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Economic Policy

2004

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Articles 1 - 30 of 54

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

United States Antitrust Policy In An Age Of Ip Expansion, Herbert J. Hovenkamp Dec 2004

United States Antitrust Policy In An Age Of Ip Expansion, Herbert J. Hovenkamp

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

The idea that there is a tension between antitrust and the intellectual property laws is readily exaggerated. The tension that exists results mainly from our uncertainty about the optimal amount and scope of IP protection. In general, antitrust draws clearer lines than intellectual property law does, although one should not push the point too far. Antitrust policy as manifested in the courts has achieved a fair amount of consensus today. By contrast, deep uncertainty remains about fundamental questions concerning the socially optimal outcome of IP disputes. In addition, while the antitrust statutes are for the most part public regarding provisions ...


Hiv/Aids Among Women Of Color In Massachusetts, Erika Kates, Helen Levine, Lakay Cornell Dec 2004

Hiv/Aids Among Women Of Color In Massachusetts, Erika Kates, Helen Levine, Lakay Cornell

Publications from the Center for Women in Politics and Public Policy

According to a recent report on the status of women in Massachusetts, the Commonwealth has an “extraordinarily high” incidence of women of color with HIV/AIDS. Over 4,200 women are infected and women of color account for a disproportionately high number of these cases.


Estimating The Economic Recreational Value Of Paracas National Reserve In Ica Peru: A Fair Fee Implementation Approach, Jaqueline Garcia-Yi Dec 2004

Estimating The Economic Recreational Value Of Paracas National Reserve In Ica Peru: A Fair Fee Implementation Approach, Jaqueline Garcia-Yi

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Paracas National Reserve (PNR) is one of the fifty-seven protected areas that belong to the National System of Protected Areas (SINANPE) of Peru. Located in Ica Department, on the Pacific coast of Peru, it is the only coastal-marine ecosystem currently protected by the Peruvian government. PNR has been internationally recognized, principally as a wintering area for bird migrations. It has been designated as a Regional Shorebird Reserve by the Western Hemisphere Shorebird Reserve Network (1991), a Ramsar site by the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands of International Importance Especially as Waterfowl Habitat (1992), and a Particular Sensitive Sea Area by the ...


Rethinking Agricultural Domestic Support Under The World Trade Organization, Chad E. Hart, John C. Beghin Nov 2004

Rethinking Agricultural Domestic Support Under The World Trade Organization, Chad E. Hart, John C. Beghin

CARD Briefing Papers

This paper focuses on the third pillar of the Uruguay Round Agreement on Agriculture (URAA) of the World Trade Organization (WTO), the discipline of agricultural domestic support. The paper examines the current definition of agricultural domestic support used by the WTO, focusing on the Aggregate Measure of Support (AMS) and other forms of support that are less to least distorting (Blue and Green Box payments). The analysis looks at the recent experience of four member states (the United States, the European Union, Japan, and Brazil). The structure of recent support varies considerably by country. Some countries, notably the United States ...


Land Values As A Source Of Local Government Finance, Tom Dunne Oct 2004

Land Values As A Source Of Local Government Finance, Tom Dunne

Books/Book Chapters

Funding local government has been a permanent feature of debates about public policy in Ireland and Many feel that the balance of power between local and central government is weighted too much in

This paper suggests that the concept of economic rent, on which the justification for property taxes rests and its relevance to the property market in a modern, economically successful and urbanised Ireland, needs to be vented, discussed and debated.

The proposition is that if a greater understanding was created about the economic characteristics of landed property both value capture and local property taxes would achieve greater public ...


The Community Action Principle: Subjects Not Objects, Barney Frank Sep 2004

The Community Action Principle: Subjects Not Objects, Barney Frank

New England Journal of Public Policy

Deals with the impact of community action programs in the international and domestic economic policies. Influence of political participation on the application of democratic principles in politics; Background of economic policies by former U.S. Presidents regarding the free enterprise system; Relevance of community action on the formulation of international economic policies.


Devolution: The Retreat Of Government, Judith Kurland Sep 2004

Devolution: The Retreat Of Government, Judith Kurland

New England Journal of Public Policy

Devolution as practiced in much of the world is decentralization of program authority and responsibility to achieve greater administrative efficiency or program standards. Devolution as practiced by the Bush administration and the Republican Congress is not that, nor is it a diminution of federal power and the strengthening of states’ rights. Rather, it is a radical restructuring of government to prevent the expenditure of funds for traditional Democratic programs of the New Deal and the Great Society, and to prohibit states from being either more generous in social programs or more stringent in regulating industry than this administration desires.


