Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Social and Behavioral Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 14 of 14

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

New Native American Studies Initiative At Penn, Margaret Bruchac Dec 2013

New Native American Studies Initiative At Penn, Margaret Bruchac

Department of Anthropology Papers

No abstract provided.


Mitochondrial Genetic Background Modulates Bioenergetics And Susceptibility To Acute Cardiac Volume Overload, Jessica L. Fetterman, Blake R. Zelickson, Larry W. Johnson, Douglas R. Moellering, David G. Westbrook, Melissa Pompilius, Melissa J. Sammy, Michelle Johnson, Kimberly J. Dunham‑Snary, Xuemei Cao∥, Wayne E. Bradley, Jinju Zhang, Chih‑Chang Wei, Balu Chacko, Theodore G. Schurr, Robert A. Kesterson, Louis J. Dell’Italia, Victor M. Darley‑Usmar, Danny R. Welch, Scott W. Ballinger Oct 2013

Mitochondrial Genetic Background Modulates Bioenergetics And Susceptibility To Acute Cardiac Volume Overload, Jessica L. Fetterman, Blake R. Zelickson, Larry W. Johnson, Douglas R. Moellering, David G. Westbrook, Melissa Pompilius, Melissa J. Sammy, Michelle Johnson, Kimberly J. Dunham‑Snary, Xuemei Cao∥, Wayne E. Bradley, Jinju Zhang, Chih‑Chang Wei, Balu Chacko, Theodore G. Schurr, Robert A. Kesterson, Louis J. Dell’Italia, Victor M. Darley‑Usmar, Danny R. Welch, Scott W. Ballinger

Department of Anthropology Papers

Dysfunctional bioenergetics has emerged as a key feature in many chronic pathologies such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. This has led to the mitochondrial paradigm in which it has been proposed that mtDNA sequence variation contributes to disease susceptibility. In the present study we show a novel animal model of mtDNA polymorphisms, the MNX (mitochondrial–nuclear exchange) mouse, in which the mtDNA from the C3H/HeN mouse has been inserted on to the C57/BL6 nuclear background and vice versa to test this concept. Our data show a major contribution of the C57/BL6 mtDNA to the susceptibility to the ...


Ancient Dna Reveals Key Stages In The Formation Of Central European Mitochondrial Genetic Diversity, Guido Brandt, Wolfgang Haak, Christina J. Adler, Christina Roth, Anna Szécsényi-Nagy, Sarah Karimnia, Sabine Möller-Rieker, Harald Meller, Robert Ganslmeier, Susanne Friederich, Veit Dresely, Nicole Nicklisch, Joseph K. Pickrell, Frank Sirocko, David Reich, Alan Cooper, Kurt W. Alt, Genographic Consortium Oct 2013

Ancient Dna Reveals Key Stages In The Formation Of Central European Mitochondrial Genetic Diversity, Guido Brandt, Wolfgang Haak, Christina J. Adler, Christina Roth, Anna Szécsényi-Nagy, Sarah Karimnia, Sabine Möller-Rieker, Harald Meller, Robert Ganslmeier, Susanne Friederich, Veit Dresely, Nicole Nicklisch, Joseph K. Pickrell, Frank Sirocko, David Reich, Alan Cooper, Kurt W. Alt, Genographic Consortium

Department of Anthropology Papers

The processes that shaped modern European mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation remain unclear. The initial peopling by Palaeolithic hunter-gatherers ~42,000 years ago and the immigration of Neolithic farmers into Europe ~8000 years ago appear to have played important roles but do not explain present-day mtDNA diversity. We generated mtDNA profiles of 364 individuals from prehistoric cultures in Central Europe to perform a chronological study, spanning the Early Neolithic to the Early Bronze Age (5500 to 1550 calibrated years before the common era). We used this transect through time to identify four marked shifts in genetic composition during the Neolithic period ...


The Genetic History Of Indigenous Populations Of The Peruvian And Bolivian Altiplano: The Legacy Of The Uros, José Raul Sandoval, Daniela R. Lacerda, Marilza S. A Jota, Alberto Salazar-Granara, Pedro Paulo R. Vieira, Oscar Acosta, Cinthia Cuellar, Susana Revollo, Ricardo Fujita, Fabrício R. Santos, Genographic Consortium, Theodore G. Schurr Sep 2013

The Genetic History Of Indigenous Populations Of The Peruvian And Bolivian Altiplano: The Legacy Of The Uros, José Raul Sandoval, Daniela R. Lacerda, Marilza S. A Jota, Alberto Salazar-Granara, Pedro Paulo R. Vieira, Oscar Acosta, Cinthia Cuellar, Susana Revollo, Ricardo Fujita, Fabrício R. Santos, Genographic Consortium, Theodore G. Schurr

Department of Anthropology Papers

The Altiplano region of the South American Andes is marked by an inhospitable climate to which the autochthonous human populations adapted and then developed great ancient civilizations, such as the Tiwanaku culture and the Inca Empire. Since pre-Columbian times, different rulers established themselves around the Titicaca and Poopo Lakes. By the time of the arrival of Spaniards, Aymara and Quechua languages were predominant on the Altiplano under the rule of the Incas, although the occurrence of other spoken languages, such as Puquina and Uruquilla, suggests the existence of different ethnic groups in this region. In this study, we focused on ...


