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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Police Integrity Lost Podcast Episode 53: Explaining The 12.5 Years Prison Sentence For Former Minneapolis Police Officer Mohamed Noor, Philip M. Stinson Jun 2019

Police Integrity Lost Podcast Episode 53: Explaining The 12.5 Years Prison Sentence For Former Minneapolis Police Officer Mohamed Noor, Philip M. Stinson

Philip M Stinson

This episode of the Police Integrity Lost Podcast features an interview of BGSU Professor Phil Stinson by Phil Picardi of Minnesota Public Radio that originally aired on NPR's Morning Edition on June 7, 2019.


The Gendered Burdens Of Conviction And Collateral Consequences On Employment, Joni Hersch, Erin E. Meyers Jun 2019

The Gendered Burdens Of Conviction And Collateral Consequences On Employment, Joni Hersch, Erin E. Meyers

Journal of Legislation

Ex-offenders are subject to a wide range of employment restrictions that limit the ability of individuals with a criminal background to earn a living. This Article argues that women involved in the criminal justice system likely suffer a greater income-related burden from criminal conviction than do men. This disproportionate burden arises in occupations that women typically pursue, both through formal pathways, such as restrictions on occupational licensing, and through informal pathways, such as employers’ unwillingness to hire those with a criminal record. In addition, women have access to far fewer vocational programs while incarcerated. Further exacerbating this burden is that ...


Assessment Of Public Sector Service Quality: Gauging Experiences And Perceptions Of Racial Profiling, Aaron C. Rollins Jr. Jun 2019

Assessment Of Public Sector Service Quality: Gauging Experiences And Perceptions Of Racial Profiling, Aaron C. Rollins Jr.

Journal of Public Management & Social Policy

The absence of a culturally competent public sector workforce has led to increased public scrutiny and heightened levels of distrust. In the field of public safety, this is particularly important due to the sensitive nature of the task performed and the historically strained relationships that exist between racial minorities and law enforcement. Using national survey data to gauge the prevalence of citizen’s experiences and perceptions of racial profiling, this research reveals significant discrepancies amongst minorities and their white counterparts. In response, this research encourages public officials and agencies to eliminate inconsistencies in their interactions with the citizenry as a ...


Gender Based Violence In India: An Analysis Of National Level Data For Theory, Research And Prevention, Dhanya Babu Jun 2019

Gender Based Violence In India: An Analysis Of National Level Data For Theory, Research And Prevention, Dhanya Babu

Student Theses

Gender based violence is a human rights violation, both the causes and impacts of which crosses personal, societal and cultural boundaries. Various initiatives to address the problem of gender-based violence have resulted in many countries attempting to quantify the extent of such crimes. The purpose of this present study is to examine nature and extent of GBV in India for prevention policy actions. The National Crime Record Bureau (NCRB) of India publishes a consolidated list of reported crime happenings in the country every year. Recognizing gendered aspect of certain crimes, the NCRB maintains a separate chapter on incidences of crimes ...


Medicolegal Considerations In The Management Of Opioid Use Disorder With Buprenorphine By Jail Health Services, Megann N. Mitchell Jun 2019

Medicolegal Considerations In The Management Of Opioid Use Disorder With Buprenorphine By Jail Health Services, Megann N. Mitchell

Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) Scholarly Projects

Medicolegal Considerations in the Management of Opioid Use Disorder with Buprenorphine by Jail Health Services: Executive Summary

In 2017, over 2.1 million people in the United States were estimated to have an opioid use disorder (OUD; Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2018), with over 200,000 opioid dependent prisoners passing through the correctional system each year (Nunn, Zaller, Dickman, Trimbur, Nijhawan, & Rich, 2009). Incarcerated individuals with OUD are at higher risk for overdose and death (Alex et al., 2017; Binswanger, Blatchford, Mueller, & Stern, 2013; Lim et al., 2012). Buprenorphine-based medication assisted treatment (MAT) is a long-term treatment strategy for OUD (Volkow, Frieden, Hyde, & Cha, 2014), but aspects of prescribing buprenorphine can be disconcerting to staff in jail health service (JHS), particularly around issues of liability (S. Roosma-Goldstein, personal communication, October 10, 2018).

