisis: A Study Of The Catholic Church's Soft Power, Lauren A. Newman

Honors Theses

The Syrian Migrant and Refugee Crisis has created 5.6 million refugees who have fled outside of Syria and 6.1 million internally displaced peoples within Syria. Undoubtedly, it is one of the largest humanitarian crises of the modern day. The Catholic Church joins governments and NGOs in responding to the conflict, but modern scholarship has not focused heavily on its role. This paper seeks to investigate how the Catholic Church interacts in the secular field of international relations by looking at its response to the Syrian Migrant and Refugee Crisis. In order to analyze the Church’s response, this ...


Nationalism And Multi-Dimensional Identities: Ba'ath Propaganda During The Iran-Iraq War, Jennie Matuschak Jan 2019

Nationalism And Multi-Dimensional Identities: Ba'ath Propaganda During The Iran-Iraq War, Jennie Matuschak

Honors Theses

In this thesis, I examine the content of and mechanisms of disseminating propaganda originating from Saddam Hussein’s regime during the Iran-Iraq War. This research specifically looks at how and why the regime targeted Iraqi Shi’as during the war, and how that contributed to the ways in which the regime engaged with rhetoric. Moreover, this thesis attempts to make sense of the diverse, and sometimes seemingly opposing, amalgam of the rhetoric’s subject matter and methods of circulation. More broadly, it speaks to the difficulty of fostering an environment that can produce patriotism and lead to the construction of ...


Conflict Or Cooperation: How Climate Change Is Transforming Geopolitics In The Arctic, Mcrae E. Mayfield Jan 2019

Conflict Or Cooperation: How Climate Change Is Transforming Geopolitics In The Arctic, Mcrae E. Mayfield

Honors Theses

The purpose of this project was to show how climate change is transforming geopolitics in the Arctic by creating new economic opportunities leading to the increased militarization of Arctic nations. This thesis triangulates the current Arctic policy of member nations, economic resources and opportunities in the region, and the increased military presence in the region to demonstrate how a potential conflict may occur in the region if the current trend continues. This thesis aims to show how resource greed over non-contiguous territory and an increased military presence escalated tensions in the Arctic.


Food Waste In German Households: A Policy Analysis, Carlie Maree Vowell Jan 2019

Food Waste In German Households: A Policy Analysis, Carlie Maree Vowell

Honors Theses

This thesis examines the issue of food waste in Germany and proposes policy solutions for food waste in German households. The author analyzes the history and background of sustainability and food waste in Germany in order to recommend a change in policy. The author uses a systematic literature review as the primary method for investigating food waste in Germany. The findings indicate that household food waste occurs due to a lack of planning, misreading food labels, misconceptions about food, improper food storage techniques, and a lack of awareness on the economic and environmental implications of food waste. Moreover, various demographic ...


“Nosotras Como Mujeres”: The Environmental Activism Of Indigenous Women Of The Ecuadorian Amazon, Leta Rowan Jan 2019

“Nosotras Como Mujeres”: The Environmental Activism Of Indigenous Women Of The Ecuadorian Amazon, Leta Rowan

Honors Theses

Across Latin America, indigenous organizations have mobilized against environmental destruction inflicted upon their communities. Environmental destruction brought about by climate change and extractive industries has been especially devastating in the Western Amazon- the most biologically diverse region of the Amazon and home to a diversity of indigenous populations. The efforts of indigenous organizations in the Western Amazon, notably the Ecuadorian Amazon, have been successful in affecting progressive environmental policies as a means to protect their natural environments and standards of living. Indigenous women specifically have played a significant role in addressing the climate injustices affecting their communities and have employed ...


The Haves And The Have Nots: Segregation And Marginalization In Puebla, Mexico, Jarvis Benson Jan 2019

The Haves And The Have Nots: Segregation And Marginalization In Puebla, Mexico, Jarvis Benson

Honors Theses

Beginning in the early 1990s, the city of Puebla, Mexico pursued an urbanization strategy based on converting the historic center into a hub for international tourism devoted to marketing colonial architecture and developing another section of the city, Angelópolis, as an affluent space for commerce and elite dwelling. This strategy produced a crowding out effect that relegated the lower and working classes to the peripheries of the city. There are currently high levels of marginalization in Puebla that negatively impact overall citizen well-being, with pockets of precarious populations living in zones with difficult social conditions. Though based on a small ...


