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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Book Review: Archaeology Of The War Of 1812, Ed. By Michael T. Lucas And Julie M. Schablitsky, Joseph H. Last Jun 2015

Book Review: Archaeology Of The War Of 1812, Ed. By Michael T. Lucas And Julie M. Schablitsky, Joseph H. Last

Northeast Historical Archaeology

Archaeology of the War of 1812, ed. By Michael T. Lucas and Julie M. Schablitsky, 2014, Left Coast Press, Walnut Creek, CA, 337 pp., 15 chapters with bibliographies, 52 figures, 10 tables, index, $79.00 (cloth).


Book Review: Historical Archaeology Of The Delaware Valley, 1600–1850, Ed. By Richard F. Veit And David Orr, Lu Ann De Cunzo Jun 2015

Book Review: Historical Archaeology Of The Delaware Valley, 1600–1850, Ed. By Richard F. Veit And David Orr, Lu Ann De Cunzo

Northeast Historical Archaeology

Historical Archaeology of the Delaware Valley, 1600–1850, ed. By Richard F. Veit and David Orr, 2014, University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, $54.95 (cloth).


Book Review: The Archaeology Of American Cemeteries And Gravemarkers, By Sherene Baugher And Richard F. Veit, Timothy B. Riordan Jun 2015

Book Review: The Archaeology Of American Cemeteries And Gravemarkers, By Sherene Baugher And Richard F. Veit, Timothy B. Riordan

Northeast Historical Archaeology

The Archaeology of American Cemeteries and Gravemarkers, by Sherene Baugher and Richard F. Veit, 2014, University Press of Florida, Gainesville, 254 pages, 40 black-and-white figures, references, $69.95 (cloth).


Gunflints And Musket Balls: Implications For The Occupational History Of The Eaton Site And The Niagara Frontier, Michael Roets, William Engelbrecht, John D. Holland Jun 2015

Gunflints And Musket Balls: Implications For The Occupational History Of The Eaton Site And The Niagara Frontier, Michael Roets, William Engelbrecht, John D. Holland

Northeast Historical Archaeology

The multicomponent Eaton site in West Seneca, New York, was the focus of a long-term archaeological project. While the major emphasis was the excavation of a mid-16th-century Iroquoian village, all artifacts are being analyzed. These include 12 gunflints and 8 musket balls deposited at some point after the abandonment of the Iroquoian village. This article describes these objects, their distribution and dating, and the implications of these artifacts for the history of the site and the region.


Continuity Of Lithic Practice From The Eighteenth To The Nineteenth Centuries At The Nipmuc Homestead Of Sarah Boston, Grafton, Massachusetts, Joseph M. Bagley, Stephen Mrozowski, Heather Law Pezzarossi, John Steinberg Jun 2015

Continuity Of Lithic Practice From The Eighteenth To The Nineteenth Centuries At The Nipmuc Homestead Of Sarah Boston, Grafton, Massachusetts, Joseph M. Bagley, Stephen Mrozowski, Heather Law Pezzarossi, John Steinberg

Northeast Historical Archaeology

Stone tools have been found at all Nipmuc-related house sites in central Massachusetts dating from the 17th through 20th centuries. This article explores in detail the lithic assemblage recovered from the kitchen midden of the late 18th and early 19th century Sarah Burnee/Sarah Boston farmstead in Grafton, Massachusetts. Quartz and quartzite lithics were found in similar concentrations as historic ceramics within the midden suggesting that these tools were in active use within the household. Ground-stone tools of ancient origin indicate curation and reuse of older materials, and knapped glass and re-worked gunflints suggest knowledge of flintknapping. This article argues ...