Genetic Background And Climatic Droplet Keratopathy Incidence In A Mapuche Population From Argentina, Theodore G. Schurr, Matthew C. Dulik, Thamara A. Cafaro, María F. Suarez, Julio A. Urrets-Zavalia, Horacio M. Serra Sep 2013

Genetic Background And Climatic Droplet Keratopathy Incidence In A Mapuche Population From Argentina, Theodore G. Schurr, Matthew C. Dulik, Thamara A. Cafaro, María F. Suarez, Julio A. Urrets-Zavalia, Horacio M. Serra

Department of Anthropology Papers

Purpose

To determine whether the incidence of and susceptibility to climatic droplet keratopathy (CDK), an acquired, often bilateral degenerative corneal disease, is influenced by the genetic background of the individuals who exhibit the disorder.

Methods

To determine whether the disease expression was influenced by the genetic ancestry of CDK cases in native Mapuche of the northwest area of Patagonia in Argentina, we examined mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosome variation in 53 unrelated individuals. Twenty-nine of them were part of the CDK (patient) population, while 24 were part of the control group. The analysis revealed the maternal and paternal lineages that were ...


Racial Situations: Nationalist Vindication And Radical Deconstructionism, Deborah A. Thomas Aug 2013

Racial Situations: Nationalist Vindication And Radical Deconstructionism, Deborah A. Thomas

Department of Anthropology Papers

No abstract provided.


Art Or Patrimony? Indigenous Objects In The International Art Market, Margaret Bruchac Jul 2013

Art Or Patrimony? Indigenous Objects In The International Art Market, Margaret Bruchac

Department of Anthropology Papers

No abstract provided.


Uniparental Markers In Italy Reveal A Sex-Biased Genetic Structure And Different Historical Strata, Alessio Boattini, Begoña Martinez-Cruz, Stefania Sarno, Christine Harmant, Antonella Useli, Paula Sanz, Daniele Yang-Yao, Jeremy Manry, Graziella Ciani, Donata Luiselli, Lluis Quintana-Murci, David Comas, Davide Pettener, Genographic Consortium, Theodore G. Schurr May 2013

Uniparental Markers In Italy Reveal A Sex-Biased Genetic Structure And Different Historical Strata, Alessio Boattini, Begoña Martinez-Cruz, Stefania Sarno, Christine Harmant, Antonella Useli, Paula Sanz, Daniele Yang-Yao, Jeremy Manry, Graziella Ciani, Donata Luiselli, Lluis Quintana-Murci, David Comas, Davide Pettener, Genographic Consortium, Theodore G. Schurr

Department of Anthropology Papers

Located in the center of the Mediterranean landscape and with an extensive coastal line, the territory of what is today Italy has played an important role in the history of human settlements and movements of Southern Europe and the Mediterranean Basin. Populated since Paleolithic times, the complexity of human movements during the Neolithic, the Metal Ages and the most recent history of the two last millennia (involving the overlapping of different cultural and demic strata) has shaped the pattern of the modern Italian genetic structure. With the aim of disentangling this pattern and understanding which processes more importantly shaped the ...


The Genochip: A New Tool For Genetic Anthropology, Eran Elhaik, Elliott Greenspan, Sean Staats, Thomas Krahn, Chris Tyler-Smith, Yali Xue, Sergio Tofanelli, Francesco Cucca, Luca Pagani, Li Jin, Hui Li, Theodore G. Schurr, Bennett Greenspan, R. Spencer Wells, Genographic Consortium May 2013

The Genochip: A New Tool For Genetic Anthropology, Eran Elhaik, Elliott Greenspan, Sean Staats, Thomas Krahn, Chris Tyler-Smith, Yali Xue, Sergio Tofanelli, Francesco Cucca, Luca Pagani, Li Jin, Hui Li, Theodore G. Schurr, Bennett Greenspan, R. Spencer Wells, Genographic Consortium

Department of Anthropology Papers

The Genographic Project is an international effort aimed at charting human migratory history. The project is nonprofit and non-medical, and, through its Legacy Fund, supports locally led efforts to preserve indigenous and traditional cultures. Although the first phase of the project was focused on uniparentally inherited markers on the Y-chromosome and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), the current phase focuses on markers from across the entire genome to obtain a more complete understanding of human genetic variation. Although many commercial arrays exist for genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping, they were designed for medical genetic studies and contain medically related markers that are ...