Regionalism And Reform: The Consequences Of Consociationalism In Belgium, Elizabeth L. Brown Jan 2019

Regionalism And Reform: The Consequences Of Consociationalism In Belgium, Elizabeth L. Brown

Honors Theses

With the success of the Nieuw-Vlaamse Alliantie (N-VA), a Flemish regionalist party, in recent federal and regional elections, the continued role of regionalism in Belgian politics has been made clear. This has occurred despite significant efforts by Belgian politicians to counteract this tendency. By analyzing the impact of the six state reforms that have drastically affected the political system within the country, this paper outlines how the reforms themselves have unintentionally incentivized the political parties to pursue regionalism as a winning political strategy, which laid the groundwork for the current success of the N-VA. Furthermore, this paper demonstrates how the ...


Institutional Divides: How Democracy Affects Economic Complexity In The Transition Economies Of Eastern Europe And Central Asia, Mary Frances Holland Jan 2019

Institutional Divides: How Democracy Affects Economic Complexity In The Transition Economies Of Eastern Europe And Central Asia, Mary Frances Holland

Honors Theses

The transition economies, in making their way from a command economy to an integrated market economy, experience vastly different levels of development. This work proposes an influence of inclusive, democratic institutions on increased economic complexity. This project reviews the history of diverging political and economic policy decisions across the region. Case studies for Poland, Ukraine, and Kazakhstan review trade data and democratic policies to better understand groups of development across the region. This paper utilizes Daron Acemoglu and James A. Robinson’s institutional developmental theory as a basis for the creation and sustainability of democratic and economically diverse structures.


Renewables & Refugees: A Solution For Jordan, Lauren Burns Jan 2019

Renewables & Refugees: A Solution For Jordan, Lauren Burns

Honors Theses

As the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan continues to host the third largest Syrian refugee population in the world, the state’s infrastructure and its people are taking a toll. Before the war in Syria began, Jordan was already suffering from a weak economy, resource scarcity, and an enormous population boom. Since accepting nearly 2.5 million refugees, these issues have compounded year after year—nearly reaching a breaking point. I propose an unconventional solution to some aspects of the refugee crisis: renewable energy. Renewables are cheaper than fossil fuels, consume less water in electricity generation, emit fewer greenhouse gases, and ...


When Words Are Not Enough: The Development Of Human Trafficking In Venezuela Under The Maduro Administration, Holly Prather Jan 2019

When Words Are Not Enough: The Development Of Human Trafficking In Venezuela Under The Maduro Administration, Holly Prather

Honors Theses

This thesis discusses the role the Maduro administration has played in the development of human trafficking in Venezuela. It does so by employing a qualitative analysis of primary sources such as governmental and NGO reports to determine the links between the Maduro administration and the increase of human trafficking. I argue that the Maduro administration has chosen to employ social policy, the Misiones (Misiones), as the state’s approach to human trafficking instead of enforcing anti-trafficking laws. This, in conjunction with unsound economic policy in response to the 2014 decline in oil prices, gives the Maduro administration a substantial role ...


Rice Bunnies In China's #Metoo: Discussion Of A Feminist Movement Under Censorship, Tyler Caple Jan 2019

Rice Bunnies In China's #Metoo: Discussion Of A Feminist Movement Under Censorship, Tyler Caple

Honors Theses

This paper aims to assess the reception of the currently developing #MeToo movement in China from the perspective of Chinese internet users, feminists, and the state government as well as how censorship affects the way in which these individuals express their opinions on gendered sexual violence in Chinese society. By using a qualitative content analysis to comb through Chinese social media posts, Chinese state- sponsored news articles, and Western news articles, findings suggest that Chinese netizens are engaging with societal concerns over #MeToo and sexual assault, but do not define their grievances as being within a movement presumably to avoid ...


Foreign Direct Investment And Migration To The Persian Gulf, Paul Hunt Jan 2019

Foreign Direct Investment And Migration To The Persian Gulf, Paul Hunt

Honors Theses

This thesis studies the effect of foreign investment policy in the Gulf Cooperation Council member nations on labor migration to the Persian Gulf. The study uses a difference in differences regression to estimate coefficients for financial liberalization, special economic zones, and foreign direct investment on total immigrant stocks. The regression analysis finds a weakly negative association between special economic zones and immigration, and no significant effect of foreign investment.


