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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Mya Arenaria And Oxygen Isotopes: An Analysis To Suggest Season Of Occupation At Holmes Point East (62-6), Holmes Point West (62-8), And Joves Cove (44-13), Maine, Emily Blackwood Aug 2019

Mya Arenaria And Oxygen Isotopes: An Analysis To Suggest Season Of Occupation At Holmes Point East (62-6), Holmes Point West (62-8), And Joves Cove (44-13), Maine, Emily Blackwood

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The ratio of oxygen isotopes (ẟ18O) derived from archaeological bivalves can be used to suggest whether a site was occupied seasonally or year-round. To address the question of seasonality at three archaeological shell midden sites along the coast of Maine, modern samples of the soft-shelled clam, Mya arenaria, were collected from tidal mudflats associated with each site once a month for one year. An average of six modern shells per month were analyzed with their resulting ẟ18O values used to establish monthly ranges to which the archaeological samples of Mya arenaria were assigned; association of the archaeological shells to a ...


Humeri Spatulate Tools Associations And Function In Chaco Canyon, Nm, Sara L. Anderson Aug 2019

Humeri Spatulate Tools Associations And Function In Chaco Canyon, Nm, Sara L. Anderson

Anthropology Department Theses and Dissertations

In the two papers that comprise this thesis, I will be discussing Bone Spatulate Tools (BSTs) specifically those made of artiodactyl humeri found within Chaco Canyon, NM. These archaeological tool types permit the investigation of androcentric biases by way of legacy data acquired using the Chaco Research Archive (CRA). By redressing these archaeological biases, I hope to resuscitate an understudied tool type and highlight their function and importance in Chacoan toolkits. In chapter two, I investigate women and gendered activities by examining Humeri Spatulate Tools (HSTs) that are found at Chacoan great and small house sites. In this study, I ...


Subsistence Strategy Tradeoffs In Long-Term Population Stability Over The Past 6,000 Years, Darcy A. Bird Aug 2019

Subsistence Strategy Tradeoffs In Long-Term Population Stability Over The Past 6,000 Years, Darcy A. Bird

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

I conduct the first comparative analysis of long term human population stability in North America. Questions regarding population stability among animals and plants are fundamental to population ecology, yet no anthropological research has addressed human population stability. This is an important knowledge gap, because a species’ population stability can have implications for its risk of extinction and for the stability of the ecological community in which it lives. I use archaeological and paleoclimatological data to compare long term population stability with subsistence strategy and climate stability over 6,000 years. I conduct my analysis on a large scale to better ...


The Archaeology Of Mississippian Vulnerability And Resilience In The New Madrid Seismic Zone, Michelle Megan Rathgaber Aug 2019

The Archaeology Of Mississippian Vulnerability And Resilience In The New Madrid Seismic Zone, Michelle Megan Rathgaber

Theses and Dissertations

This work examines the vulnerability and resilience of Mississippian people in the Central Mississippi Valley to the large-scale New Madrid seismic zone earthquakes of the late15th to early 16th century. This is done using the theory of eventful archaeology/anthropology to look at cultural materials both before and after an event (such as an earthquake and sand blows) to look for evidence of changes to the schema and resources on which a society relies. If changes are present, the event can be labeled as such, if there are no changes, it means that the society affected did not see the ...


Teaching With Technology: Digital Tools For Archaeological Education, Caroline Gardiner Jul 2019

Teaching With Technology: Digital Tools For Archaeological Education, Caroline Gardiner

Journal of Archaeology and Education

Recent technological advances have greatly altered how scholars record, study, and educate the public about cultural resources. Data can now be instantly recorded, analyzed, and widely shared. Digital tools can help create multimedia, interactive products that have contributed greatly to education and outreach initiatives worldwide.

Both the National Park Service (NPS) and the National Council for Preservation Education (NCPE) are dedicated to studying, preserving, and educating the public about cultural resources. A recent internship project between these two institutions produced online lesson plans that educated students about cultural materials and the various methodologies scholars use to study them within archaeology ...


