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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Jewish Genetic Origins In The Context Of Past Historical And Anthropological Inquiries, John M. Efron Dec 2013

Jewish Genetic Origins In The Context Of Past Historical And Anthropological Inquiries, John M. Efron

Human Biology Open Access Pre-Prints

The contemporary study of Jewish genetics has a long prehistory dating back to the eighteenth century. Prior to the era of genetics studies of the physical makeup of Jews were undertaken by comparative anatomists and physical anthropologists. In the nineteenth century the field was referred to as “race science.” Believed by many race scientists to be a homogeneous and pure race, Jews occupied a central position in the discourse of race science because they were seen as the control group par excellence to determine the relative primacy of nature or nurture in the development of racial characteristics. In the nineteenth ...


From Generation To Generation: The Genetics Of Jewish Populations, Noah A. Rosenberg, Steven P. Weitzman Dec 2013

From Generation To Generation: The Genetics Of Jewish Populations, Noah A. Rosenberg, Steven P. Weitzman

Human Biology Open Access Pre-Prints

Introduction:

This year marks the 35th anniversary of two noteworthy papers—one in this journal and the other in the American Journal of Human Genetics—posing the same famous question: are the different Jewish populations from around Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa more genetically similar to each other, or are they more similar to the local non-­‐Jewish populations in the regions where they were historically located? Both studies gathered blood-­‐group and protein variation data from a variety of Jewish and non-­‐Jewish populations, compiling significant “classical marker” data sets commensurate with the standard for human population- ...


Genetics And The History Of The Samaritans: Y-Chromosomal Microsatellites And Genetic Affinity Between Samaritans And Cohanim, Peter J. Oefner, Georg Hõlzl, Peidong Shen, Isaac Shpirer, Dov Gefel, Tal Lavi, Eilon Wolf, Jonathan Cohen, Cengiz Cinnioglu, Peter A. Underhill, Noah A. Rosenberg, Jochen Hochrein, Julie M. Granka, Jossi Hillel, Marcus W. Feldman Dec 2013

Genetics And The History Of The Samaritans: Y-Chromosomal Microsatellites And Genetic Affinity Between Samaritans And Cohanim, Peter J. Oefner, Georg Hõlzl, Peidong Shen, Isaac Shpirer, Dov Gefel, Tal Lavi, Eilon Wolf, Jonathan Cohen, Cengiz Cinnioglu, Peter A. Underhill, Noah A. Rosenberg, Jochen Hochrein, Julie M. Granka, Jossi Hillel, Marcus W. Feldman

Human Biology Open Access Pre-Prints

The Samaritans are a group of some 750 indigenous Middle Eastern people, about half of whom live in Holon, a suburb of Tel Aviv, and the other half near Nablus. The Samaritan population is believed to have numbered more than a million in late Roman times, but less than 150 in 1917. The ancestry of the Samaritans has been subject to controversy from late Biblical times to the present. In this study, liquid chromatographyelectrospray ionization quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry was used to allelotype 13 Y-chromosomal and 15 autosomal microsatellites in a sample of 12 Samaritans chosen to have as ...


No Evidence From Genome-Wide Data Of A Khazar Origin For The Ashkenazi Jews, Doron M. Behar, Mait Metspalu, Yael Baran, Naama M. Kopelman, Bayazit Yunusbayev, Ariella Gladstein, Shay Tzur, Havhannes Sahakyan, Ardeshir Bahmanimehr, Levon Yepiskoposyan, Kristiina Tambets, Elza K. Khusnutdinova, Aljona Kusniarevich, Oleg Balanovsky, Elena Balanovsky, Lejla Kovacevic, Damir Marjanovic, Evelin Mihailov, Anastasia Kouvatsi, Costas Traintaphyllidis, Roy J. King, Ornella Semino, Antonio Torroni, Michael F. Hammer, Ene Metspalu, Karl Skorecki, Saharon Rosset, Eran Halperin, Richard Villems, Noah A. Rosenberg Dec 2013