Dating Methods And Techniques At The John Hallowes Site (44wm6): A Seventeenth-Century Example, Lauren K. Mcmillan, D. Brad Hatch, Barbara J. Heath Jun 2015

Dating Methods And Techniques At The John Hallowes Site (44wm6): A Seventeenth-Century Example, Lauren K. Mcmillan, D. Brad Hatch, Barbara J. Heath

Northeast Historical Archaeology

The John Hallowes site (44WM6) in Westmoreland County, Virginia, was excavated between July 1968 and August 1969. No report of the excavations was completed at that time, although an article summarizing the findings was published in Historical Archaeology in 1971, dating the site’s occupation to the period from the 1680s to 1716. From 2010 to 2012, a systematic reanalysis of the site, features, history, and artifacts was conducted by archaeologists at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville. Benefiting from nearly 40 years of advances in Chesapeake archaeology, the reanalysis has challenged accepted dates for the site’s occupation, which is ...


The Seal Cove Shipwreck Project: Investigating An Historical Wooden Vessel On Mount Desert Island, Maine, Franklin H. Price, Stephen Dilk, Baylus C. Brooks Jr. Jun 2015

The Seal Cove Shipwreck Project: Investigating An Historical Wooden Vessel On Mount Desert Island, Maine, Franklin H. Price, Stephen Dilk, Baylus C. Brooks Jr.

Northeast Historical Archaeology

Two one-week field projects, carried out during the summers of 2011 and 2012, investigated an historical wooden shipwreck in the intertidal zone on the western side of Mount Desert Island, Maine. Salvage, tide, ice, and other environmental forces have reduced the wreck to a keel, frames, and outer hull planking. Despite this, some observations can be made from the limited surviving evidence. The vessel appears to have been heavily-built, with a full-bodied hull, and constructed in the mid to late 19th century. Its location, hull, and the wood shavings and brick chips found between its timbers suggest that it may ...


A Family Affair: Whaling As Native American Household Strategy On Eastern Long Island, New York, Emily Button Jun 2015

A Family Affair: Whaling As Native American Household Strategy On Eastern Long Island, New York, Emily Button

Northeast Historical Archaeology

Nineteenth-century Native Americans from the northeastern United States became locally famous as mariners in the commercial whaling fleet. In the struggle to protect their small land bases and maintain their communities, going to sea became part of household practices for cultural and economic survival. From approximately 1800 through 1880, indigenous whaling families from Long Island used wages from commercial whaling to combat the limitations of land, credit, and capital that they faced on and off reservations. Whaling’s opportunities supported household formation and property accumulation among Shinnecock and Montaukett people for three generations, but whaling’s instability and risk meant ...


Reservation Subsistence: A Comparative Paleoethnobotanical Analysis Of A Mashantucket Pequot And Euro-American Household, William A. Farley Jun 2015

Reservation Subsistence: A Comparative Paleoethnobotanical Analysis Of A Mashantucket Pequot And Euro-American Household, William A. Farley

Northeast Historical Archaeology

In southeastern Connecticut in the 19th century, many Native Americans resided on reservations in close proximity to European American communities. The Mashantucket Pequot, who lived on a government controlled reservation during this period, and their European American neighbors both utilized forestland resources in their subsistence strategies. This article explores the subsistence strategies of both groups and interprets the importance of the reservation to indigenous-identity maintenance.


“New Bottles Made With My Crest”: Colonial Bottle Seals From Eastern North America, A Gazetteer And Interpretation, Richard Veit, Paul R. Huey Jun 2015

“New Bottles Made With My Crest”: Colonial Bottle Seals From Eastern North America, A Gazetteer And Interpretation, Richard Veit, Paul R. Huey

Northeast Historical Archaeology

Bottle seals or crests are one of the more intriguing categories of artifacts recovered from historic archaeological sites. These small blobs of glass were applied to the necks or shoulders of bottles. They were embossed with initials, shields, and other insignia. They bear dates, as well as the initials and names of individuals and families, taverns, vineyards, schools, retailers, and military units. Archaeologists seriating blown glass bottles from colonial sites in North America have employed them as important dating tools. They have also been interpreted as status markers. This paper provides a gazetteer of bottles with seals from eastern North ...