Neolithic Mitochondrial Haplogroup H Genomes And The Genetic Origins Of Europeans, Paul Brotherton, Wolfgang Haak, Jennifer E. L Templeton, Guido Brandt, Julien Soubrier, Christina J. Adler, Stephen M. Richards, Clio Der Sarkissian, Robert Ganslmeier, Susanne Friederich, Veit Dresely, Mannis Van Oven, Rosalie Kenyon, Mark B. Van Der Hoek, Jonas Korlach, Khai Luong, Simon Y.W. Ho, Lluis Quintana-Murci, Doron M. Behar, Harald Meller, Kurt W. Alt, Alan Cooper, Syama Adhikarla, Arun Kumar Ganesh Prasad, Ramasamy Pitchappan, Arun Varatharajan Santhakumari, Elena Balanovska, Oleg Balanovska, Jaume Bertranpetit, David Comas, Begoña Martinez-Cruz, Marta Melé, Andrew C. Clarke, Elizabeth Matisoo-Smith, Matthew C. Dulik, Jill Bennett Gaieski, Amanda C. Owings, Theodore G. Schurr, Miguel G. Vilar, Jennifer L Hobbs, Angela Hoobs, Himla Soodyall, Asif Javed, Laxmi Parida, Daniel E. Platt, Ajay K. Royyuru, Li Jin, Shilin Li, Matthew E. Kaplan, Nirav C. Merchant, R. John Mitchell, Colin Renfrew, Daniela R. Lacerda, Fabrício R. Santos, David F. Soria-Hernanz, R. Spencer Wells, Pandikumar Swamikrishnan, Chris Tyler-Smith, Pedro Paulo R. Vieira, Janet Ziegle, Genographic Consortium Apr 2013

Neolithic Mitochondrial Haplogroup H Genomes And The Genetic Origins Of Europeans, Paul Brotherton, Wolfgang Haak, Jennifer E. L Templeton, Guido Brandt, Julien Soubrier, Christina J. Adler, Stephen M. Richards, Clio Der Sarkissian, Robert Ganslmeier, Susanne Friederich, Veit Dresely, Mannis Van Oven, Rosalie Kenyon, Mark B. Van Der Hoek, Jonas Korlach, Khai Luong, Simon Y.W. Ho, Lluis Quintana-Murci, Doron M. Behar, Harald Meller, Kurt W. Alt, Alan Cooper, Syama Adhikarla, Arun Kumar Ganesh Prasad, Ramasamy Pitchappan, Arun Varatharajan Santhakumari, Elena Balanovska, Oleg Balanovska, Jaume Bertranpetit, David Comas, Begoña Martinez-Cruz, Marta Melé, Andrew C. Clarke, Elizabeth Matisoo-Smith, Matthew C. Dulik, Jill Bennett Gaieski, Amanda C. Owings, Theodore G. Schurr, Miguel G. Vilar, Jennifer L Hobbs, Angela Hoobs, Himla Soodyall, Asif Javed, Laxmi Parida, Daniel E. Platt, Ajay K. Royyuru, Li Jin, Shilin Li, Matthew E. Kaplan, Nirav C. Merchant, R. John Mitchell, Colin Renfrew, Daniela R. Lacerda, Fabrício R. Santos, David F. Soria-Hernanz, R. Spencer Wells, Pandikumar Swamikrishnan, Chris Tyler-Smith, Pedro Paulo R. Vieira, Janet Ziegle, Genographic Consortium

Department of Anthropology Papers

Haplogroup H dominates present-day Western European mitochondrial DNA variability (>40%), yet was less common (~19%) among Early Neolithic farmers (~5450 BC) and virtually absent in Mesolithic hunter-gatherers. Here we investigate this major component of the maternal population history of modern Europeans and sequence 39 complete haplogroup H mitochondrial genomes from ancient human remains. We then compare this ‘real-time’ genetic data with cultural changes taking place between the Early Neolithic (~5450 BC) and Bronze Age (~2200 BC) in Central Europe. Our results reveal that the current diversity and distribution of haplogroup H were largely established by the Mid Neolithic (~4000 BC ...


