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Social and Behavioral Sciences Commons

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Anthropology

2013

Series

Anthropology Faculty Publications and Presentations

Articles 1 - 20 of 20

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Review Of High Altitude Aviation Preoxygenation / Denitrogenization Procedures And Draft Pressure Schedule For Open-Cockpit Balloon Flight To 65,000 Feet, Cameron M. Smith Nov 2013

Review Of High Altitude Aviation Preoxygenation / Denitrogenization Procedures And Draft Pressure Schedule For Open-Cockpit Balloon Flight To 65,000 Feet, Cameron M. Smith

Anthropology Faculty Publications and Presentations

Aviation Decompression Sickness (DCS) is a well-known and well documented phenomenon in which a spectrum of physiological and cognitive symptoms result from aircrew exposures to altitudes greater than roughly 10,000 feet, where atmospheric pressures and the partial pressure of oxygen are significantly lower than the mean pressures in which the human body has evolved. The main factors involved in the likelihood of DCS are (a) exposure altitude, (b) exposure time at altitude, (c) preoxygenation / denitrogenization duration and procedure and (d) exercise at the exposure altitude. Mitigation of DCS is largely achieved by (a) preoxygenation / denitrogenization before flight, (b) use ...


Hypobaric Chamber Test Of Pacific Spaceflight Pressure Garment Mark I At Copenhagen University Hospital, Cameron M. Smith Nov 2013

Hypobaric Chamber Test Of Pacific Spaceflight Pressure Garment Mark I At Copenhagen University Hospital, Cameron M. Smith

Anthropology Faculty Publications and Presentations

Pacific Spaceflight's first proof-of concept pressure garment, the Mark I (model Gagarin), was worn by a test subject in a pressure chamber to test stable maintenance of blood oxygenation, body temperature and suit pressure. While breathing normal air at a simulated altitude of 4,000m (c.13,000ft) the test subject's blood oxygenation was 90%, a figure expected for an altitude of 2,590m (8,500ft). The test subject's blood oxygenation climbed back to normal (96%-95%) as the hypobaric chamber was repressurized to sea level figures. The garment successfully maintained the test subject in the first ...


Willow: Reaching Hiv-Positive African-American Women Through A Computer-Delivered Intervention, Charles H. Klein Nov 2013

Willow: Reaching Hiv-Positive African-American Women Through A Computer-Delivered Intervention, Charles H. Klein

Anthropology Faculty Publications and Presentations

This study evaluates the efficacy of Multimedia WiLLOW in enhancing HIV-protective sexual behaviors and psychosocial outcomes among HIV-positive African American women, including condom use for vaginal and anal sex, and psychosocial mediators associated with risk reduction practices. Using a community-based randomized controlled design, 168 participants completed a baseline and follow-up assessment as well as an exit satisfaction survey. Intervention participants reported significantly higher proportions of condom protected sex acts in the past 30 days (p=.002), with both HIV-negative (p=.040) and HIV-positive (p=.003) partners. They were also more likely to report 100% condom use (OR = .10; p=.030 ...


An Empirical Comparison Of Knowledge And Skill In The Context Of Traditional Ecological Knowledge, Kathryn Demps Oct 2013

An Empirical Comparison Of Knowledge And Skill In The Context Of Traditional Ecological Knowledge, Kathryn Demps

Anthropology Faculty Publications and Presentations

Background

We test whether traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) about how to make an item predicts a person’s skill at making it among the Tsimane’ (Bolivia). The rationale for this research is that the failure to distinguish between knowledge and skill might account for some of the conflicting results about the relationships between TEK, human health, and economic development.

Methods

We test the association between a commonly-used measure of individual knowledge (cultural consensus analysis) about how to make an arrow or a bag and a measure of individual skill at making these items, using ordinary least-squares regression. The study consists ...


