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Articles 1 - 30 of 55

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Interactive Effects Of Anthropogenic, Environmental, And Biotic Stressors On Multiple Endpoints In Hyla Chrysoscelis, Carol A. Britson, Stephen T. Threlkeld Jan 2000

Interactive Effects Of Anthropogenic, Environmental, And Biotic Stressors On Multiple Endpoints In Hyla Chrysoscelis, Carol A. Britson, Stephen T. Threlkeld

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

Multiple stressors have been proposed as causative agents for declining populations and increased incidence of malformations in amphibians although few studies have examined possible interactions among these stressors. We measured interactive effects of UV radiation, three chemicals, and interspecific competition (with Rana 1phenocephala) on multiple endpoints in Hyla chrysoscelis using a center point- and chemical-free control-enhanced 24 factorial design. UV radiation was transmitted or filtered using OP-4 or OP-3 acrylite filters installed above 72, 500-liter mesocosms on 16 May 1997. Methyl mercury, chlorpyrifos, and atrazine were applied at levels of 0, 10, 50, and 100 % of 400 ppb, 30 ...


Defining Anuran Malformations In The Context Of A Developmental Problem, Carol U. Meteyer, Rebecca A. Cole, Kathryn A. Converse, Douglas E. Docherty, Mark Wolcott, Judy C. Helgen, Richard Levey, Laura Eaton-Poole, James G. Burkhart Jan 2000

Defining Anuran Malformations In The Context Of A Developmental Problem, Carol U. Meteyer, Rebecca A. Cole, Kathryn A. Converse, Douglas E. Docherty, Mark Wolcott, Judy C. Helgen, Richard Levey, Laura Eaton-Poole, James G. Burkhart

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

This paper summarizes terminology and general concepts involved in animal development for the purpose of providing background for the study and understanding of frog malformations. The results of our radiographic investigation of rear limb malformations in Rana pipiens provide evidence that frog malformations are the product of early developmental errors. Although bacteria, parasites and viruses were identified in these metamorphosed frogs, the relevant window to look for the teratogenic affect of these agents is in the early tadpole stage during limb development. As a result, our microbiological findings must be regarded as inconclusive relative to determining their contribution to malformations ...


Field Investigations Of Malformed Frogs In Minnesota 1993-97, Judy C. Helgen, Mark C. Gernes, Susan M. Kersten, Joel W. Chirhart, Jeff T. Canfield, Dorothy Bowers, Jon Haferman, Robert G. Mckinnell, David M. Hoppe Jan 2000

Field Investigations Of Malformed Frogs In Minnesota 1993-97, Judy C. Helgen, Mark C. Gernes, Susan M. Kersten, Joel W. Chirhart, Jeff T. Canfield, Dorothy Bowers, Jon Haferman, Robert G. Mckinnell, David M. Hoppe

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

Reports of malformed frogs were made to the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA) from different parts of Minnesota in 1993, 1995, 1996, and 1997 and one, nine, 190, and 172 reports were received, respectively. MPCA field crews and Drs. Hoppe and McKinnell documented malformed frog locations starting in 1993. By 1997, MPCA field crews documented malformed frogs at 62 locations in Minnesota, in 29 of 87 counties. Most malformations were in young metamorphs of Rana pipiens but they were observed also in R. clamitans, R. septentrionalis, R. sylvatica, Bufo americanus, and Hyla spp. Frequencies of malformations varied by time of ...


Wetland Mitigation And Amphibians: Preliminary Observations At A Southwestern Illinois Bottomland Hardwood Forest Restoration Site, Kenneth S. Mierzwa Jan 2000

Wetland Mitigation And Amphibians: Preliminary Observations At A Southwestern Illinois Bottomland Hardwood Forest Restoration Site, Kenneth S. Mierzwa

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

Much has been written on amphibian declines attributed to habitat loss or fragmentation. Much less is known about the response of amphibians to restoration of wetland habitat. Amphibians were monitored at a series of southwestern Illinois wetland mitigation sites from 1995-1998. By the end of the study period, all seven species of amphibians previously known from the site had been found within restored wetlands, and an eighth species had apparently colonized the site. Amphibian species associated with open sunlit wetlands were the first to enter the mitigation sites and were the most abundant. As trees mature and mitigation sites become ...