“An Earthly Tabernacle”: English Land Use And Town Planning In Seventeenth-Century Woodbridge, New Jersey, Michael J. Gall Jun 2015

“An Earthly Tabernacle”: English Land Use And Town Planning In Seventeenth-Century Woodbridge, New Jersey, Michael J. Gall

Northeast Historical Archaeology

The archaeology of townscapes can provide important information about cultural development and the transfer of settlement systems. This close examination of 17th-century settlement in northeastern New Jersey focuses on Woodbridge Township, Middlesex County, between 1669 and 1676. The study highlights the complexity of early colonial settlement systems in East Jersey and also examines the ways in which experimentation with Old World– and New England–style corporation settlement models; strong desires for land accumulation, power, and wealth; inheritance practices; and religion influenced English townscape development within northeastern New Jersey. The aspects outlined herein likely influenced the creation of other township-corporation settlements ...


Hier Leydt Begraven: A Primer On Dutch Colonial Gravestones, Brandon Richards Jun 2015

Hier Leydt Begraven: A Primer On Dutch Colonial Gravestones, Brandon Richards

Northeast Historical Archaeology

Although colonial Dutch gravestones appear in the archaeological record decades later than English gravestones, evidence suggests that New Netherland colonists and their descendants knew of and used grave markers prior to the 1664 conquest by the English. Various factors, such as development pressures, neglect, misidentification, and the likelihood that many were made of wood, have all contributed to the loss of the earliest markers. The oldest surviving colonial Dutch gravestones date between 1690 and 1720, with the most common types being the trapezoidal, tablet, and plank- and post-like forms. It is highly likely that these types are a legacy of ...


Awards For Excellence In Service Feb 2015

Awards For Excellence In Service

Northeast Historical Archaeology

2003, 2007, 2008, and 2011 award recipients for the Council for Northeast Historical Archaeology's Award for Excellence in Service.


Feasting On Broken Glass: Making A Meal Of Seeds, Bones, And Sherds, Mary C. Beaudry Aug 2014

Feasting On Broken Glass: Making A Meal Of Seeds, Bones, And Sherds, Mary C. Beaudry

Northeast Historical Archaeology

Drawing on various lines of evidence that provide insight into late 18th- and early 19th-century episodes of dining at the Spencer-Peirce-Little Farm in Newbury, Massachusetts, I explore ways in which historical archaeologists can move from discussions of food and foodstuffs to explore menus, meals, and dining. I argue that by drawing together many lines of evidence—food remains such as bones, seeds, and shells; documentary sources; and ceramics, glassware, and utensils—archaeologists are able to “feast” upon the evidence and to go beyond merely reporting on what people ate in the past. They do so by exploring ways of interpreting ...


Modeling Communities Through Food: Connecting The Daily Meal To The Construction Of Place And Identity, Karen Bescherer Metheny Aug 2014

Modeling Communities Through Food: Connecting The Daily Meal To The Construction Of Place And Identity, Karen Bescherer Metheny

Northeast Historical Archaeology

Foodways are an aspect of community building that find expression in the physical and cultural landscape. Using family reconstitution, food maps, and other archaeological and anthropological approaches to study foodways and commensality in the mining town of Helvetia, Pennsylvania (ca. 1891–1947), I lay out a program to reconstruct the spatial relationships associated with food procurement, preparation, and consumption in historic-period communities. Particular emphasis is placed on food sharing and shared food activities in the context of the daily meal. These reconstructed relationships or food connections reflect the varied networks and boundaries within the community, based on ethnicity, gender, age ...