Subsistence And Resistance On The British Columbia Coast: Kingcome Village’S Estuarine Gardens As Contested Space, Douglas Deur, Nancy J. Turner, Adam Dick, Daisy Sewid-Smith, Kim Recalma-Clutesi Oct 2013

Subsistence And Resistance On The British Columbia Coast: Kingcome Village’S Estuarine Gardens As Contested Space, Douglas Deur, Nancy J. Turner, Adam Dick, Daisy Sewid-Smith, Kim Recalma-Clutesi

Anthropology Faculty Publications and Presentations

A case study is presented on the contested land ownership of the estuarine gardens in Kingcome Village, British Columbia (BC) between white settlers and the native Kwakwaka'wakw Indian Nation during the 19th century. The role that the natural resources of Kingcome Village's estuarine gardens played in white colonists' settlement of the Kingcome Village area is discussed.


Late Holocene Tsunami Deposits At Salt Creek, Washington, Usa, Ian Hutchinson, Curt D. Peterson, Sarah L. Sterling Oct 2013

Late Holocene Tsunami Deposits At Salt Creek, Washington, Usa, Ian Hutchinson, Curt D. Peterson, Sarah L. Sterling

Anthropology Faculty Publications and Presentations

We interpret two thin sand layers in the estuarine marsh at Salt Creek, on the southern shore of the Strait of Juan de Fuca, as the products of tsunamis propagated by earthquakes at the Cascadia subduction zone. The sand layers extend for about 60 m along the left bank of the creek about 800 m from the mouth, and can be traced to the base of a nearby upland area. One layer is exposed in the creek bank about 400 m further upstream, but they are only patchily distributed in the rest of the central area of the marsh. Both ...


Plant Management Systems Of British Columbia's First Peoples, Nancy J. Turner, Douglas Deur, Dana Lepofsky Sep 2013

Plant Management Systems Of British Columbia's First Peoples, Nancy J. Turner, Douglas Deur, Dana Lepofsky

Anthropology Faculty Publications and Presentations

This article provides an overview of the diverse plant resource management strategies of First Nations of British Columbia. Management practices range from relatively large-scale (geographically) and longterm activities – such as the use of fire to clear prairies and subalpine meadows – to very focused actions, such as the pruning of individual shrubs. We describe plant resource management practices and the diverse methods used to identify them, and focus on three case studies to augment this description. These case studies exemplify the range of plants and ecosystems that were managed as well as the combinations of strategies and outcomes encompassed within these ...


The Politics Of Fertility: Population And Pronatalism In Ladakh, Jennifer Aengst Aug 2013

The Politics Of Fertility: Population And Pronatalism In Ladakh, Jennifer Aengst

Anthropology Faculty Publications and Presentations

In India’s northwestern region of Ladakh, the linkage between reproduction, politics, and fertility is both complicated and contested, evident in increasing population discourses and the re-emergence of a Buddhist pronatalist movement. This paper examines the impacts of population discourses and pronatalism on women’s reproductive decision-making, as well as on the delivery of healthcare throughout Ladakh. Population discourses currently circulating produce two reproductive subjects—the “hyper-fertile Muslim woman” and the “vulnerable Buddhist”—both of which have been central in revitalizing Buddhist pronatalism. Data collected through a hospital-based survey and interviews shows that fertility behavior is shaped by religious interpretations ...


Lower Chinookan Disease And Demography, Robert T. Boyd Jun 2013

Lower Chinookan Disease And Demography, Robert T. Boyd

Anthropology Faculty Publications and Presentations

This chapter, included in Chinookan Peoples of the Lower Columbia, published by the University of Washington Press in 2013, explores disease and demography of the Lower Columbia River Chinookan peoples. In the first century of contact, the Lower Columbia Chinookans suffered more from the effects of introduced diseases and depopulation than almost any other Native peoples in the Northwest. Yet they survived, and their numbers are increasing. This chapter is a history of Lower Chinookan disease and population, from the aboriginal state, through the disruptive early contact years, up to the rebound and revitalization of the last century.