Frog And Toad Population Monitoring In Michigan, Lori G. Sargent Jan 2000

Frog And Toad Population Monitoring In Michigan, Lori G. Sargent

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

A volunteer-based monitoring project for frog and toad populations in Michigan was initiated in 1996. The survey protocols developed by the North American Amphibian Monitoring Program (NAAMP) were used and modified to suit the needs of the Michigan project and because of the highly variable Michigan spring weather. The modifications include route establishment, recommended dates during which surveys are conducted, and a more specific definition of population indices. Development of the project included training workshops for volunteers.


Differences Among The Spatial Distribution Of Sympatric Amphibians, Robert Brodman Jan 2000

Differences Among The Spatial Distribution Of Sympatric Amphibians, Robert Brodman

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

To assess amphibian declines, the factors that cause natural fluctuations in population size must be considered (Pechmann et al. 1991). Interspecific competition, predation and pond drying are known to influence patterns of distribution and composition of larval amphibian assemblages (Morin 1983, Brodman 1996, Skelly 1996). While a few studies have quantified amphibian patterns across a large number of ponds, most studies on breeding pond distributions have typically focused on pond characteristics associated with pairs of coexisting species (Thompson and Gates 1982, Skelly 1996). Little has been examined about the differences among the spatial distributions of all potentially interacting amphibian populations ...


Editorial Board & Iowa Academy Of Science Officers And Directors Jan 2000

Editorial Board & Iowa Academy Of Science Officers And Directors

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

No abstract provided.


Cover - Table Of Contents Jan 2000

Cover - Table Of Contents

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

No abstract provided.


Book Review: Iowa's Geological Past: Three Billion Years Of Change, Raymond R. Anderson Jan 2000

Book Review: Iowa's Geological Past: Three Billion Years Of Change, Raymond R. Anderson

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

Iowa's Geological Past: Three Billion Years of Change. Wayne Anderson, 1998. University of Iowa Press, Iowa City IA. xii + 424 pages. ISBN 0-87745-639-9, ISBN 0-87745-640-2 (pbk.).

Wayne Anderson, born in geode country in southeast Iowa, earned his Bachelors, Masters, and Ph.D. at the University of Iowa (writing a thesis and dissertation on Iowa geologic topics). He will complete a 37-year career teaching geology at the University of Northern Iowa with his retirement in the Spring of 2000. His research activities and the work of his students have added greatly to our understanding of the geology of eastern Iowa ...


Book Review: Wildflowers And Other Plants Of Iowa Wetlands, Paul Christiansen Jan 2000

Book Review: Wildflowers And Other Plants Of Iowa Wetlands, Paul Christiansen

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

Wildflowers and Other Plants of Iowa Wetlands. Sylvan T. Runkeland Dean M. Roosa. 1999. Iowa State University Press. 372 pages. ISBN 0-8138-2174-6 pbk.

Runkel and Roosa have scored again with an impressive book on the plants of Iowa wetlands. The format is similar to their very successful Wildflowers of the Tallgrass Prairie (ISU Press, 1989) with full-page color illustrations of each species with the facing page giving nomenclatural data, range and habitat, leaf, flower and fruit characteristics. Information and interesting facts about the plant, including uses by aborigines and early settlers, follows.


History Of Minnesota Frog Abnormalities: Do Recent Findings Represent A New Phenomenon?, David M. Hoppe Jan 2000

History Of Minnesota Frog Abnormalities: Do Recent Findings Represent A New Phenomenon?, David M. Hoppe

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

Two lines of investigation were used to determine whether recent Minnesota reports of frog abnormalities differ from historical reports: (1) museum collection studies paired with follow-up field surveys, and (2) comparison of recent and earlier field surveys in west-central Minnesota. For the museum study I examined 2433 northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) in the Bell Museum of Natural History collections of the University of Minnesota, collected during 1958-63. 0.7% of frogs were found to have abnormalities, consisting of 0.5% predator amputations and 0.2% malformations. Three types of malformation were found: missing hindlimbs, vestigial feet, and fused digits ...