Osl And Ceramic Analysis At The Humphrey Site, Ryan Mathison Jul 2019

Osl And Ceramic Analysis At The Humphrey Site, Ryan Mathison

Anthropology Department Theses and Dissertations

The Sand Hills of Nebraska are a unique environment located in the west-central portion of Nebraska. This portion of North America has long supported human life. One group in particular that called the Sand Hills home are the Dismal River people. Dismal River is the name that archaeologists gave to a group of horticulturalists that lived in circular structures on the sand dunes, often near the rivers, in the Sand Hills. This group, while generally known through archaeology, also has a potential historic or ethnographic presence in the form of the Cuartalejo Apache visited by Ulibarri, and potentially mentioned by ...


The Collapse Of Empire At Gordion In The Transition From The Achaemenid To The Hellenistic World, Elspeth R. M. Dusinberre Jun 2019

The Collapse Of Empire At Gordion In The Transition From The Achaemenid To The Hellenistic World, Elspeth R. M. Dusinberre

Classics Faculty Contributions

Gordion, ancient capital of Phrygia, was a large and thriving city of secondary importance during the period of the Achaemenid Persian Empire (ca 550–333 BC). Recent work makes possible a reconsideration of the site: evaluating its architecture, finds and use of landscape within and after the socio-economic and administrative context of the Achaemenid imperial system enables the following new overview. During the Achaemenid period, Gordion’s populace participated in the broad cultural exchanges enabled by the imperial system and may have emphasised animal husbandry. When Alexander’s conquest led to the collapse of the Achaemenid administrative infrastructure, the impact ...


The Applications Of Gis On Lithic Raw Material Source Analysis, Sydney James, Carolyn Dillian May 2019

The Applications Of Gis On Lithic Raw Material Source Analysis, Sydney James, Carolyn Dillian

Honors Theses

Raw material sourcing has long been used to identify patterns of trade and exchange in archaeological research. More recently, geographic information systems (GIS) have provided other ways for archaeologists to identify these patterns through data visualization and various spatial statistical analyses. While these methods are frequently used individually, the combined use of these methods has potential to more closely examine the relationships between raw material sources and archaeological sites; this should be considered a necessary measure for methods of spatial analysis. This research applies existing raw material source data to quantitative GIS analysis as a way to demonstrate this claim.


Honey Or Vinegar: Oneota Interaction In The Central And Northeastern Plains, Benjamin Shirar May 2019

Honey Or Vinegar: Oneota Interaction In The Central And Northeastern Plains, Benjamin Shirar

Culminating Projects in Cultural Resource Management

Abstract

Beginning AD 1150 and extending until European contact, the archaeological culture referred to as “Oneota” underwent an explosive spread across the American midcontinent. As Oneota ideas, people, or some combination thereof moved westward, they encountered people from other cultures. Along the western frontier of Oneota culture, evidence suggests that relations between Oneota and Plains indigenes took a variety of forms. To better understand how various environmental and cultural factors may have informed the decision-making process with regard to inter-group interaction, four sites along this western Oneota periphery were selected for analysis: Shea and Sprunk in eastern North Dakota, White ...


Variation In The Configuration Of The Middle Snake River And Its Relationship To Prehistoric Fishing Site Locations, Joseph Wardle May 2019

Variation In The Configuration Of The Middle Snake River And Its Relationship To Prehistoric Fishing Site Locations, Joseph Wardle

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

The configuration of the various elements of a river system can have significant impacts on the availability, abundance, and nutritional profitability of aquatic organisms utilized as food by groups of human foragers. These factors may have influenced the location and timing of prehistoric fishing along the Middle Snake River in southern Idaho during the Late Archaic when use of fish as a resource increased (beginning approximately 1500 B.P.). Previous work has established a relationship between physiographic features of the Middle Snake River channel and the presence of fishing sites. To improve on future studies of this type, it is ...


Disease And De Soto: A Bioarchaeological Approach To The Introduction Of Malaria To The Southeast Us, Kelly Marie Schaeffer May 2019

Disease And De Soto: A Bioarchaeological Approach To The Introduction Of Malaria To The Southeast Us, Kelly Marie Schaeffer

Theses and Dissertations

It is well known through documentation in historical accounts that numerous diseases were introduced to the Americas during the time of Spanish and French exploration. Diseases such as smallpox, measles and yellow fever have been credited in playing a role in the Spanish conquest of the New World through drastic Native American population decline. Many researchers have studied the biological consequences of European contact, some using direct skeletal analyses to study changes in Native American health and disease. However, one major population disease that has not been part of these discussions is malaria. This is mostly due to the current ...