Lower Columbia Chinookan Ceremonialism, Robert T. Boyd Jun 2013

Lower Columbia Chinookan Ceremonialism, Robert T. Boyd

Anthropology Faculty Publications and Presentations

This chapter, included in Chinookan Peoples of the Lower Columbia, published by the University of Washington Press in 2013, explores Lower Columbia Chinookan Ceremonialism.

Traditional Chinookan ceremonies or religious rituals were particularly vulnerable to the rapid changes that came with Euro-American contact. Change and loss occurred after the epidemics of the 1830s removed many specialists and broke apart the critical mass of people needed for group performances; and in the early 1840s, when missionaries at the surviving settlements at Willamette Falls, The Cascades, and the mouth of the Columbia discouraged traditional life rites. After such experiences, the details on what ...


Aboriginal Fisheries Of The Lower Columbia River, Virginia L. Butler, Michael A. Martin Jun 2013

Aboriginal Fisheries Of The Lower Columbia River, Virginia L. Butler, Michael A. Martin

Anthropology Faculty Publications and Presentations

This chapter, included in Chinookan Peoples of the Lower Columbia, published by the University of Washington Press in 2013, explores the aboriginal fisheries of the Lower Columbia River. The authors reviewed ethnohistorical accounts and studies of archaeological sites to create a complex picture of Columbia River fisheries that challenges the prevailing view among anthropologists that salmon was the primary and predominant fishery among Chinookan peoples. The authors show that 19th century Native fishers targeted virtually all native fish species in the Lower Columbia River, and employed a wide range of strategies and tactics to acquire and process fish.


Houses And Households, Kenneth M. Ames, Elizabeth A. Sobel Jun 2013

Houses And Households, Kenneth M. Ames, Elizabeth A. Sobel

Anthropology Faculty Publications and Presentations

This chapter, included in Chinookan Peoples of the Lower Columbia, published by the University of Washington Press in 2013, explores Lower Columbia Chinookan houses and households.

Households are central to understanding what anthropologists and others term complex societies-that is, societies that feature social stratification, high population densities, monumental architecture, and an emphasis on wealth. Most premodern complex societies practiced agriculture, which enabled the high levels of food production that most researchers thought were needed to support complexity. Northwest Coast peoples, however, including those along the Lower Columbia and a few other known human populations, had complex societies based on hunting-gathering ...


Lower Columbia River Art, Tony A. Johnson, Adam Mcisaac, Kenneth M. Ames, Robert T. Boyd Jun 2013

Lower Columbia River Art, Tony A. Johnson, Adam Mcisaac, Kenneth M. Ames, Robert T. Boyd

Anthropology Faculty Publications and Presentations

This chapter, included in Chinookan Peoples of the Lower Columbia, published by the University of Washington Press in 2013, explores river art of the Lower Columbia River. The authors concentrate on artwork that was created between Astoria, Oregon, and The Cascades, about 130 miles upriver.


Environment And Archaeology Of The Lower Columbia, Elizabeth A. Sobel, Kenneth M. Ames, Robert J. Losey Jun 2013

Environment And Archaeology Of The Lower Columbia, Elizabeth A. Sobel, Kenneth M. Ames, Robert J. Losey

Anthropology Faculty Publications and Presentations

This chapter, included in Chinookan Peoples of the Lower Columbia, published by the University of Washington Press in 2013, explores the environment and archaeology of the Lower Columbia. The Columbia is the great river of the American West. The interplay of river, ocean, mountains, and climate produced a rich and productive but dynamic environment, and people have lived in and adjusted to this environment for at least 12,000 years. The Lower Columbia generally refers to the river's final 196-mile (315-kilometer) run from the western edge of the Columbia Plateau to the Pacific Ocean.