Problem/Purpose Statements

Opioid use disorder is disproportionately observed in incarcerated populations, adding to the societal burden incurred by the current opioid epidemic (Bronson et al., 2017; Dolan et al., 2007). Increased access to effective treatment interventions that begin in the ...


The Treatment Of People With Mentall Illness In The Criminal Justice System: The Example Of Oneida County, New York, Alexander Black '19, Kylie Davis '18, Kenneth Gray '20, Connor O'Shea '18, Alexander Scheuer '18, Samantha Walther '18, Nico Yardas '18, Frank M. Anechiarico, Ralph Eannace, Jennifer Ambrose Jun 2019

The Treatment Of People With Mentall Illness In The Criminal Justice System: The Example Of Oneida County, New York, Alexander Black '19, Kylie Davis '18, Kenneth Gray '20, Connor O'Shea '18, Alexander Scheuer '18, Samantha Walther '18, Nico Yardas '18, Frank M. Anechiarico, Ralph Eannace, Jennifer Ambrose

Student Scholarship

This publication is two-fold: an executive summary and the report itself. The executive summary provides a general overview of the larger report, on the criminalization of the mentally ill. It begins by summarizing three case studies from the report that concern the intersection of mental health issues and the criminal justice system in Oneida County in New York State. It then provides a brief historical overview of mental health issues and the criminal justice system before going on to discuss the current best practices in addressing the criminalization of the mentally ill, including law-enforcement mechanisms, mental health courts, and reintegration ...


Stop, Question, And Frisk: A Tool Of Racial Control In New York City, Justice D. Evans May 2019

Stop, Question, And Frisk: A Tool Of Racial Control In New York City, Justice D. Evans

Student Theses

Broken Windows policing through the utilization of Stop, Question, and Frisk has been widely used by the New York City Police Department (NYPD) since the 1990s, as guaranteed by landmark Supreme Court Case Terry v. Ohio (1968). As a result, hundreds of minority citizens have been the victim of routine stops for minor offenses through this aggressive police tactic. This study utilizes 2017 NYPD Stop, Question, and Frisk Data to determine whether broken windows policing, through stop, question, and frisk, operates as a mode of racial control for African Americans in New York City. Through the utilization of chi-square analyses ...


Public Authority And Private Prisons: How Private Prison Labor Contributes To National Employment Precarity, Kaitlyn Oder May 2019

Public Authority And Private Prisons: How Private Prison Labor Contributes To National Employment Precarity, Kaitlyn Oder

International Political Economy Theses

Private uses of prison labor are illegal internationally, and not without reason. A lack of public oversight and regulations of wages mean that prison labor is often exploited in exchange for increased profitability for private prisons and sometimes the private companies they contract with. This paper will explicate the ways in which private uses of prison labor contribute to wage and employment precarity and ultimately cost numerous non incarcerated low wage individuals in the United States their jobs and livelihoods. It offers potential policy solutions and paths forward for new research to better link the sociological and economic considerations of ...


From The Voices Of Domestic Sex Trafficking Survivors: Experiences Of Complex Trauma & Posttraumatic Growth, Heather R. Evans Dsw May 2019

From The Voices Of Domestic Sex Trafficking Survivors: Experiences Of Complex Trauma & Posttraumatic Growth, Heather R. Evans Dsw

Doctorate in Social Work (DSW) Dissertations

Human sex trafficking is an ongoing global rights violation formally recognized since 2000 through the Trafficking Victims Protection Act (Department of State Trafficking in Persons Report, 2016). Using ecological and trauma-informed lenses, this qualitative, retrospective study used participant-centered methods to explore identity, sexuality, relationships, and factors that facilitate/ hindered community reintegration for 15 adult female survivors. Interview transcripts, Photovoice captioned images, and focus groups were analyzed using multi-level conceptual and thematic coding. Participants identified with all aspects of complex trauma, including: dissociation, self-perception/identity, relations with others and systems of meaning. Key themes included losing and regaining power, shame, and ...