By Proxy: A Radiocarbon Perspective On Prehistoric Mobility Using Summed Probability Distributions And Paleoenvironmental Reconstructions In Wyoming And Montana, Anastasia M. Lugo Mendez May 2019

By Proxy: A Radiocarbon Perspective On Prehistoric Mobility Using Summed Probability Distributions And Paleoenvironmental Reconstructions In Wyoming And Montana, Anastasia M. Lugo Mendez

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Stone circles are among the most common and understudied archaeological features in the Rocky Mountains and High Plains. Their widespread availability coupled with increased archaeological research accompanying oil and natural gas exploration in the region has expanded the availability and size of the region’s radiocarbon database. The dates as data approach uses radiocarbon ages as variables from a larger sample. This thesis compiles radiocarbon ages associated with tipi ring sites in Wyoming and Montana and creates a summed probability distribution from these ages to serve as a proxy for prehistoric mobility. The distribution is corrected for taphonomic bias, or ...


Rediscovering Brazil: The Marajoara Style In Modernist Art And Design, Alyson Brandes May 2019

Rediscovering Brazil: The Marajoara Style In Modernist Art And Design, Alyson Brandes

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

During the Portuguese rule of Dom Pedro II until 1889, through the years of the First Brazilian Republic (1889-1930) and into the First Vargas Regime (1930-1945), Brazil struggled to solidify a strong national identity that would finally unify the country and legitimize its rich cultural heritage. The discovery and excavation of Marajó Island in the 1870s provided evidence of a great, ancient civilization, and inspired Brazilian Art Deco and early Modernist artists. Polychrome ceramic urns, vessels, and tangas (female pubic covers) were among the most abundant archaeological finds, many with zoomorphic and geometric motifs that show the cultural importance of ...


The Balthaser Home Site Lithic Assemblage: Analysis Of Stone Tool Technology In An Ohio Hopewell Site, Alice Lee, Elizabeth Kite, Grace Barstow-Christopher Apr 2019

The Balthaser Home Site Lithic Assemblage: Analysis Of Stone Tool Technology In An Ohio Hopewell Site, Alice Lee, Elizabeth Kite, Grace Barstow-Christopher

Papers, Posters, and Recordings

This poster represents an analysis of the stone tool (lithic) assemblage from the Balthaser Home Site located in Pickaway County, Ohio. The assemblage was collected between 2014-2018 during the collaborative research efforts of the SUNY Geneseo and Bloomsburg University archaeological field schools. While the site was chosen because of its potential as a Ohio Hopewell habitation site, we have also identified an Early Woodland Adena component here as well. The analysis was conducted in an effort to determine the nature of the organization of stone tool technology used during the various occupations of the site. The analysis of the distribution ...


‘Doing’ Llama Face Stew: A Late Moche Culinary Assemblage As A Domestic Dedicatory Deposit, Guy S. Duke Apr 2019

‘Doing’ Llama Face Stew: A Late Moche Culinary Assemblage As A Domestic Dedicatory Deposit, Guy S. Duke

Anthropology Faculty Publications and Presentations

Presented here is a meal from a simple cooking vessel, excavated from the Late Moche (AD 600–850) site of Wasi Huachuma on the north coast of Peru. This meal, cooked in a whole, plain vessel and spilled beneath the floor of a domestic structure, was unambiguously marked by a large stone embedded in the floor. It contained diverse plant and animal materials associated with the sea, the coastal plains, the highlands and the jungle. Via its contents and placement, this meal embodies the ways in which the domestic world of exchange and interaction was deeply entangled with the spiritual ...


