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Social and Behavioral Sciences Commons

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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Colour And Odour Drive Fruit Selection And Seed Dispersal By Mouse Lemurs, Kim Valenta, Ryan J. Burke, Sarah A. Styler, Derek A. Jackson, Amanda D. Melin, Shawn M. Lehman Aug 2013

Colour And Odour Drive Fruit Selection And Seed Dispersal By Mouse Lemurs, Kim Valenta, Ryan J. Burke, Sarah A. Styler, Derek A. Jackson, Amanda D. Melin, Shawn M. Lehman

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Animals and fruiting plants are involved in a complex set of interactions, with animals relying on fruiting trees as food resources, and fruiting trees relying on animals for seed dispersal. This interdependence shapes fruit signals such as colour and odour, to increase fruit detectability, and animal sensory systems, such as colour vision and olfaction to facilitate food identification and selection. Despite the ecological and evolutionary importance of plant-animal interactions for shaping animal sensory adaptations and plant characteristics, the details of the relationship are poorly understood. Here we examine the role of fruit chromaticity, luminance and odour on seed dispersal by ...


Geographic Variation In Chin Shape Challenges The Universal Facial Attractiveness Hypothesis, Zaneta M. Thayer, Seth D. Dobson Apr 2013

Geographic Variation In Chin Shape Challenges The Universal Facial Attractiveness Hypothesis, Zaneta M. Thayer, Seth D. Dobson

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

The universal facial attractiveness (UFA) hypothesis proposes that some facial features are universally preferred because they are reliable signals of mate quality. The primary evidence for this hypothesis comes from cross-cultural studies of perceived attractiveness. However, these studies do not directly address patterns of morphological variation at the population level. An unanswered question is therefore: Are universally preferred facial phenotypes geographically invariant, as the UFA hypothesis implies? The purpose of our study is to evaluate this often overlooked aspect of the UFA hypothesis by examining patterns of geographic variation in chin shape. We collected symphyseal outlines from 180 recent human ...


Tree Climbing And Human Evolution, Vivek V. Venkataraman, Thomas S. Kraft, Nathaniel J. Dominy Jan 2013

Tree Climbing And Human Evolution, Vivek V. Venkataraman, Thomas S. Kraft, Nathaniel J. Dominy

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Paleoanthropologists have long argued—often contentiously—about the climbing abilities of early hominins and whether a foot adapted to terrestrial bipedalism constrained regular access to trees. However, some modern humans climb tall trees routinely in pursuit of honey, fruit, and game, often without the aid of tools or support systems. Mortality and morbidity associated with facultative arboreality is expected to favor behaviors and anatomies that facilitate safe and efficient climbing. Here we show that Twa hunter–gatherers use extraordinary ankle dorsiflexion (>45°) during climbing, similar to the degree observed in wild chimpanzees. Although we did not detect a skeletal signature ...