No Evidence From Genome-Wide Data Of A Khazar Origin For The Ashkenazi Jews, Doron M. Behar, Mait Metspalu, Yael Baran, Naama M. Kopelman, Bayazit Yunusbayev, Ariella Gladstein, Shay Tzur, Havhannes Sahakyan, Ardeshir Bahmanimehr, Levon Yepiskoposyan, Kristiina Tambets, Elza K. Khusnutdinova, Aljona Kusniarevich, Oleg Balanovsky, Elena Balanovsky, Lejla Kovacevic, Damir Marjanovic, Evelin Mihailov, Anastasia Kouvatsi, Costas Traintaphyllidis, Roy J. King, Ornella Semino, Antonio Torroni, Michael F. Hammer, Ene Metspalu, Karl Skorecki, Saharon Rosset, Eran Halperin, Richard Villems, Noah A. Rosenberg

Human Biology Open Access Pre-Prints

The origin and history of the Ashkenazi Jewish population have long been of great interest, and advances in high-throughput genetic analysis have recently provided a new approach for investigating these topics. We and others have argued on the basis of genome-wide data that the Ashkenazi Jewish population derives its ancestry from a combination of sources tracing to both Europe and the Middle East. It has been claimed, however, through a reanalysis of some of our data, that a large part of the ancestry of the Ashkenazi population originates with the Khazars, a Turkic-speaking group that lived to the north of ...


Genetics And The Archaeology Of Ancient Israel, Aaron J. Brody, Roy J. King Dec 2013

Genetics And The Archaeology Of Ancient Israel, Aaron J. Brody, Roy J. King

Human Biology Open Access Pre-Prints

This paper is a call for DNA testing on ancient skeletal materials from the southern Levant to begin to database genetic information of the inhabitants of this crossroads region. Archaeologists and biblical historians view the earliest presence in the region of a group that called itself Israel in the Iron I period, traditionally dated to ca. 1200-1000 BCE. These were in villages in the varied hill countries of the region, contemporary with urban settlements in the coastal plains, inland valleys, and central Hill Country attributed to varied indigenous groups collectively called Canaanite. The remnants of Egyptian imperial presence in the ...


Exploring The Relative Importance Of Spatial And Environmental Variation On The Craniometrics Of The Modern Portuguese, Katherine E. Weisensee Sep 2013

Exploring The Relative Importance Of Spatial And Environmental Variation On The Craniometrics Of The Modern Portuguese, Katherine E. Weisensee

Human Biology Open Access Pre-Prints

Previous research on the causes of craniometric variation within and among human populations has invoked both genetic and environmental explanations. Recent studies of modern populations in the United States and Portugal, among other populations, suggest that changes in environmental conditions have resulted in significant changes in cranial morphology. While similar changes in cranial morphology have been observed in genetically diverse populations, these populations do not appear to be converging on a common form. This study seeks to understand the role that population history and environmental variation play in explaining craniometric variation in the modern Portuguese. Using three-­‐dimensional craniometric data ...


Genetic Variation Of X-Strs In The Wichí Population From Chaco Province, Argentina, Laura Angela Glesmann, Pablo Francisco Martina, Cecilia Inés Catanesi Sep 2013

Genetic Variation Of X-Strs In The Wichí Population From Chaco Province, Argentina, Laura Angela Glesmann, Pablo Francisco Martina, Cecilia Inés Catanesi

Human Biology Open Access Pre-Prints

The Wichí people from Chaco province inhabit the region called Impenetrable Chaqueño, where the climatic conditions are extreme. Besides the scarce communication with the main urban centers, the cultural patterns of the Wichí cause these communities to live in certain degree of isolation. The effect of this situation is an increased genetic differentiation from other populations, as it was observed through autosomal and Y chromosome markers. However, the genetic variation of X chromosome has not been fully analyzed yet. The patterns of allele distribution of different markers of X chromosome can be highly informative in comparative studies, because its special ...