Generational Expressions Of Basque Nationalism, Mollie Bradford Jan 2019

Generational Expressions Of Basque Nationalism, Mollie Bradford

Honors Theses

This work studies the difference in the expressions of Basque nationalism between the Basque youth and the older generations of the Basque population in the Basque Country of Spain, or Euskadi. I hypothesized that the Basque youth would express nationalism banally, or in everyday activities, while the older generations would be intentional and active in their expressions, due to the older generations’ experiences with the Franco regime and ETA, the Basque terrorist group. I researched using articles from a Basque newspaper, Euskal Irrati Telebista. I chose key words and searched through articles written in 2017. I also conducted a survey ...


Sons Of The Sāqiya: Grassroots Water Politics In Southeastern Morocco, John Chappell Jan 2019

Sons Of The Sāqiya: Grassroots Water Politics In Southeastern Morocco, John Chappell

Honors Theses

This study examines the informal institutions that govern the sāqiya and khettāra irrigation system in southeastern Morocco. I frame those institutions using literature concerning politics of irrigation, governing the commons, and North African political culture. While interviewing farmers in agricultural communities near the Morocco-Algeria border, five themes emerged as key aspects of sāqiya and khettāra governance: the definitions of irrigation communities, the methods of water distribution, the institutions for selecting leaders, and those leaders’ authorities and responsibilities. Institutional arrangements and management practices associated with those themes show that sāqiya and khettāra governance is rooted in the democratic values of consensus ...


Watering The Desert: Azraq, Public Opinion, And Environmental Post-Materialism, Wesley Gerard Jan 2019

Watering The Desert: Azraq, Public Opinion, And Environmental Post-Materialism, Wesley Gerard

Honors Theses

In this thesis, I analyze the physical, political, and societal transformations in Azraq, Jordan, caused by over-exploitation of the town’s aquifer. I also connect the changes I and others have observed in Azraq to two main theories: postmaterialism and its counterarguments, and the tragedy of the commons. In short, postmaterialism argues that societies that have advanced so that citizens do not have to devote their time and money to survival will have larger rates of environmentalism; the tragedy of the commons details the negative consequences of environmental degradation on those living around a common resource. In conducting the study ...


Religion In Education: The Effects Of Political Ideologies On Andalusian Youth, Jessika Brittni Russell Jan 2019

Religion In Education: The Effects Of Political Ideologies On Andalusian Youth, Jessika Brittni Russell

Honors Theses

This study investigates the driving factors behind a student’s choice to take a class on Catholicism, or the alternative social and civil values class, throughout their educational career in Andalusia, Spain. Major sociological theories are used to understand how religion, education, and politics tie together in society, and additionally the impact they have on individuals. In order to understand the personal factors that play into one’s choice to take a class on Catholicism, a survey was created using the platform Qualtrics and afterwards sent out to students in Andalusia, Spain. The study uses a qualitative approach to analyze ...


German Regional Identity And Soccer: Comparison Of Soccer’S Impact On Cultural And Political Identities In Munich And Dortmund, Germany, Megan Degrafft Jan 2019

German Regional Identity And Soccer: Comparison Of Soccer’S Impact On Cultural And Political Identities In Munich And Dortmund, Germany, Megan Degrafft

Honors Theses

This paper aims to explore the relationship between soccer from a regional perspective using FC Bayern Munich and Munich, Germany and Borussia Dortmund and Dortmund, Germany and how those cities’ soccer teams elicit political and regional identities through the dichotomy between the fans and the business mindset of contemporary German soccer. A media analysis using two German language newspapers was used in order to collect articles that reported on the two soccer clubs apart from their result on the field. Pre-existing Twitter hashtags were also used to collect fan reactions towards the reported events. The findings revealed three different crises ...


Politics And Society In Federation Era Russia: Power Elites, Music And The Shaping And Manipulation Of Culture And Identity, Hayley Ream Aug 2018

Politics And Society In Federation Era Russia: Power Elites, Music And The Shaping And Manipulation Of Culture And Identity, Hayley Ream

Honors Theses

This thesis examines the relationship between government and society in shaping and manipulating perceptions – or even illusions – of culture and identity in contemporary Russia. Russia’s relationship with the larger world is arguably playing out in a revisionist post-Soviet era framework, particularly since Vladimir Putin first assumed the role of Acting President of the Russian Federation, following the resignation of Boris Yeltsin, in December 1999. Since, the Russian government has sought to create a perception of a healthy public space within representative democratic structure of government. This is a perception the government of Vladimir Putin is committed to maintaining. This ...