Applying Concepts From Historical Archaeology To New England's Nineteenth-Century Cookbooks, Anne Yentsch Aug 2014

Applying Concepts From Historical Archaeology To New England's Nineteenth-Century Cookbooks, Anne Yentsch

Northeast Historical Archaeology

This article describes a study of New England cookbooks as a data source for historical archaeologists. The database for this research consisted of single-authored, first-edition cookbooks written by New England women between 1800 and 1900, together with a small set of community cookbooks and newspaper advertisements. The study was based on the belief that recipes are equivalent to artifact assemblages and can be analyzed using the archaeological methods of seriation, presence/absence, and chaîne opératoire. The goal was to see whether change through time could be traced within a region, and why change occurred; whether it was an archetypal shift ...


Decline In The Use And Production Of Red-Earthenware Cooking Vessels In The Northeast, 1780-1880, Meta F. Janowitz Aug 2014

Decline In The Use And Production Of Red-Earthenware Cooking Vessels In The Northeast, 1780-1880, Meta F. Janowitz

Northeast Historical Archaeology

Ceramic collections from archaeological sites dating to and before the early 19th century are often dominated by red-earthenware vessels used in the foodways complex. By the late 19th century, redware vessels are much less common in New England and the Middle Atlantic region. This decline in the use and production of red earthenwares has many causes, including decreased costs of alternative materials (stoneware, refined earthenware, metal, and glass) and an awareness of the harmful effects of lead glazes, but the most important factor is the change in food-preparation technology from open-hearth to stove cooking.


Op-Ed: The Influence Of New Technologies, Foods, And Print Media On Local Material Culture Remains In Nineteenth-Century America, Marie-Lorraine Pipes, Meta F. Janowitz Aug 2014

Op-Ed: The Influence Of New Technologies, Foods, And Print Media On Local Material Culture Remains In Nineteenth-Century America, Marie-Lorraine Pipes, Meta F. Janowitz

Northeast Historical Archaeology

This opinion piece is a brief discussion of documentary and graphic sources, such as cookbooks, works of fiction, advertisements, and genre paintings, available to archaeologists for use in interpreting food-related artifacts and faunal materials from 19th-century domestic deposits. At that time American society experienced a surge in print and visual media that shaped the consumption and preparation of new foods. The scale of influence a particular form of media has on consumers varies in relation to the time sensitivity of the media.This article considers the range of sources that exist and suggest a comprehensive approach to the analysis of ...


Consumerism And Control: Archaeological Perspectives On The Harvard College Buttery, Christina J. Hodge Aug 2014

Consumerism And Control: Archaeological Perspectives On The Harvard College Buttery, Christina J. Hodge

Northeast Historical Archaeology

Harvard College in Cambridge, Massachusetts, offers a unique setting through which to explore cultural changes within 17th- and 18th-century America, including shifting foodways and consumerisms. Harvard’s early leaders constructed their collegiate community by controlling many aspects of scholars’ lives, including their eating, drinking, and purchasing practices. Between 1650 and 1800, the college operated the “Buttery,” a commissary where students supplemented meager institutional meals by purchasing snacks and sundries. As a marketplace, the buttery organized material practices of buying and selling as people and things flowed through it. Archaeological and documentary evidence reveals how college officials attempted to regulate, but ...


Historic Philadelphia Foodways: A Consideration Of Catfish Cookery, Teagan Schweitzer Aug 2014

Historic Philadelphia Foodways: A Consideration Of Catfish Cookery, Teagan Schweitzer

Northeast Historical Archaeology

This article explores the consumption of catfish in the Philadelphia area during the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Although not extremley popular in the region today, in the past this fish was an important part of the culinary landscape, in particular as part of a meal referred to as "catfish and waffles." Evidence from zooarchaeological and documentary research is used to justify this claim.


Dining With John And Catharine Butler Before The Close Of The Eighteenth Century, Eva Macdonald, Suzanne Needs-Howarth Aug 2014

Dining With John And Catharine Butler Before The Close Of The Eighteenth Century, Eva Macdonald, Suzanne Needs-Howarth

Northeast Historical Archaeology

The partial excavation of the homestead of Colonel John Butler in the town of Niagara-on-the-Lake has afforded the opportunity to explore the daily activities of one Loyalist family after the establishment of the British colony of Upper Canada in the 1780s. In particular, the large collection of zooarchaeological material (over 14,5000 specimens) can provide information about the availability of wild animal species, as well as the types of domestic animals that the Butlers kept on their farm. Butchering marks provide further insight into the types of meat cuts used in cooking meals for the family and guests. These are ...


