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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Field Investigations Of Malformed Frogs In Minnesota 1993-97, Judy C. Helgen, Mark C. Gernes, Susan M. Kersten, Joel W. Chirhart, Jeff T. Canfield, Dorothy Bowers, Jon Haferman, Robert G. Mckinnell, David M. Hoppe Jan 2000

Field Investigations Of Malformed Frogs In Minnesota 1993-97, Judy C. Helgen, Mark C. Gernes, Susan M. Kersten, Joel W. Chirhart, Jeff T. Canfield, Dorothy Bowers, Jon Haferman, Robert G. Mckinnell, David M. Hoppe

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

Reports of malformed frogs were made to the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA) from different parts of Minnesota in 1993, 1995, 1996, and 1997 and one, nine, 190, and 172 reports were received, respectively. MPCA field crews and Drs. Hoppe and McKinnell documented malformed frog locations starting in 1993. By 1997, MPCA field crews documented malformed frogs at 62 locations in Minnesota, in 29 of 87 counties. Most malformations were in young metamorphs of Rana pipiens but they were observed also in R. clamitans, R. septentrionalis, R. sylvatica, Bufo americanus, and Hyla spp. Frequencies of malformations varied by time of ...


Frog And Toad Population Monitoring In Michigan, Lori G. Sargent Jan 2000

Frog And Toad Population Monitoring In Michigan, Lori G. Sargent

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

A volunteer-based monitoring project for frog and toad populations in Michigan was initiated in 1996. The survey protocols developed by the North American Amphibian Monitoring Program (NAAMP) were used and modified to suit the needs of the Michigan project and because of the highly variable Michigan spring weather. The modifications include route establishment, recommended dates during which surveys are conducted, and a more specific definition of population indices. Development of the project included training workshops for volunteers.


Cover - Table Of Contents Jan 2000

Cover - Table Of Contents

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

No abstract provided.


Book Review: Iowa's Geological Past: Three Billion Years Of Change, Raymond R. Anderson Jan 2000

Book Review: Iowa's Geological Past: Three Billion Years Of Change, Raymond R. Anderson

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

Iowa's Geological Past: Three Billion Years of Change. Wayne Anderson, 1998. University of Iowa Press, Iowa City IA. xii + 424 pages. ISBN 0-87745-639-9, ISBN 0-87745-640-2 (pbk.).

Wayne Anderson, born in geode country in southeast Iowa, earned his Bachelors, Masters, and Ph.D. at the University of Iowa (writing a thesis and dissertation on Iowa geologic topics). He will complete a 37-year career teaching geology at the University of Northern Iowa with his retirement in the Spring of 2000. His research activities and the work of his students have added greatly to our understanding of the geology of eastern Iowa ...


Comparing Species Of Bees For Controlled Pollination Of Helianthus Petiolaris In Field Cages, R. L. Wilson, C. A. Abel, M. E. Brothers Jan 2000

Comparing Species Of Bees For Controlled Pollination Of Helianthus Petiolaris In Field Cages, R. L. Wilson, C. A. Abel, M. E. Brothers

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

Honey bees, Apis mellifera, have been used for several years to pollinate caged plant species maintained at the USDA-ARS North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station (NCRPIS), Ames, Iowa. Because maintaining large numbers of honey bees is expensive and time consuming, we began looking in 1995 for other pollinator species that can be easily managed and less expensive to maintain than A. mellifera. One species we tested was the hornfaced bee, Osmia cornifrons, a solitary bee imported from Japan in the late 1970s. We also tested a mixture of native bumblebees, Bombus bimaculatus and B. impatiens, which are native to the ...


Higher Population And Twin Row Configuration Does Not Benefit Strip Intercropped Corn, M. M. Harbur, R. M. Cruse Jan 2000

Higher Population And Twin Row Configuration Does Not Benefit Strip Intercropped Corn, M. M. Harbur, R. M. Cruse

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

Increased corn (Zea mays L.) grain yield with strip intercropping, made possible because of increased edge effects, makes this soil-conserving crop production system appealing to farmers. The objective of this study was to determine the population and row configuration needed to optimize the additional yield potential in each outside corn row. Treatments 'included: 74, 99, and 124 thousand plants ha-1 were grown in twin rows and 74 thousand plants ha-1 grown in single rows. Single rows or twin row centers were spaced 0.76 m. The experiment was conducted at four central Iowa sites during 1996 and 1997 ...


