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Social and Behavioral Sciences Commons

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Articles 1 - 5 of 5

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Fashion Vs. Function In Cultural Evolution: The Case Of Dog Breed Popularity, Stefano Ghirlanda, Alberto Acerbi, Harold A. Herzog, James A. Serpell Sep 2013

Fashion Vs. Function In Cultural Evolution: The Case Of Dog Breed Popularity, Stefano Ghirlanda, Alberto Acerbi, Harold A. Herzog, James A. Serpell

Pets Collection

We investigate the relationship between characteristics of dog breeds and their popularity between years 1926 and 2005. We consider breed health, longevity, and behavioral qualities such as aggressiveness, trainability, and fearfulness. We show that a breed’s overall popularity, fluctuations in popularity, and rates of increase and decrease around popularity peaks show typically no correlation with these breed characteristics. One exception is the finding that more popular breeds tend to suffer from more inherited disorders. Our results support the hypothesis that dog breed popularity has been primarily determined by fashion rather than function.


Conceptualising The Impact Of Arousal And Affective State On Operant Conditioning, Melissa J. Starling, Nicholas Branson, Denis Cody, Paul D. Mcgreevy Jun 2013

Conceptualising The Impact Of Arousal And Affective State On Operant Conditioning, Melissa J. Starling, Nicholas Branson, Denis Cody, Paul D. Mcgreevy

Animal Training and Obedience Collection

Animal training relies heavily on an understanding of species-specific behaviour as it integrates with operant conditioning principles. Following on from recent studies showing that affective states and arousal levels may correlate with behavioural outcomes, we explore the contribution of both affective state and arousal in behavioural responses to operant conditioning. This paper provides a framework for assessing how affective state and arousal may influence the efficacy of operant training methods. It provides a series of three-dimensional conceptual graphs as exemplars to describing putative influences of both affective state and arousal on the likelihood of dogs and horses performing commonly desired ...


Public Policy: Community Safety Through Breed Bans?, Deirdre S. Franklin Mar 2013

Public Policy: Community Safety Through Breed Bans?, Deirdre S. Franklin

Animals and Public Policy Collection

The research performed provided several insights and outcomes that were anticipated in the research question. By analyzing the effects of breed specific legislation (BSL) and the statistics relative to dog bites, dog shelters and rescue groups, it became clear that the BSL does not work. This case study provides extensive proof to support this conclusion.


Are Apes’ Responses To Pointing Gestures Intentional?, Olivia Sultanescu, Kristin Andrews Jan 2013

Are Apes’ Responses To Pointing Gestures Intentional?, Olivia Sultanescu, Kristin Andrews

Sentience Collection

This paper examines the meaningfulness of pointing in great apes. We appeal to Hannah Ginsborg’s conception of primitive normativity, which provides an adequate criterion for establishing whether a response is meaningful, and we attempt to make room for a conception according to which there is no fundamental difference between the responses of human infants and those of other great apes to pointing gestures. This conception is an alternative to Tomasello’s view that pointing gestures and reactions to them reveal a fundamental difference between humans and other apes.


Animals As Lifechangers And Lifesavers: Pets In The Redemption Narratives Of Homeless People, Leslie Irvine Jan 2013

Animals As Lifechangers And Lifesavers: Pets In The Redemption Narratives Of Homeless People, Leslie Irvine

Human and Animal Bonding Collection

This paper examines personal narratives in which homeless and formerly homeless people construct their companion animals as having changed or saved their lives. The analysis considers selfhood a narrative accomplishment, the strategic outcome rather than the source of the stories people tell. These particular stories employ the theme of redemption, in which tellers describe overcoming adversity to face a better future, with animals playing key roles. The analysis reveals the narrative elements through which animals become vehicles for redemption. As dependent others, animals encourage a sense of responsibility. As the providers of unconditional love, they reward the fulfillment of responsibility ...