Lithic Analysis Of An Early Archaic Assemblage On The Great Plains: The Spring Creek Site (25ft31), Andrea Elizabeth Kruse Apr 2019

Lithic Analysis Of An Early Archaic Assemblage On The Great Plains: The Spring Creek Site (25ft31), Andrea Elizabeth Kruse

Anthropology Department Theses and Dissertations

Early Archaic sites on the Great Plains are few in number and often little studied and poorly reported, as they are almost always found via salvage or compliance archaeology. Of those Early Archaic sites that have been studied, rarely has the recovered debitage been analyzed in detail nor have tools been fully evaluated for use-wear. This thesis describes the lithic assemblage from the Spring Creek (25FT31) site located in southwestern Nebraska. As one of two important early sites in the state, detailed lithic analysis will complement the thorough analysis of faunal remains conducted in the 2000s. This thesis presents the ...


An Examination Of Flintlock Components At Fort St. Joseph (20be23), Niles, Michigan, Kevin Paul Jones Apr 2019

An Examination Of Flintlock Components At Fort St. Joseph (20be23), Niles, Michigan, Kevin Paul Jones

Master's Theses

The purpose of this study is to identify the age, country and place of origin, function (e.g. fusil, pistol), and intended use (e.g. military, trade gun) of flintlock components recovered from Fort St. Joseph (20BE23), an eighteenth-century French mission-garrison-trading post in southwest Michigan. Flintlock muskets were a vital technology in New France throughout the fur trade era, both in their roles as weapons and as hunting implements. They were also important because their relatively complex nature necessitated localized, frontier supply and repair; their use and maintenance were integrated into many facets of frontier life. Historical documents and archaeological ...


Virtual Realities In Archaeology: Employing The Oculus Rift For Artifact Visualization And Education, Jeffrey R. Nau Apr 2019

Virtual Realities In Archaeology: Employing The Oculus Rift For Artifact Visualization And Education, Jeffrey R. Nau

Master's Theses

Virtual reality (VR) is an emerging digital platform that can be utilized as an immersive educational tool. This thesis uses the Oculus Rift virtual reality head-mounted display to create a VR Museum, building upon research exploring video games in education. This VR Museum leverages virtual reality and video game technology to educate players about archaeology. Through virtual reality technology, players enter the digitally-constructed museum environment as if they are inside the virtual world. This technology provides new avenues for engaging the public in archaeological studies. This thesis also examines how digital copies of artifacts made with photogrammetry can be utilized ...


The Endurance Of Tell Qarqur: Settlement Resilience In Northwestern Syria During The Late Bronze And Iron Ages (Ca. 1200 – 700 Bc), Eric Robert Jensen Mar 2019

The Endurance Of Tell Qarqur: Settlement Resilience In Northwestern Syria During The Late Bronze And Iron Ages (Ca. 1200 – 700 Bc), Eric Robert Jensen

Eric Roberts, MD

This dissertation analyzes the material culture, paleobotanical, and faunal remains excavated at the site of Tell Qarqur, Syria, recovered from occupational levels dating from the end of the Late Bronze Age to the Iron II period (from approximately 1200 to 700 BC). Based on archaeological evidence and ancient textual sources, many ancient Near Eastern kingdoms and polities endured social and political turmoil during the late 13th and early 12th centuries BC. Most likely caused by an unknown hostile group or groups, the destruction of monumental scale architecture and the disruption to the people of Qarqur’s agricultural and animal husbandry ...


The Endurance Of Tell Qarqur: Settlement Resilience In Northwestern Syria During The Late Bronze And Iron Ages (Ca. 1200 – 700 Bc), Eric Robert Jensen Mar 2019

The Endurance Of Tell Qarqur: Settlement Resilience In Northwestern Syria During The Late Bronze And Iron Ages (Ca. 1200 – 700 Bc), Eric Robert Jensen

Aurora Heart Failure / Transplant Faculty

This dissertation analyzes the material culture, paleobotanical, and faunal remains excavated at the site of Tell Qarqur, Syria, recovered from occupational levels dating from the end of the Late Bronze Age to the Iron II period (from approximately 1200 to 700 BC). Based on archaeological evidence and ancient textual sources, many ancient Near Eastern kingdoms and polities endured social and political turmoil during the late 13th and early 12th centuries BC. Most likely caused by an unknown hostile group or groups, the destruction of monumental scale architecture and the disruption to the people of Qarqur’s agricultural and animal husbandry ...