Weed Seedbanks And Seedling Emergence In A Two And Three Crop Narrow Strip Intercropping/Rotation System, Shawn R. Wright, Douglas D. Buhler, Keith A. Kohler, Richard M. Cruse Jan 2000

Weed Seedbanks And Seedling Emergence In A Two And Three Crop Narrow Strip Intercropping/Rotation System, Shawn R. Wright, Douglas D. Buhler, Keith A. Kohler, Richard M. Cruse

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

Weed populations in agronomic settings are, in part, a reflection of the cropping system utilized. The goal of this project was to gain an understanding of the weed population dynamics in a narrow strip intercropping (NSI) rotation by assessing the weed seedbank, weed emergence, and seedling establishment over the growing season for a corn-soybean (two-crop), and a corn-soybean-oat+berseem clover (three-crop) system. Field research was conducted in 1994 and 1995, near Nashua, IA, and each crop was grown m 4.6 m wide strips. Giant foxtail and total weed seed densities were significantly lower in the three-crop NSI rotation system ...


The Status Of The Blacknose Shiner (Notropis Heterolepis) Tn Iowa: A Preliminary Survey, Neil P. Bernstein, Michael Getting, Timothy Kamp, Stevenson Christain, Ryan Smith, Joseph Steele, Steven Steele Jan 2000

The Status Of The Blacknose Shiner (Notropis Heterolepis) Tn Iowa: A Preliminary Survey, Neil P. Bernstein, Michael Getting, Timothy Kamp, Stevenson Christain, Ryan Smith, Joseph Steele, Steven Steele

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

During the last 45 years, the blacknose shiner (Notropis heterolepis) has been restricted to a three county area in northwestern Iowa. We surveyed locations where this siltation-intolerant species had been captured to update the status of the fish in the state. Streams were blocked with nets on both the upstream and downstream ends of sample areas, and fish were collected with a backpack electrofisher and seines. Lakes where the blacknose shiner had been found were also sampled. No blacknose shiners were found and several possible explanations are offered for their absence from historical sites.


Book Review: An Illustrated Guide To Iowa Prairie Plants, Paul Weihe Jan 2000

Book Review: An Illustrated Guide To Iowa Prairie Plants, Paul Weihe

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

An Illustrated Guide to Iowa Prairie Plants. Paul Christiansen and Mark Müller. 1999. University of Iowa Press, Iowa City, Iowa. IX + 237 pages. ISBN 0-87745-660-7 hdbd., ISBN 0-87745- 661-5 pbk.

Iowans are increasingly aware of the significance of the tallgrass prairie, and efforts to preserve and protect this once-widespread ecosystem are ongoing. An obvious focus of these efforts 1s to conserve the native flora. When Bison and Elk disappeared from the landscape and row-crop agriculture appeared, a few of the native plants remained in old cemeteries, along roadsides, and in a few prairie remnants. Workers are now attempting to revitalize ...


Editorial Board & Iowa Academy Of Science Officers And Directors Jan 2000

Editorial Board & Iowa Academy Of Science Officers And Directors

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

No abstract provided.


Back Cover Jan 2000

Back Cover

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

No abstract provided.


Cover - Table Of Contents Jan 2000

Cover - Table Of Contents

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

No abstract provided.


Front Matter Jan 2000

Front Matter

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

No abstract provided.


Distribution And Abundance Of Three Freshwater Mussel Species (B1valv1a: U Ntontdae) Correlated With Physical Habitat Characteristics In An Iowa Reservoir, J. R. Straka, J. A. Downing Jan 2000

Distribution And Abundance Of Three Freshwater Mussel Species (B1valv1a: U Ntontdae) Correlated With Physical Habitat Characteristics In An Iowa Reservoir, J. R. Straka, J. A. Downing

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

A rapid drawdown (weeks) of a reservoir allowed us to determine the combined influence of water depth, maximum effective fetch, bottom slope, and substrate characteristics on abundance of three species of freshwater mussels. The three principal mussel species were significantly (PPyganodon grandis(Say) was most abundant on deeper shelves (ca. 3 m depth, slope 1 km), and sediment organic matter content was moderate (Lampsilis siliquoidea(Barnes), however, was most abundant in shallow water (Potamilus alatus(Say) had a more cosmopolitan depth distribution, but was found only on bottoms with low slope (Pyganodon grandiswas found to be negatively affected by increasing ...