The Economic Context: Growing Disparities Of Income And Wealth, Chuck Collins Sep 2004

The Economic Context: Growing Disparities Of Income And Wealth, Chuck Collins

New England Journal of Public Policy

In the last few years, poverty rates have remained constant in the New England states. The effort to reduce poverty in New England and the United States has been thwarted by trends of growing income and wealth inequality. Since the late 1970s, the real incomes for the majority of U.S. households have remained stagnant or fallen. During the same time, asset ownership has become dramatically more unequal, and the concentration of wealth in the hands of a few has increased. The causes of this accelerated inequality are complex, but underlying the picture are a series of rule changes, both ...


Higher Education And The Promise Of Opportunity, Robert L. Woodbury Sep 2004

Higher Education And The Promise Of Opportunity, Robert L. Woodbury

New England Journal of Public Policy

The article portrays the passage of the Higher Education Act of 1965 as a watershed event, much like the Morrill Land Grant Act and the G.I. Bill, in the history of opening higher education to a broader range of citizens. What had once been a largely private enterprise for the elite became an increasingly public commitment to make a college and university education accessible to anyone qualified to take advantage of the opportunity. In the last two decades, however, that promise has faded as costs have escalated, financial aid has become less available to the needy, federal and state ...


Ideas Of Reform: Like Buddhist Souls, Peter Marris, Martin Rein Sep 2004

Ideas Of Reform: Like Buddhist Souls, Peter Marris, Martin Rein

New England Journal of Public Policy

In 1967 Martin Rein and Peter Marris wrote an important book exploring the projects leading to the development of community action and related programs of the Great Society. In it they describe reform as a diffuse process in which preferences clash and evolve. Purposeful reform rarely has the intended consequences. The selection below is taken from the concluding remarks of their book, The Dilemmas of Social Reform, copyright University of Chicago Press, and is reprinted here with permission.


Editor's Note, Padraig O'Malley Sep 2004

Editor's Note, Padraig O'Malley

New England Journal of Public Policy

In this issue, special guest editors, Elaine Werby and Donna Haig Friedman, assemble an array of distinguished scholars, policymakers, community activists and political advocates to examine the interaction of the economic, political, and social “flows,” the undercurrents of history that stymied the war on poverty. Their articles and essays chart the beachheads that must be secured before the war can be successfully resumed; No war, they collectively remind us, is won without some battles being lost. You do not secure the future of the country if you abandon the principles of equity and equality for all, the bedrock of the ...


Essay On Community, Hubie Jones Sep 2004

Essay On Community, Hubie Jones

New England Journal of Public Policy

Family and community are human organisms that are the bedrock of any society. They provide the sustenance, values, direction, and protection that make it possible for individuals who live in a defined location to prosper and thrive singularly and collectively. Community is the social structure that mediates between the individual resident and the state and private elites, guiding social transactions between these different worlds to advance and protect the interests and needs of individuals and groups within neighborhoods or local communities.


Saving Capitalism From Itself: Whither The Welfare State?, Mimi Abramovitz Sep 2004

Saving Capitalism From Itself: Whither The Welfare State?, Mimi Abramovitz

New England Journal of Public Policy

The U.S. welfare state has been under attack from both sides of the aisle since the mid-1970s. Using the lens of history, the following pages will argue that neither the rise of the welfare state in the 1930s nor the current attack were merely accidental. Instead, each was a response to a particular crisis of profitability because the institutional arrangements that had created the conditions for profit-making in the prior fifty years had deteriorated. The policies no longer worked for the powers-that-be and had to be “reformed.”


Interrupted Progress: Forty Years Of Child Poverty, Deborah Weinstein Sep 2004

Interrupted Progress: Forty Years Of Child Poverty, Deborah Weinstein

New England Journal of Public Policy

In the last forty years since the beginning of the war on poverty, the condition of poor children has improved and the percentage of children living in poverty has declined. Children and their families made the greatest gain when there was a good economy and an increase in government supports. But when such investments shrink, as they have in recent years, progress is impeded. Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) must be reauthorized by Congress. The legislation now under discussion does not encourage states to replicate programs that have increased work and family income and helped children.