Obsidian Hydration Analysis Of Artifacts From Six Sites Between Walters Ferry And King Hill, Idaho., Mark G. Plew Apr 2013

Obsidian Hydration Analysis Of Artifacts From Six Sites Between Walters Ferry And King Hill, Idaho., Mark G. Plew

Anthropology Faculty Publications and Presentations

During the past ten years excavations have been conducted at a number of archaeological sites along the Snake River between Meiba and King Hill, Idaho. Though the majority of point types from these sites are typologically of Late Archaic age (2000-150 BP) few have produced little datable organic material, though all have produced obsidian artifacts and debitage. In some instances projectile points of what are typologically Early and Middle Archaic age have been recovered. This report discusses the results of obsidian hydration analysis of 32 specimens from six sites between Walters Ferry and King Hill, Idaho. The purpose of the ...


Back To The Clam Gardens, Nancy J. Turner, Kim Recalma‐Clutesi, Douglas Deur Jan 2013

Back To The Clam Gardens, Nancy J. Turner, Kim Recalma‐Clutesi, Douglas Deur

Anthropology Faculty Publications and Presentations

In the following story, Kwakwaka’wakw Clan Chief Adam Dick, known by his traditional name Kwaxsistalla, travels back to the clam gardens off the eastern coast of Vancouver Island, where his grandparents raised food and passed down a huge body of traditional ecological knowledge.

The story also documents the first of a series of trips to be undertaken over the next two years to document waxsistalla’s unique and detailed knowledge and experiences of the food harvesting and other resource‐based activities of his Qawadiliqallalan of the Tsawataineuk people of Kingcome Inlet.


A Study Of Traditional Activities In The Exit Glacier Area Of Kenai Fjords National Park, Douglas Deur, Karen Brewster, Rachel Mason Jan 2013

A Study Of Traditional Activities In The Exit Glacier Area Of Kenai Fjords National Park, Douglas Deur, Karen Brewster, Rachel Mason

Anthropology Faculty Publications and Presentations

Kenai Fjords National Park (KEFJ) occupies roughly 1,760 square miles on the Kenai Peninsula in southcentral Alaska. Sitting adjacent to the community of Seward, the park was established in 1980 under the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act of 1980 (ANILCA). The central portion of the park contains the Harding Icefield, from which no fewer than 38 active glaciers exit into valleys and tidewater locations surrounding the park. Of these glaciers, Exit Glacier is the most publicly accessible, and the only park glacier with road access from the town of Seward. A number of individuals and families from the ...


Collaborative Research To Assess Visitor Impacts On Alaska Native Practices Along Alagnak Wild River, Douglas Deur, Karen Evanoff, Adelheid Hermann, Alexanna Salmon Jan 2013

Collaborative Research To Assess Visitor Impacts On Alaska Native Practices Along Alagnak Wild River, Douglas Deur, Karen Evanoff, Adelheid Hermann, Alexanna Salmon

Anthropology Faculty Publications and Presentations

As one of the region’s famously productive salmon rivers, the Alagnak’s banks historically were lined with villages of both Yup’ik and Alutiiq residents, and archaeological data document millennia of human occupation.


Book Review Of, Patrick Daly, R. Michael Feener, And Anthony Reid, Editors. From The Ground Up: Perspectives On Post-Tsunami And Post-Conflict Aceh, Michele Ruth Gamburd Jan 2013

Book Review Of, Patrick Daly, R. Michael Feener, And Anthony Reid, Editors. From The Ground Up: Perspectives On Post-Tsunami And Post-Conflict Aceh, Michele Ruth Gamburd

Anthropology Faculty Publications and Presentations

Reviews the book, "From the Ground Up: Perspectives on Post-Tsunami and Post-Conflict Aceh," by Patrick Daly, R. Michael Feener, and Anthony S. J. Reid.


Book Review Of, Geraldine Pratt. Families Apart: Migrant Mothers And The Conflicts Of Labor And Love, Michele Ruth Gamburd Jan 2013

Book Review Of, Geraldine Pratt. Families Apart: Migrant Mothers And The Conflicts Of Labor And Love, Michele Ruth Gamburd

Anthropology Faculty Publications and Presentations

Reviews the book "Families Apart: Migrant Mothers and the Conflicts of Labor and Love," by Geraldine Pratt