Reviewing The Literature On Staff Misconduct And Specific Responsivity, Ernest M. Oleksy May 2019

Reviewing The Literature On Staff Misconduct And Specific Responsivity, Ernest M. Oleksy

The Downtown Review

Incarceration is a trying time for inmates as they are punished for crimes they committed while free in society. Beyond the legitimate punishment of being imprisoned, inmates may face illegitimate punishment at the hands of prison staff, ranging from ridicule to physical and sexual violence. Apart from the obvious corruption and immorality involved in staff misconduct, such deviance can also result in a dampened responsivity to reentry programming efforts that strive to keep inmates out of prison. In this literature review, I investigate, summarize, and synthesize the corpus that is relevant to how staff misconduct can be a negative specific ...


Furman V. Georgia And The Supreme Court's Failure To Apply It, Callie Maslowsky May 2019

Furman V. Georgia And The Supreme Court's Failure To Apply It, Callie Maslowsky

SPICE: Student Perspectives on Institutions, Choices and Ethics

In the case of Furman v. Georgia (1972), the Supreme Court outlawed the death penalty on the grounds that its use constituted cruel and unusual punishment in violation of the Eighth Amendment. No majority opinion was written, but the plurality opinions all agreed that the amount of discretion in death penalty sentencing left too much room for the death penalty to be given arbitrarily. When the death penalty was reinstated in Gregg v. Georgia (1976), the Court approved schemes that limited the discretion of sentencing bodies by providing sentencing guidelines, automatically appealing all death penalty cases for review, or taking ...


Death Is Different. Death Sentencing Is Not., Simone Unwalla May 2019

Death Is Different. Death Sentencing Is Not., Simone Unwalla

SPICE: Student Perspectives on Institutions, Choices and Ethics

This paper investigates the conditional demands of Death-Is-Different jurisprudence in the United States criminal justice system and argues that the dissonance between the need for heightened protections in capital sentencing and the reality of our capital-sentencing institutions ultimately renders the death penalty, as it currently exists in our society, impermissible. This claim is substantiated in three parts: first, through an analysis of foundational death penalty decisions from the Supreme Course, which condemn the arbitrary nature of capital juries while simultaneously justifying their constitutional necessity as sentencing agents; second, through an examination of the development of Death-Is-Different jurisprudence and its conceptual ...


The Effect Of Lineup Size On Eyewitness Accuracy, Alyssa Baumann May 2019

The Effect Of Lineup Size On Eyewitness Accuracy, Alyssa Baumann

Augsburg Honors Review

The research investigated the impact of the number of members in a police lineup on eyewitness identification. Participants attempted to identify the perpetrator from either a sequential or simultaneous lineup. The number of members in the lineup differed between 6 members and 12 members, simultaneous or sequential lineup presentation, and target-present or target-absent. In the target-present condition, the research was concerned with correct identifications. Thus, the 6 member simultaneous lineup should yield the most correct identifications. The 12 member simultaneous lineup should yield the second highest. The 6 and 12 member sequential lineup presentation should yield fewer correct identifications because ...


Police Integrity Lost Podcast Episode 52: Race, Racism And The Murder Conviction Of Minneapolis Police Officer Mohamed Noor, Philip M. Stinson May 2019

Police Integrity Lost Podcast Episode 52: Race, Racism And The Murder Conviction Of Minneapolis Police Officer Mohamed Noor, Philip M. Stinson

Philip M Stinson

This episode of the Police Integrity Lost Podcast features an interview of Professor Phil Stinson by Damien Carrick that originally aired in Australia on the ABC Radio National show The Law Report on May 7, 2019.