Current Research: Building A Corpus Of Crockett Curvilinear Incised Vessels, Duncan P. Mckinnon Jan 2019

Current Research: Building A Corpus Of Crockett Curvilinear Incised Vessels, Duncan P. Mckinnon

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

As presented in an earlier report (McKinnon 2018), I have been compiling, with the help of several Caddo researchers, a comprehensive multi-state database of Caddo vessels (now close to 15,000). The on-going goal is to evaluate landscape scale social interactions and interregional relationships using this growing ceramic database. Some initial explorations have been productive in evaluating relationships between proposed Caddo communities (archaeological phases) and I suggest that these exercises have offered insights into Caddo interaction, identity, and ideological exchange in a visual and (continually) comprehensive way (McKinnon 2011, 2016).


An Ancestral Caddo Site (41cs125) On The Sulphur River At Lake Wright Patman, Cass County, Texas, Julian A. Sitters, Timothy K. Perttula Jan 2019

An Ancestral Caddo Site (41cs125) On The Sulphur River At Lake Wright Patman, Cass County, Texas, Julian A. Sitters, Timothy K. Perttula

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

ln December 2017, AmaTerra Environmental lnc. conducted an intensive archeological survey of 41CS125, a previously reported ancestral Caddo site at Lake Wright Patman in Cass County, Texas. The work was done at the request of the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers, Fort Worth District in advance of a proposed bank stabilization pro}ect. The site was occupied from the Late Paleoindian period through historic times with extensive occupations during the Formative to Early Caddo and Late Caddo periods. Artifacts recovered in the investigations included both arrow and dart points, lithic debitage, bifaces, ground stone, a celt fragment, pitted stone ...


A Preliminary Comparison Of Two Caddo Mound Sites In Southwest Arkansas, Mary Beth D. Trubitt Jan 2019

A Preliminary Comparison Of Two Caddo Mound Sites In Southwest Arkansas, Mary Beth D. Trubitt

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

Previous Arkansas Archeological Survey excavations at the Hedges site in the Ouachita River valley and the Hughes site in the Saline River valley uncovered evidence of burned structures adjacent to the mounds. An overview of the artifact analyses indicates that the sites were roughly contemporaneous, with intensive use by ancestral Caddo Indians during the Late Caddo period, between the AD 1400s and 1600s. This presentation summarizes the research .ftndings to emphasize comparisons in timing, activities, and community plans.


In Between Two Worlds: Past Perspectives On The Neosho Phase (A.D. 1400-1650), Paige Ford Jan 2019

In Between Two Worlds: Past Perspectives On The Neosho Phase (A.D. 1400-1650), Paige Ford

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

The Neosho phase (A.D. 1400-1650) in northeastern Oklahoma, northwestern Arkansas, southwestern Missouri, and southeastern Kansas represents Late Pre-contact peoples engaged in widespread trade from the Plains to groups in the southeastern United States. The phase has confounded researchers since its de.ftnition, although debates mainly concern one of two main questions concerning the identity of Neosho peoples: origins and cultural af.ftliation. Most research to date has focused simply on the question of emergence. Early in these debates, Orr (1946) suggested that Neosho peoples represented one or more plains-oriented groups that had migrated into the area, while Wyckoff (1980 ...


First Test Of Habitat Suitability Models For The Davy Crockett National Forest, Robert Z. Selden Jr., David A. Foxe, Juanita D. Garcia Jan 2019

First Test Of Habitat Suitability Models For The Davy Crockett National Forest, Robert Z. Selden Jr., David A. Foxe, Juanita D. Garcia

CRHR: Archaeology

The test for this suite of models was conducted as a double-blind survey since neither the United States Forest Service personnel (excepting Garcia) nor the participants were provided with any information regarding the model in advance of testing. Input from the model was shared with the crew the day after each location was tested. Enlistment of the double-blind survey method aids in reducing survey bias. Collection of data for this project begins with the stratified random sample. The sample consists of random locations throughout compartments of the Davy Crockett National Forest. Those locations not visited in the first test of ...