Population Size Estimates For The Endangered Iowa Pleistocene Snail, Discus Macclintocki Baker, Tama K. Anderson Jan 2000

Population Size Estimates For The Endangered Iowa Pleistocene Snail, Discus Macclintocki Baker, Tama K. Anderson

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

Discus macclintocki Baker, the Iowa Pleistocene snail, is a federally endangered species found only on algific talus slopes in northeastern Iowa and northwestern Illinois. Population size estimates for fourteen D. macclintocki populations in Iowa and Illinois ranged from 182 to 22,125 individuals. Estimates from the program CAPTURE as well as Bayesian estimation procedures gave similar results, although the Bayesian method allowed estimation of populations that could not be estimated with CAPTURE due to small sample sizes. A comparison of two methods of sampling, visual counts of quadrats and cover boards, showed that using cover boards resulted in much higher ...


Corn (Zea Mays L.) Yield Response To Nitrogen Fertilizer In Conventional And Alternative Rotations, M. M. Harbur, M. Ghaffarzadeh, R. M. Cruse Jan 2000

Corn (Zea Mays L.) Yield Response To Nitrogen Fertilizer In Conventional And Alternative Rotations, M. M. Harbur, M. Ghaffarzadeh, R. M. Cruse

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

Nitrogen (N) fertilization recommendations are not available for corn in rotation with small grains or forages despite the possibility that the N response may differ from that of more conventional corn-soybean rotations. Rotations of corn with soybean (CS), corn with soybean and oat (CSO) and corn with soybean and an oat/berseem clover intercrop (CSOB) were established in 1991 and studied from 1993 through 1998 to determine the optimal N fertilization level for corn produced in each rotation. Corn in each rotation received NH4N03 applied at the rates of 0, 56, 112, or 168 kg N ha-1. Significant differences ...


Limits To Ice Thickness In Iowa During The Late Wisconsinan, Eric C. Brevik Jan 2000

Limits To Ice Thickness In Iowa During The Late Wisconsinan, Eric C. Brevik

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

Minimum and maximum limits to Des Moines Lobe ice thickness in Iowa during the Late Wisconsinan glaciation are calculated. These limits are based on minimum and maximum ice thickness calculations for the Des Moines Lobe in eastern North Dakota using crustal depression indicated by Lake Agassiz strandlines. Minimum and maximum basal shear stresses for the Des Moines Lobe are calculated by projecting a flow line from the terminus of the Des Moines Lobe back up-ice to the study site in northeastern North Dakota. Ice thickness in Iowa is then calculated with a method that uses the basal shear stress values ...


Checklist Of Instructions For Authors Jan 2000

Checklist Of Instructions For Authors

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

No abstract provided.


Statement Of The Position Of The Iowa Academy Of Science On The Validity Of Evolutionary Science And On The Status Of Creationism As A Scientific Explanation Of Natural Phenomena Jan 2000

Statement Of The Position Of The Iowa Academy Of Science On The Validity Of Evolutionary Science And On The Status Of Creationism As A Scientific Explanation Of Natural Phenomena

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

Current attempts to introduce "scientific creationism", "creationism", or the Judeo-Christian biblical account of creation, as well as to reframe the discussion around terms such as "abrupt appearance theory", "intelligent design theory", or other disguised forms of creationism into the science classroom along with or instead of evolutionary science are strongly opposed by The Iowa Academy of Science on the grounds that creationism, in whatever form, is a religious doctrine and not science.


Announcements Of Upcoming Meetings And Symposia Jan 2000

Announcements Of Upcoming Meetings And Symposia

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

No abstract provided.


Editorial Board & Iowa Academy Of Science Officers And Directors Jan 2000

Editorial Board & Iowa Academy Of Science Officers And Directors

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

No abstract provided.


Back Cover Jan 2000

Back Cover

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

No abstract provided.


Cover - Investigating Amphibian Declines: Proceedings Of The 1998 Declining Amphibians Conference Jan 2000

Cover - Investigating Amphibian Declines: Proceedings Of The 1998 Declining Amphibians Conference

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

No abstract provided.