Ancient Dna Reveals Prehistoric Gene-Flow From Siberia In The Complex Human Population History Of North East Europe, Clio Der Sarkissian, Oleg Balanovsky, Guido Brandt, Valery Khartanovich, Alexandra Buzhilova, Sergey Koshel, Valery Zaporozhchenko, Detlef Gronenborn, Vyacheslav Moiseyev, Eugen Kolpakov, Vladimir Shumkin, Kurt W. Alt, Elena Balanovska, Alan Cooper, Wolfgang Haak, Genographic Consortium, Theodore G. Schurr Feb 2013

Ancient Dna Reveals Prehistoric Gene-Flow From Siberia In The Complex Human Population History Of North East Europe, Clio Der Sarkissian, Oleg Balanovsky, Guido Brandt, Valery Khartanovich, Alexandra Buzhilova, Sergey Koshel, Valery Zaporozhchenko, Detlef Gronenborn, Vyacheslav Moiseyev, Eugen Kolpakov, Vladimir Shumkin, Kurt W. Alt, Elena Balanovska, Alan Cooper, Wolfgang Haak, Genographic Consortium, Theodore G. Schurr

Department of Anthropology Papers

North East Europe harbors a high diversity of cultures and languages, suggesting a complex genetic history. Archaeological, anthropological, and genetic research has revealed a series of influences from Western and Eastern Eurasia in the past. While genetic data from modern-day populations is commonly used to make inferences about their origins and past migrations, ancient DNA provides a powerful test of such hypotheses by giving a snapshot of the past genetic diversity. In order to better understand the dynamics that have shaped the gene pool of North East Europeans, we generated and analyzed 34 mitochondrial genotypes from the skeletal remains of ...


Y-Chromosome And Mtdna Genetics Reveal Significant Contrasts In Affinities Of Modern Middle Eastern Populations With European And African Populations, Danielle A. Badro, Bouchra Douaihy, Marc Haber, Sonia C. Youhanna, Angélique Salloum, Michella Ghassibe-Sabbagh, Brian Johnsrud, Georges Khazen, Elizabeth Matisoo-Smith, David F. Soria-Hernanz, R. Spencer Wells, Chris Tyler-Smith, Daniel E. Platt, Pierre A. Zalloua, Genographic Consortium, Theodore G. Schurr Jan 2013

Y-Chromosome And Mtdna Genetics Reveal Significant Contrasts In Affinities Of Modern Middle Eastern Populations With European And African Populations, Danielle A. Badro, Bouchra Douaihy, Marc Haber, Sonia C. Youhanna, Angélique Salloum, Michella Ghassibe-Sabbagh, Brian Johnsrud, Georges Khazen, Elizabeth Matisoo-Smith, David F. Soria-Hernanz, R. Spencer Wells, Chris Tyler-Smith, Daniel E. Platt, Pierre A. Zalloua, Genographic Consortium, Theodore G. Schurr

Department of Anthropology Papers

The Middle East was a funnel of human expansion out of Africa, a staging area for the Neolithic Agricultural Revolution, and the home to some of the earliest world empires. Post LGM expansions into the region and subsequent population movements created a striking genetic mosaic with distinct sex-based genetic differentiation. While prior studies have examined the mtDNA and Y-chromosome contrast in focal populations in the Middle East, none have undertaken a broad-spectrum survey including North and sub-Saharan Africa, Europe, and Middle Eastern populations. In this study 5,174 mtDNA and 4,658 Y-chromosome samples were investigated using PCA, MDS, mean-linkage ...


Raised Fields As Monumental Farmed Landscapes, Lake Titicaca, South America, Clark L. Erickson Jan 2013

Raised Fields As Monumental Farmed Landscapes, Lake Titicaca, South America, Clark L. Erickson

Department of Anthropology Papers

Circumstances Under Which the Garden was Investigated

In the 1960s and 1970s, vast landscapes of abandoned pre-Columbian raised fields were documented in Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador, Colombia, Suriname, and Guyana. This form of intensive agriculture is associated with large and dense sedentary populations and in some cases sustained complex sociopolitical organizations. Raised fields are large elevated planting platforms designed to provide drainage and improve soil conditions and fertility. Deep water-filled canals alongside the platforms provide moisture during dry periods, protect crops against frost, and produce organic matter for sustained harvests.


The Problem With Violence: Exceptionality And Sovereignty In The New World, Deborah A. Thomas Jan 2013

The Problem With Violence: Exceptionality And Sovereignty In The New World, Deborah A. Thomas

Department of Anthropology Papers

For many observers, the violent and often spectacular crime that takes place in particular Caribbean areas is evidence of a failure to create a growth-oriented economy and morally progressive ethos. It is a problem of culture, a mark of backwardness, an unsuccessful movement from savagery, or a failure to take advantage of post-World War II opportunities for development in political, economic, and socio-cultural fields. At the very least, it is something that marks the eScholarship provides open access, scholarly publishing services to the University of California and delivers a dynamic research platform to scholars worldwide. Caribbean—as well as some ...