Caddo Pottery From Eight Sites In The Middle Ouachita River Valley, Mary Beth D. Trubitt Jan 2019

Caddo Pottery From Eight Sites In The Middle Ouachita River Valley, Mary Beth D. Trubitt

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

Documentation and analysis of ceramic vessels in the Joint Educational Consortium's Hodges Collection has focused on reconstructing grave lots based on notes left by amateur archeologist Vere Huddleston in the 1930s and 1940s. Despite problems with the data, we can glean useful information from this collection. Here, l describe Caddo pottery and other artifacts in grave lots from eight sites in Clark and Hot Spring counties of west-central Arkansas. l then order the grave lots in time based on stylistic and technological characteristics (seriation) to re.ftne the ceramic chronology of the Middle Ouachita River valley and compare mortuary ...


Current Research: Discovery And Recovery Of A 14th Century Dugout Canoe On The Red River, Caddo Parish, Louisiana, Jeffrey S. Girard, Charles R. Mcgimsey Jan 2019

Current Research: Discovery And Recovery Of A 14th Century Dugout Canoe On The Red River, Caddo Parish, Louisiana, Jeffrey S. Girard, Charles R. Mcgimsey

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

In June 2017, Jenna Bradley and Robert Cornett were boating down the Red River in northern Caddo Parish, Louisiana, when they noticed an unusual log protruding from a sandy bank near the town of Belcher. After realizing that it was a dugout canoe, they contacted the Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries, and eventually word of the find was transmitted to state archaeologist Chip McGimsey at the Louisiana Division of Archaeology. The following day, Bradley and Cornett led Jeffrey Girard and Jameel Damlouji of the Louisiana Archaeological Society to the site. It was obvious that it was a dugout canoe ...


Current Research: Organic Residues On Engraved Vessels From Ancestral Caddo Sites In East Texas, Timothy K. Perttula Jan 2019

Current Research: Organic Residues On Engraved Vessels From Ancestral Caddo Sites In East Texas, Timothy K. Perttula

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

In the course of recently documenting ancestral Caddo ceramic vessels from sites dating to Late Caddo period Titus phase contexts (ca. A.D. 1430-1680) in East Texas, specifically on sites in the Big Cypress Creek and Sabine River basins, I have encountered a significant number (ca. 9.6 percent) of more than 1790 engraved fine ware vessels that have an exterior organic residue (Table 1), including carinated bowls, compound bowls, jars, bowls, and even bottles. In some cases, the exterior residue on certain carinated bowls and compound bowls is so thick that the engraved design is obscured and almost completely ...


Current Research: Analysis Of Ceramic Vessel Residues From The Washington Square Mound Site (41na49) For Evidence Of Peyote Use By The Caddo In The 13th-15th Centuries A.D., Timothy K. Perttula, Martin Terry Jan 2019

Current Research: Analysis Of Ceramic Vessel Residues From The Washington Square Mound Site (41na49) For Evidence Of Peyote Use By The Caddo In The 13th-15th Centuries A.D., Timothy K. Perttula, Martin Terry

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

In 2012, Perttula requested permission from to the Caddo Nation of Oklahoma's Repatriation Committee to analyze small samples (ca. 1-2 grams of ceramic paste, or sherds ca. 1-2 square centimeters in size) from the paste of five vessels from Features 31 and 95 at the Washington Square Mound site (41NA49) (Perttula et al. 2010) in East Texas to identify residue traces of the Caddo's use of peyote in the 13th-15th centuries A.D. The Caddo Nation of Oklahoma gave their permission to conduct these ceramic vessel residue studies.


Current Research: Spiro And Caddoan Connections On The Northern Frontier Of Southwest Missouri, Jack H. Ray Jan 2019

Current Research: Spiro And Caddoan Connections On The Northern Frontier Of Southwest Missouri, Jack H. Ray

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

Excavations during the construction of Table Rock Lake in the late 1950s resulted in a proposition that there was a colonization of peoples into the upper White River drainage from Caddoan areas to the southwest (Chapman 1980; Chapman et al. 1960). This colonization, which resulted in the formulation of the Loftin phase, is widely accepted today (O'Brien and Wood 1998; Perttula 1983, 1989; Sabo and Early 1990). Later, James Brown (1984) exposed the myth that the southwestern Ozarks was a cultural enclave that lagged behind Mississippian developments in other parts of the Trans-Mississippi South.