What Kind Of Labor Market Awaits Low-Income Workers?, Françoise Carré Sep 2004

What Kind Of Labor Market Awaits Low-Income Workers?, Françoise Carré

New England Journal of Public Policy

This essay highlights changes in the context of the labor market for low-income people, particularly mothers. It briefly reviews labor market trends and policies. It then highlights the challenges faced by such workers. The essay argues for a shift in thinking and policy advocacy to encompass the world of work, and its domination by business imperatives and language, and thus better represent poor people’s concerns in the policy world.


Moving Target: The Dilemma Of Serving Massachusetts Poor Families, Randy Albelda Sep 2004

Moving Target: The Dilemma Of Serving Massachusetts Poor Families, Randy Albelda

New England Journal of Public Policy

While Community Action Agencies’ original mission of serving the poor has changed little over the last three decades, government commitments to the poor, the population of poor individuals and families, and women’s economic expectations have changed considerably. This article documents the trends in family structure, women’s employment patterns, and poverty policies in Massachusetts between 1970 and 2000. The increase in poor, single-mother families and poverty policies that emphasize employment present dynamic challenges for Community Action Agencies (and others who serve the poor), but also create some new organizing opportunities.


When Half The Neighborhood Is Missing, Gus Newport Sep 2004

When Half The Neighborhood Is Missing, Gus Newport

New England Journal of Public Policy

Local nonprofits too often compete with each other for power, turf, and funds. The author, formerly director of the Dudley Street Neighborhood Initiative, advocates for a collaborative process that engages the local community in defining and executing new initiatives. Governance for the good of the people must rely on sound research, sound principles and values, and the understanding and support of the community.


Challenging The Policy Establishment, Alice O'Connor Sep 2004

Challenging The Policy Establishment, Alice O'Connor

New England Journal of Public Policy

Among the many challenges community action faces after four decades, none cuts more deeply into its central mission than the political and ideological transformation reflected in the rise of the conservative right. Based on a potent combination of grass roots and institutional organizing, coalition-building, ideological mobilization, and inter/intra party politics, the right-wing takeover has empowered a political and policy establishment that is hostile not only to the ideas that animated the War on Poverty but to the very idea of public action against social and economic inequality. While this transformation has kept community action on the defensive, confronting the ...


Foreword, Elaine Werby, Donna Haig Friedman Sep 2004

Foreword, Elaine Werby, Donna Haig Friedman

New England Journal of Public Policy

Interspersed throughout this issue are Voices of Community Action — the voices of executive directors, board members, and staff. Some are personal reflections; others describe their work or tell of the struggles of those who live with poverty. All speak to the commitment of service and change, to personal development and growth, and to the worth of their work. Their stories are 10 matched in the testimony of those who have received services or participated in community action programs. All of these stories bear witness to the importance of what happens on the front lines among leaders, board members, staff, and ...


Child Care: Four Decades Of Growth And Change, Bruce Hershfield, John Sciamanna Sep 2004

Child Care: Four Decades Of Growth And Change, Bruce Hershfield, John Sciamanna

New England Journal of Public Policy

Child care has grown and changed over the past four decades. The federal government now has two major early education programs, Head Start and the Child Care and Development Block Grant. Although Head Start was enacted in 1965 and has had mostly bipartisan support, it took the federal government until 1990 to enact a national child care program. Massachusetts, led by an active advocacy community and strong leadership in the state legislature, has been a leader among states in support for child care funding and policies. It is its support for strong licensing, periodic increases in reimbursement rates, parental choice ...


The Empty Promise, Elaine Werby Sep 2004

The Empty Promise, Elaine Werby

New England Journal of Public Policy

This article reviews the federal role in providing rental housing for low-income households. It suggests that reliance on the private market has characterized the variety of programs designed to meet the housing needs of this population group. Despite some progress, millions of low-income households still lack stable, secure housing that they can afford, and the major current program of rent subsidies is under attack.


The State Of Milwaukee's Environment: Preliminary Report, Center For Economic Development Sep 2004

The State Of Milwaukee's Environment: Preliminary Report, Center For Economic Development

Center for Economic Development Publications

No abstract provided.


Industry Clusters And Economic Development: A Learning Resource, Edward J. Feser Sep 2004

Industry Clusters And Economic Development: A Learning Resource, Edward J. Feser

Edward J Feser

One of the most widely discussed issues in community and economic development today is the role of industry clusters as engines of regional growth and development. Many communities are undertaking cluster studies or initiating cluster planning exercises as a way to organize development strategies to promote key local economic strengths or to shore up identified weaknesses. A large consulting industry has emerged to serve governments’ interest in clusters and the research literature on the topic is growing rapidly. At the same time, some analysts have likened clusters to another economic development fad that will eventually be supplanted by the next ...