Dismantling Structural Inequality: Lock Ups, Systemic Chokeholds, And Race-Based Policing - A Symposium Summary, Cedric Merlin Powell, Laura R. Mcneal May 2019

Dismantling Structural Inequality: Lock Ups, Systemic Chokeholds, And Race-Based Policing - A Symposium Summary, Cedric Merlin Powell, Laura R. Mcneal

Laura R. McNeal

The prominence of the carceral state in American society serves to undermine basic principles of democracy and justice, disproportionately displacing people of color and excluding them from all viable avenues of citizenship.


The Antebellum Development Of The Penitentiary Debate In South Carolina, Florence Gregorie Sloan May 2019

The Antebellum Development Of The Penitentiary Debate In South Carolina, Florence Gregorie Sloan

Student Scholarship

The early 19th century was marked by reform movements aimed at alleviating poverty, reducing crime, decreasing illiteracy, and providing better care for the mentally ill. In the United States, as in Europe, the debate over prison reform arose from the growing public fear that the stability of social institutions and values was crumbling, especially because lawlessness abounded across the country in the Jacksonian era.[1] Reformers sought a way to save and preserve the established social order, and reformers found their cure-all solution in the establishment of penitentiaries, which were institutions that sought to transform the criminal into an ...


Evaluating The Educational Impact Of Ballot Measure 11 Workshops & Youths’ Perceptions Of Justice, Ginger Ruddell May 2019

Evaluating The Educational Impact Of Ballot Measure 11 Workshops & Youths’ Perceptions Of Justice, Ginger Ruddell

Student Research Symposium

In 1994 the State of Oregon passed Ballot Measure 11, which allows for the mandatory minimum sentencing for several types of felonies. This measure also allows for juveniles as young as 15 to be subjected to this mandatory sentencing. Due to the severity of this measure, several youth agencies throughout the state of Oregon became concerned about the consequences of mandatory sentencing on youth, and decided to create educational workshops to allow more awareness of Ballot Measure 11 sentencing. Portland Opportunities Industrialization Center (POIC), is the front runner for this workshop. Their goals are to educate/raise awareness, prevent contact ...


An Extended Laplace Approximation Method For Bayesian Inference Of Self-Exciting Spatial-Temporal Models Of Count Data, Nicholas J. Clark, Philip M. Dixon May 2019

An Extended Laplace Approximation Method For Bayesian Inference Of Self-Exciting Spatial-Temporal Models Of Count Data, Nicholas J. Clark, Philip M. Dixon

Philip Dixon

Self-Exciting models are statistical models of count data where the probability of an event occurring is infl d by the history of the process. In particular, self-exciting spatio-temporal models allow for spatial dependence as well as temporal self-excitation. For large spatial or temporal regions, however, the model leads to an intractable likeli- hood. An increasingly common method for dealing with large spatio-temporal models is by using Laplace approximations (LA). This method is convenient as it can easily be applied and is quickly implemented. However, as we will demonstrate in this manuscript, when applied to self-exciting Poisson spatial-temporal models, Laplace Approximations ...


Modeling And Estimation For Self-Exciting Spatio-Temporal Models Of Terrorist Activity, Nicholas J. Clark, Philip M. Dixon May 2019

Modeling And Estimation For Self-Exciting Spatio-Temporal Models Of Terrorist Activity, Nicholas J. Clark, Philip M. Dixon

Philip Dixon

Spatio-temporal hierarchical modeling is an extremely attractive way to model the spread of crime or terrorism data over a given region, especially when the observations are counts and must be modeled discretely. The spatio-temporal diffusion is placed, as a matter of convenience, in the process model allowing for straightforward estimation of the diffusion parameters through Bayesian techniques. However, this method of modeling does not allow for the existence of self-excitation, or a temporal data model dependency, that has been shown to exist in criminal and terrorism data. In this manuscript we will use existing theories on how violence spreads to ...