Front Matter Jan 2000

Front Matter

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

No abstract provided.


Comparing Species Of Bees For Controlled Pollination Of Helianthus Petiolaris In Field Cages, R. L. Wilson, C. A. Abel, M. E. Brothers Jan 2000

Comparing Species Of Bees For Controlled Pollination Of Helianthus Petiolaris In Field Cages, R. L. Wilson, C. A. Abel, M. E. Brothers

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

Honey bees, Apis mellifera, have been used for several years to pollinate caged plant species maintained at the USDA-ARS North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station (NCRPIS), Ames, Iowa. Because maintaining large numbers of honey bees is expensive and time consuming, we began looking in 1995 for other pollinator species that can be easily managed and less expensive to maintain than A. mellifera. One species we tested was the hornfaced bee, Osmia cornifrons, a solitary bee imported from Japan in the late 1970s. We also tested a mixture of native bumblebees, Bombus bimaculatus and B. impatiens, which are native to the ...


Higher Population And Twin Row Configuration Does Not Benefit Strip Intercropped Corn, M. M. Harbur, R. M. Cruse Jan 2000

Higher Population And Twin Row Configuration Does Not Benefit Strip Intercropped Corn, M. M. Harbur, R. M. Cruse

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

Increased corn (Zea mays L.) grain yield with strip intercropping, made possible because of increased edge effects, makes this soil-conserving crop production system appealing to farmers. The objective of this study was to determine the population and row configuration needed to optimize the additional yield potential in each outside corn row. Treatments 'included: 74, 99, and 124 thousand plants ha-1 were grown in twin rows and 74 thousand plants ha-1 grown in single rows. Single rows or twin row centers were spaced 0.76 m. The experiment was conducted at four central Iowa sites during 1996 and 1997 ...


Weed Seedbanks And Seedling Emergence In A Two And Three Crop Narrow Strip Intercropping/Rotation System, Shawn R. Wright, Douglas D. Buhler, Keith A. Kohler, Richard M. Cruse Jan 2000

Weed Seedbanks And Seedling Emergence In A Two And Three Crop Narrow Strip Intercropping/Rotation System, Shawn R. Wright, Douglas D. Buhler, Keith A. Kohler, Richard M. Cruse

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

Weed populations in agronomic settings are, in part, a reflection of the cropping system utilized. The goal of this project was to gain an understanding of the weed population dynamics in a narrow strip intercropping (NSI) rotation by assessing the weed seedbank, weed emergence, and seedling establishment over the growing season for a corn-soybean (two-crop), and a corn-soybean-oat+berseem clover (three-crop) system. Field research was conducted in 1994 and 1995, near Nashua, IA, and each crop was grown m 4.6 m wide strips. Giant foxtail and total weed seed densities were significantly lower in the three-crop NSI rotation system ...


The Status Of The Blacknose Shiner (Notropis Heterolepis) Tn Iowa: A Preliminary Survey, Neil P. Bernstein, Michael Getting, Timothy Kamp, Stevenson Christain, Ryan Smith, Joseph Steele, Steven Steele Jan 2000

The Status Of The Blacknose Shiner (Notropis Heterolepis) Tn Iowa: A Preliminary Survey, Neil P. Bernstein, Michael Getting, Timothy Kamp, Stevenson Christain, Ryan Smith, Joseph Steele, Steven Steele

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

During the last 45 years, the blacknose shiner (Notropis heterolepis) has been restricted to a three county area in northwestern Iowa. We surveyed locations where this siltation-intolerant species had been captured to update the status of the fish in the state. Streams were blocked with nets on both the upstream and downstream ends of sample areas, and fish were collected with a backpack electrofisher and seines. Lakes where the blacknose shiner had been found were also sampled. No blacknose shiners were found and several possible explanations are offered for their absence from historical sites.


Book Review: An Illustrated Guide To Iowa Prairie Plants, Paul Weihe Jan 2000

Book Review: An Illustrated Guide To Iowa Prairie Plants, Paul Weihe

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

An Illustrated Guide to Iowa Prairie Plants. Paul Christiansen and Mark Müller. 1999. University of Iowa Press, Iowa City, Iowa. IX + 237 pages. ISBN 0-87745-660-7 hdbd., ISBN 0-87745- 661-5 pbk.