The Power Of Choice: Reflections Of Economic Ability, Status, And Ethnicity In The Foodways Of A Free African American Family In Northwestern New Jersey, Megan E. Springate, Amy Raes Aug 2014

The Power Of Choice: Reflections Of Economic Ability, Status, And Ethnicity In The Foodways Of A Free African American Family In Northwestern New Jersey, Megan E. Springate, Amy Raes

Northeast Historical Archaeology

The choices people make concerning food involve decisions well beyond biological sustenance. Food procurement and consumption, as well as the way in which a dish is served, are choices that are embedded with both overt and less obvious implications of social aspirations and validations (McKee 1999; Reitz, Ruff, and Zierden 2006). Food and the means by which it is prepared and consumed embody and communicate cultural traditions, as well as factors such as social identity, ethnicity, status, class, and consumer choice. In this article, we examine the faunal remains, tablewares, and food-preparation vessels recovered during excavations within a free African ...


Introduction: Bringing More To The Table, Karen Bescherer Metheny Aug 2014

Introduction: Bringing More To The Table, Karen Bescherer Metheny

Northeast Historical Archaeology

Introduction to the special volume on foodways.


Aerial Archaeology At The Moland House: Balloon-Elevated Videography In Search Of Colonial Period Structures, Richard E. Gambler Iii, Andrew Notarfranceso, P. J. Capelotti Apr 2014

Aerial Archaeology At The Moland House: Balloon-Elevated Videography In Search Of Colonial Period Structures, Richard E. Gambler Iii, Andrew Notarfranceso, P. J. Capelotti

Northeast Historical Archaeology

Archaeological excavations have taken place for more than twenty years at the Colonial Period Moland House site in Hartsville, PA (36BU301). These have unearthed thousands of artifacts, and numerous buried features, that support historical accounts pertaining to the site. In the summer of 2009, field school students from Penn State University Abington College deployed a balloon-elevated digital video system to gather remote imagery of the site at altitudes from 10-100’ above the ground. The resulting images gathered by the aerial videography suggest a variety of potential additional buried structures on the site. These data will guide future excavations aimed at ...


A Dendroarchaeological Study Of Wood From Fort Lennox National Historic Site, Île-Aux-Noix, Québec, Emilie Young-Vigneault, Louis Filion, Allison Bain Apr 2014

A Dendroarchaeological Study Of Wood From Fort Lennox National Historic Site, Île-Aux-Noix, Québec, Emilie Young-Vigneault, Louis Filion, Allison Bain

Northeast Historical Archaeology

Samples of wood excavated from the Fort Lennox National Historic Site, on Île-aux-Noix in the Upper Richelieu River, were entrusted to Université Laval by Parks Canada for tree-ring analysis in 2004. These samples consisted primarily of coniferous species, namely 29 samples of white cedar (Thuja occidentals), 18 of white pine (Pinus strobus), and a single sample of hemlock (Tsuga canadensis). Tree-ring and historical data suggest an alternative explanation for the use of this wood than that originally proposed by archaeologists. The wood originally was thought to have been part of a late 18th-century structure that was torn down, and the ...


A Battle Of Remembrance: Memorialization And Heritage At The Newtown Battlefield, New York, Brant Venables Apr 2014

A Battle Of Remembrance: Memorialization And Heritage At The Newtown Battlefield, New York, Brant Venables

Northeast Historical Archaeology

On 29 August 1779, Loyalist soldiers and Native American warriors fought against overwhelming numbers of invading Continental forces in the Battle of Newtown. After Newtown, the Continental forces destroyed 40 Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) towns. In 1879, Newtown Battlefield, near present-day Elmira, New York, was transformed into a heritage landscape memorializing the victors and the early expansion of the United States. To analyze the changing rituals of memorialization from 1879 to 2012, I examined monuments, interpretive signage, and primary-source documents, such as speech transcripts and newspaper accounts. I concluded that the rituals of memorialization at Newtown reflected the U.S. national attitudes ...