Update - September 2004, Loma Linda University Center For Christian Bioethics Sep 2004

Update - September 2004, Loma Linda University Center For Christian Bioethics

Update

In this issue:

-- A Statement on Racism
-- Editorial
-- Review and Critique of "A Statement on Racism"
-- Homelessness and Poverty
-- Review and Critique of the Seventh-day Adventist Policy Statement Titled "Homelessness and Poverty"
-- News from the Center for Christian Biothics
-- Operating Principles for Health-Care Institutions


Transportation Equity And Access To Jobs In Metropolitan Milwaukee, Center For Economic Development Sep 2004

Transportation Equity And Access To Jobs In Metropolitan Milwaukee, Center For Economic Development

Center for Economic Development Publications

No abstract provided.


An Empirical Analysis Of Joint Decisions On Labor Supply And Welfare Participation, Gi Choon Kang, Sonya Kostova Huffman, Helen H. Jensen May 2004

An Empirical Analysis Of Joint Decisions On Labor Supply And Welfare Participation, Gi Choon Kang, Sonya Kostova Huffman, Helen H. Jensen

CARD Working Papers

Economic and welfare program factors affect the well-being of low-income families and their labor supply decisions. This study uses data from the U.S. Survey of Income and Program Participation. A nested logit model is estimated to explain the joint decisions to participate in Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) and the labor market for the population of families potentially eligible for TANF. The empirical findings indicate that higher wages increase labor and decrease welfare program participation; an increase in nonlabor income decreases both labor market and welfare participation.


After The Boom: Joblessness In Milwaukee Since 2000, Center For Economic Development Apr 2004

After The Boom: Joblessness In Milwaukee Since 2000, Center For Economic Development

Center for Economic Development Publications

No abstract provided.


Challenges In Modeling The Effects Of Trade Agreements On The Agricultural Sector, Patrick C. Westhoff, Jacinto F. Fabiosa, John C. Beghin, William H. Meyers Apr 2004

Challenges In Modeling The Effects Of Trade Agreements On The Agricultural Sector, Patrick C. Westhoff, Jacinto F. Fabiosa, John C. Beghin, William H. Meyers

CARD Working Papers

Major issues and challenges encountered in modeling and analyzing agricultural and trade policy reforms are reviewed. We focus on the modeling approach and pay special attention to the type and scope of the models, the calibration of a realistic baseline scenario, the representation of the reform agreement, the use of extra-model information, the choice of metrics to measure reform impacts, and emerging issues in policy modeling. Existing solutions and unresolved issues are examined. We stress the complementarity of various modeling approaches in assessing policy reforms and the importance of helping users understand the limitations of the chosen approach.


Grader Bias In Cattle Markets? Evidence From Iowa, Brent M. Hueth, John D. Lawrence, Philippe Marcoul Mar 2004

Grader Bias In Cattle Markets? Evidence From Iowa, Brent M. Hueth, John D. Lawrence, Philippe Marcoul

CARD Working Papers

Live cattle are increasingly priced as an explicit function of U.S. Department of Agriculture yield and quality grades. Human graders visually inspect each slaughtered carcass and call grades in a matter of seconds as the carcass passes on a moving trolley. We examine whether there is systematic bias in grade calls using a sample of loads delivered to three different midwestern packing plants during 2000–2002. Overall, results indicate that indeed there is a bias, and that grading standards vary significantly across packing plants. Results also are consistent with a behavioral model where graders are more accurate when grading ...


Sozialpolitik Anders Denken. Das Verursacherprinzip – Von Der Umweltpolitischen Zur Sozialpolitischen Anwendung, Isidor Wallimann, Esteban Piñeiro Jan 2004

Sozialpolitik Anders Denken. Das Verursacherprinzip – Von Der Umweltpolitischen Zur Sozialpolitischen Anwendung, Isidor Wallimann, Esteban Piñeiro

Books

The “polluter pays” principle in environmental law assumes that the actor would reduce or avoid adverse effects of his actions if he had to bear the consequences of those actions (internalization of effects). Such internalization can generally be done in two ways: either by avoiding or eliminating the harmful effects or by wearing the financial consequences of the injury. It is therefore on the one hand to have an incentive effect, on the other to a compensatory effect.

Pineiro and Wallimann apply these societal cost principles from the environmental world to the social realm, where social problems can be seen ...