The Power Of Prosecutors, Jeffrey Bellin May 2019

The Power Of Prosecutors, Jeffrey Bellin

Faculty Publications

One of the predominant themes in the criminal justice literature is that prosecutors dominate the justice system. Over seventy-five years ago, Attorney General Robert Jackson famously proclaimed that the “prosecutor has more control over life, liberty, and reputation than any other person in America.” In one of the most cited law review articles of all time, Bill Stuntz added that prosecutors—not legislators, judges, or police—“are the criminal justice system’s real lawmakers.” And an unchallenged modern consensus holds that prosecutors “rule the criminal justice system.”

This Article applies a critical lens to longstanding claims of prosecutorial preeminence. It ...


Imagining A Non-Violent World "The Be The Peace, Make A Change Project": A Rural Community Peacebuilding Initiative To End Gender-Based Violence, Nancy M. Ross May 2019

Imagining A Non-Violent World "The Be The Peace, Make A Change Project": A Rural Community Peacebuilding Initiative To End Gender-Based Violence, Nancy M. Ross

Peace and Conflict Studies

This article will profile the innovative community engagement process initiated by the "Be the Peace, Make a Change" project to end gender-based violence in Lunenburg County, Nova Scotia, and conclude with lessons learned. These lessons were summarized as "headlines" to imagine a future with new narratives for interpersonal relationships. This project was a three-year grassroots initiative of Second Story Women’s Centre, funded by Status of Women Canada. It engaged the rural communities of Lunenburg County to develop a coordinated response to violence against women and girls. It focused on the engagement of all genders, youth, and adults in exploring ...


Female Genital Mutilation In The United States: Estimating The Number Of Girls At Risk, Phyllis Chesler May 2019

Female Genital Mutilation In The United States: Estimating The Number Of Girls At Risk, Phyllis Chesler

Dignity: A Journal on Sexual Exploitation and Violence

Female genital mutilation (FGM) destroys the capacity of women to experience sexual pleasure. It causes serious medical complications such as bleeding, painful urination, cysts, dangerous and recurrent bladder and urinary tract infections, the growth of scar tissue that make marital intercourse a nightmare and that turns childbirth into an experience of danger and torture. Due to immigration, FGM now poses a potential health crisis in the West, both in Europe and in the United States. To estimate how many girls who live in the West are at risk, one can measure the prevalence of FGM in the non-Western countries where ...


Shootings, Strain, And Safety On A College Campus: An Analysis Of Perceptions Of Safety And Concealed Carry, Amanda S. Bishop May 2019

Shootings, Strain, And Safety On A College Campus: An Analysis Of Perceptions Of Safety And Concealed Carry, Amanda S. Bishop

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

School and campus shootings are a contemporary problem in the United States. Because of these shootings, colleges have enacted new policies to ensure safety on their campuses, including concealed carry on campus. The State of Tennessee has a unique law in place that allows colleges to create their own policies regarding concealed carry on campus, with the stipulation that only full-time faculty and staff can carry concealed weapons. East Tennessee State University is one campus with this policy. East Tennessee State University students, faculty, and staff were questioned via email survey about their perceptions of safety on campus and opinions ...


Perceptions Of Soring In Tennessee Walking Horses, Hannah Medford May 2019

Perceptions Of Soring In Tennessee Walking Horses, Hannah Medford

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study is to explore the perceptions of soring in the Tennessee Walking Horse industry. Although a limited amount of research has focused on the practice, this is the first known study to utilize a criminological lens to better understand the perceptions and motivations of its use. The study relies upon data collected from Tennessee Walking Horse trainers, event attendees, and Designated Qualified Persons (DQPs), which are analyzed via a mixed-methods approach. Agnew’s (1998) theory on the causes of animal abuse serves as the theoretical framework for this analysis. Results provide a moderate amount of support ...


Lethal Use Of Force: Insights Into Mental Illness, Robert A. Ryan May 2019

Lethal Use Of Force: Insights Into Mental Illness, Robert A. Ryan

Student Theses

Fatal use of force incidents involving police officers in the United States have recently seen widespread media attention, emotionally charged rhetoric, and calls for reform. The present study examines police use of force encounters with the mentally ill given the significant proportion of incidents and wanting body of literature. The objective of this study is to examine fatal police interactions to test whether those displaying signs of mental illness in encounters with law enforcement are more dangerous than those not displaying signs of mental illness. Open source data from the Washington Post were used from 2015 to 2018 (n=3942 ...