Stable-Isotope Bone Chemistry And Human/Animal Interactions In Historical Archaeology, Eric J. Guiry, Stéphane Noël, Eric Tourigny Apr 2014

Stable-Isotope Bone Chemistry And Human/Animal Interactions In Historical Archaeology, Eric J. Guiry, Stéphane Noël, Eric Tourigny

Northeast Historical Archaeology

Stable isotope–based paleodietary work is ideally suited for answering questions about a wide variety of human/animal relationships in historical archaeological contexts in northeastern North America and farther afield. To date, very few published studies have approached historical animal husbandry and trade from an isotopic perspective. We advocate for increased attention to the possibilities of stable-isotope work by (1) explaining why the technique is well suited to address some problems of human/animal relations encountered by historical archaeologists, (2) presenting a literature review of previous stable-isotope work on human/ animal interaction in historical North America, and (3) offering a ...


It's Elemental! A Case Study In The Use Of Multi-Element Geochemical Analysis As An Aid In Locating Cultural Features At The Foundation Site, Michael J. Gall Apr 2014

It's Elemental! A Case Study In The Use Of Multi-Element Geochemical Analysis As An Aid In Locating Cultural Features At The Foundation Site, Michael J. Gall

Northeast Historical Archaeology

Analysis of soil pH and anthropogenic multi-element chemical residue distribution patterns has proved a valuable prospecting method for locating areas of concentrated human and/or domesticated-animal activity within archaeological sites. The application, analysis, and results of a geochemical study at the Foundation site (28MO352), a significant ca. 1733 to 1790s farmstead site in Manalapan Township, Monmouth County, New Jersey, is presented as a case study. Multi-element geochemical analysis using Mehlich-3 and ICP-AES was employed as a critical, cost-efficient method to aid in targeting areas for intensive excavation. The method enabled the identification of numerous activity areas and buried cultural features ...


Dates For Suction Scarred Bottoms: A Chronology For Early Owens Machine-Made Bottles, George L. Miller, Tony Mcnichol Apr 2014

Dates For Suction Scarred Bottoms: A Chronology For Early Owens Machine-Made Bottles, George L. Miller, Tony Mcnichol

Northeast Historical Archaeology

For much of the 20th century the Owens automatic bottle-blowing machines were used to produce glass containers around the world. This machine and others revolutionized glass production and led to the end of hand production of commercial glass containers. Bottles produced on the Owens machines have distinct suction scars on their bases that make them easy to identify. Because of the way the rights to the Owens machines were licensed, these licenses have a great potential to establish the dates when the production of major categories of glass containers on the Owens bottle-blowing machine began. The first lease for the ...


A Plantation Transplanted: Archaeological Investigations Of A Piedmont-Style Slave Quarter At Rose Hill, Geneva, New York, James A. Delle, Kristen R. Fellows Apr 2014

A Plantation Transplanted: Archaeological Investigations Of A Piedmont-Style Slave Quarter At Rose Hill, Geneva, New York, James A. Delle, Kristen R. Fellows

Northeast Historical Archaeology

Although a relatively short-lived phenomenon, plantation slavery was established in the Finger Lakes region of New York State by immigrant planters from Maryland and Virginia. Excavations at the Rose Hill site, Geneva, NY have located two quarter sites associated with these early 19th-century plantations, including the standing Jean Nicholas house on property once part of the White Springs Farm, the other a subsurface, though largely intact, stone foundation of a similar building at Rose Hill. Analysis of the refined earthenwares recovered from the plowzone at the Rose Hill quarter indicate that the structure was first occupied in the early 19th ...