Front Matter Jan 2000

Front Matter

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

No abstract provided.


Table Of Contents Jan 2000

Table Of Contents

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

No abstract provided.


Introduction: A Perspective On Midwest Amphibian Declines, Gary S. Casper Jan 2000

Introduction: A Perspective On Midwest Amphibian Declines, Gary S. Casper

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

On March 21, 1998, approximately 300 scientists and students gathered at the Milwaukee Public Museum for two days of scientific presentations and intense discussion on amphibian declines and malformities. Never before had so many persons come together to address amphibian conservation in the Midwestern United States (Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Iowa, and Missouri).


Photo-Enhanced Toxicity In Amphibians: Synergistic Interactions Of Solar Ultraviolet Radiation And Aquatic Contaminants, Edward E. Little, Robin Calfee, Richard Skinker, Angela Zaga-Parkhurst, Mace G. Barron Jan 2000

Photo-Enhanced Toxicity In Amphibians: Synergistic Interactions Of Solar Ultraviolet Radiation And Aquatic Contaminants, Edward E. Little, Robin Calfee, Richard Skinker, Angela Zaga-Parkhurst, Mace G. Barron

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

Amphibians experience a broad range of multiple environmental stressors that occur in natural systems. However, the impact of combinations of these stressors on amphibians are rarely examined. The effect of two stressors on amphibians, solar ultraviolet radiation (SUV) and environmental contamination, was investigated. To examine the interactive effects of SUV and environmental contaminants, Hyla venicolor and Rana sphenocephala were exposed in the laboratory to a carbamate insecticide and the water soluble fraction of a weathered petroleum in combination with various intensities of simulated solar radiation (SSR). The contaminants were tested at environmentally relevant concentrations. Synergistic interactions between SSR and these ...


A Relationship Between Trematode Metacercariae And Bullfrog Limb Abnormalities, James L. Christiansen, Heather Feltman Jan 2000

A Relationship Between Trematode Metacercariae And Bullfrog Limb Abnormalities, James L. Christiansen, Heather Feltman

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

This study is the first report of statistically significant relationships between limb abnormalities and trematode metacercariae in natural populations of frogs. We examined only parasite associations and did not investigate numerous potential pollutants that have been suggested by others to be associated with frog limb abnormalities. Rana catesbeiana of varying ages with a variety of limb abnormalities were found during the flood of 1993. By June 1994, the receding flood waters had left four pools, each with newly metamorphosing bullfrogs. Only one of the pools contained abnormal individuals and histological examination revealed significantly greater prevalence of trematode metacercarial infection in ...


Effects Of Altosid And Abate-4e On Deformities And Survival In Southern Leopard Frogs Under Semi-Natural Conditions, Donald W. Sparling Jan 2000

Effects Of Altosid And Abate-4e On Deformities And Survival In Southern Leopard Frogs Under Semi-Natural Conditions, Donald W. Sparling

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

Since 1995 when a group of school children in Minnesota found frogs with supernumerary limbs and missing limbs, there has been widespread interest in the amphibian malformation issue. Despite considerable effort to understand this problem, its extent and seriousness as well as direct causes of these malformations remain unclear. Progress on this issue has been hampered by a scarcity of scientifically reliable information on historical rates of abnormalities under undisturbed conditions and by the normal turnaround times of data collection, sample analysis and publication. One of the very few peer-reviewed publications with field-collected data showed that an average of 12 ...


Morphological Abnormalities In Illinois Cricket Frogs, Acris Crepitans, 1968-71, Robert H. Gray Jan 2000

Morphological Abnormalities In Illinois Cricket Frogs, Acris Crepitans, 1968-71, Robert H. Gray

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

Reports of malformed amphibians have been increasing, including external deformities such as missing or extra arms and legs, missing eyes and mandibles, and internal abnormalities involving the bladder, digestive system, and testes. Natural phenomena such as limb amputations during predation attempts by other animals, parasitism, xenobiotic chemicals (herbicides, insecticides, fertilizers and others), and UV-B or other radiation (either directly or indirectly by triggering production of toxicants from nontoxic chemicals) have all been linked to amphibian abnormalities. From 1968-71, I studied the natural history, effective breeding size, and seasonal, annual, and geographic variation in color morph frequencies of cricket frogs (Acris ...