Explaining Juvenile Delinquency As A Product Of Personal Security, Roxanne I. Grieggs May 2019

Explaining Juvenile Delinquency As A Product Of Personal Security, Roxanne I. Grieggs

Criminal Justice

This study seeks to understand the role that youths’ sense of personal security plays in their external engagement in deviant behavior. While there is some literature on the relationship between youth’s fear of crime or tumultuous home environments and their involvement in gangs and to some extent violence, it is scant, and studies of youths’ feelings of safety within residential facilities and their in-residence behaviors is virtually non-existent. Therefore, in this study of youth in two residential treatment centers, surveys administered to said youth are used to illustrate the potential link between youth’s perceived sense of personal security ...


Beliefs About Police Error Leading To Wrongful Convictions And Attitudes On Police Legitimacy, Julia Melfi May 2019

Beliefs About Police Error Leading To Wrongful Convictions And Attitudes On Police Legitimacy, Julia Melfi

Criminal Justice

This study investigates the relations between citizens’ perceptions of how police misconduct as a factor contributing to wrongful convictions is connected to attitudes towards police legitimacy. I hypothesized that there would be a negative correlation between the two variables such that the more individuals believe police error contributes to wrongful convictions, the less legitimate they perceive the police to be. I also examined how citizens’ race affects these perceptions and attitudes, too, and hypothesized that Black citizens are more likely than White citizens to believe police error leads to wrongful conviction and mistrust the police. To test the hypotheses data ...


The Role Of Women In Terrorism, Zeynep Bayar May 2019

The Role Of Women In Terrorism, Zeynep Bayar

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The main purpose of this paper is to understand what motivate women to join terrorist groups and why these organizations prefer to work with female terrorists. Although each woman has different reasons to involve in terrorist groups, this research demonstrates 'religious, political and personal' reasons as the major motivating factors. This study also focuses on the question of why women are the targets of terror recruiters. In order to answer these, the research analysis examines 'psychological, gender, and media' factors as major recruitment reasons of terrorist organizations. This study also analyzes the similarities and differences between female terrorists' profiles of ...


Municipal Police Under Federal Control: A Mixed-Methods Analysis Of Title 42 U.S.C. Section 14141 Negotiated Settlements, Jason W. Ostrowe May 2019

Municipal Police Under Federal Control: A Mixed-Methods Analysis Of Title 42 U.S.C. Section 14141 Negotiated Settlements, Jason W. Ostrowe

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Passed as part of the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994, the Law Enforcement Misconduct Statute 42 U.S.C. 14141 (§ 14141) authorizes the Department of Justice (DOJ) to investigate, and enter into a court-enforceable structural reform agreement with a law enforcement agency engaged in patterns or practices of systemic misconduct, violations of federal law, and unconstitutional policing.

Under § 14141 authority, 33 investigations of municipal police have been conducted since 1994 where the DOJ determined that a police agency was engaged in, or at unreasonable risk of engaging in, a pattern or practice of unconstitutional policing. Publicizing ...


Comparing The Effects Of Racial Segregation On Homicide Trends In Two Major Us Cities, Taylor Sullivan May 2019

Comparing The Effects Of Racial Segregation On Homicide Trends In Two Major Us Cities, Taylor Sullivan

Criminal Justice

This study focuses on the effects that racial segregation has on homicide rates. Using two major cities that have similar demographics, Chicago, Illinois and Los Angeles, California, this paper studies homicide rates at checkpoints over a span of time while also recording poverty rates and racial isolation. The Uniform Crime Report put out by the Federal Bureau of Investigation will provide data about homicides in the two cities for the respective years. Racial segregation is still an incessant issue throughout the country and causes issues through three major factors, economy, culture, and politics. These issues cause tension between minority and ...