Analysis Of Uniparental Lineages In Two Villages Of Santiago Del Estero, Argentina, Seat Of “Pueblos De Indios” In Colonial Times, Maia Pauro, Angelina García, Rodrigo Nores, Darío A. Demarchi Sep 2013

Analysis Of Uniparental Lineages In Two Villages Of Santiago Del Estero, Argentina, Seat Of “Pueblos De Indios” In Colonial Times, Maia Pauro, Angelina García, Rodrigo Nores, Darío A. Demarchi

Human Biology Open Access Pre-Prints

Based on the analysis of the mitochondrial control region and seven biallelic markers of the Y Chromosome, we investigated the genetic composition of two rural populations of southern Santiago del Estero, Argentina, that were seats in colonial times of “pueblos de indios”, a colonial practice that consisted of concentrating the indigenous populations in organized and accessible settlements, to facilitate Christianizing and policing. We found the Native American Y chromosome haplogroup Q1a3a in only 11% (3/27) of the males. Haplogroup R, common in European populations, is the most frequent haplogroup in Santiago del Estero (55%). In contrast, the persistence of ...


Ancestry Informative Markers Clarify The Regional Admixture Variation In The Costa Rican Population, Rebeca Campos-Sánchez, Henriette Raventós, Ramiro Barrantes Sep 2013

Ancestry Informative Markers Clarify The Regional Admixture Variation In The Costa Rican Population, Rebeca Campos-Sánchez, Henriette Raventós, Ramiro Barrantes

Human Biology Open Access Pre-Prints

The genetic structure of Costa Rica’s population is complex, both by region and by individual, due to the admixture process that started during the 15th century and historical events thereafter. Previous studies have been done mostly on Amerindian populations and the Central Valley inhabitants using various microsatellites and mtDNA markers. Here, we study for the first time a random sample from all regions of the country with AIMS (Ancestry Informative Markers) to address the individual and regional admixture proportions. A sample of 160 male individuals was screened for 78 AIMs customized in a GoldenGate platform from Illumina. We observed ...


Intermittence For Humans Spreading 45,000 Years Ago: From Eurasia To The Americas, J. C. Flores Sep 2013

Intermittence For Humans Spreading 45,000 Years Ago: From Eurasia To The Americas, J. C. Flores

Human Biology Open Access Pre-Prints

From northeastern-Eurasia to the Americas, a three stage spread of Modern Humans is considered through large scale intermittence (exploitation/relocation). Conceptually, this work supports intermittence as a real strategy for colonization of new habitats. For the northeastern Eurasia travel, the first stage, we adapt our model to archaeological dates determining the diffusion coefficient (exploitation phase) as D=299.44 [km2/yr] and the velocity parameter (relocation phase) as vo=4.8944 [km/yr]. The relative phaseweight (≈ 0.46), between both kind of motions, is consistent with a moderate biological population rate (r'≈ 0.0046 [1/yrs]). The second ...


Comparative Morphology Of The Hominin And African Ape Hyoid Bone, A Possible Marker Of The Evolution Of Speech, James Steele, Margaret Clegg, Sandra Martelli Sep 2013

Comparative Morphology Of The Hominin And African Ape Hyoid Bone, A Possible Marker Of The Evolution Of Speech, James Steele, Margaret Clegg, Sandra Martelli

Human Biology Open Access Pre-Prints

This study examines the morphology of the hyoid in three closely related species, Homo sapiens, Pan troglodytes and Gorilla gorilla. Differences and similarities between the hyoids of these species are characterised, and used to interpret the morphology and affinities of the Dikika A. afarensis, Kebara 2 Neanderthal, and other fossil hominin hyoid bones.

Humans and African apes are found to have distinct hyoid morphologies. In humans the maximum width across the distal tips of the articulated greater horns is usually slightly greater than the maximum length (distal greater horn tip to most anterior point of the hyoid body in the ...