Iowans are increasingly aware of the significance of the tallgrass prairie, and efforts to preserve and protect this once-widespread ecosystem are ongoing. An obvious focus of these efforts 1s to conserve the native flora. When Bison and Elk disappeared from the landscape and row-crop agriculture appeared, a few of the native plants remained in old cemeteries, along roadsides, and in a few prairie remnants. Workers are now attempting to revitalize ...


Editorial Board & Iowa Academy Of Science Officers And Directors Jan 2000

Editorial Board & Iowa Academy Of Science Officers And Directors

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

No abstract provided.


Back Cover Jan 2000

Back Cover

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

No abstract provided.


Cover - Table Of Contents Jan 2000

Cover - Table Of Contents

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

No abstract provided.


Front Matter Jan 2000

Front Matter

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

No abstract provided.


Distribution And Abundance Of Three Freshwater Mussel Species (B1valv1a: U Ntontdae) Correlated With Physical Habitat Characteristics In An Iowa Reservoir, J. R. Straka, J. A. Downing Jan 2000

Distribution And Abundance Of Three Freshwater Mussel Species (B1valv1a: U Ntontdae) Correlated With Physical Habitat Characteristics In An Iowa Reservoir, J. R. Straka, J. A. Downing

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

A rapid drawdown (weeks) of a reservoir allowed us to determine the combined influence of water depth, maximum effective fetch, bottom slope, and substrate characteristics on abundance of three species of freshwater mussels. The three principal mussel species were significantly (PPyganodon grandis(Say) was most abundant on deeper shelves (ca. 3 m depth, slope 1 km), and sediment organic matter content was moderate (Lampsilis siliquoidea(Barnes), however, was most abundant in shallow water (Potamilus alatus(Say) had a more cosmopolitan depth distribution, but was found only on bottoms with low slope (Pyganodon grandiswas found to be negatively affected by increasing ...


Population Size Estimates For The Endangered Iowa Pleistocene Snail, Discus Macclintocki Baker, Tama K. Anderson Jan 2000

Population Size Estimates For The Endangered Iowa Pleistocene Snail, Discus Macclintocki Baker, Tama K. Anderson

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

Discus macclintocki Baker, the Iowa Pleistocene snail, is a federally endangered species found only on algific talus slopes in northeastern Iowa and northwestern Illinois. Population size estimates for fourteen D. macclintocki populations in Iowa and Illinois ranged from 182 to 22,125 individuals. Estimates from the program CAPTURE as well as Bayesian estimation procedures gave similar results, although the Bayesian method allowed estimation of populations that could not be estimated with CAPTURE due to small sample sizes. A comparison of two methods of sampling, visual counts of quadrats and cover boards, showed that using cover boards resulted in much higher ...


Corn (Zea Mays L.) Yield Response To Nitrogen Fertilizer In Conventional And Alternative Rotations, M. M. Harbur, M. Ghaffarzadeh, R. M. Cruse Jan 2000

Corn (Zea Mays L.) Yield Response To Nitrogen Fertilizer In Conventional And Alternative Rotations, M. M. Harbur, M. Ghaffarzadeh, R. M. Cruse

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

Nitrogen (N) fertilization recommendations are not available for corn in rotation with small grains or forages despite the possibility that the N response may differ from that of more conventional corn-soybean rotations. Rotations of corn with soybean (CS), corn with soybean and oat (CSO) and corn with soybean and an oat/berseem clover intercrop (CSOB) were established in 1991 and studied from 1993 through 1998 to determine the optimal N fertilization level for corn produced in each rotation. Corn in each rotation received NH4N03 applied at the rates of 0, 56, 112, or 168 kg N ha-1. Significant differences ...


Limits To Ice Thickness In Iowa During The Late Wisconsinan, Eric C. Brevik Jan 2000

Limits To Ice Thickness In Iowa During The Late Wisconsinan, Eric C. Brevik

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

Minimum and maximum limits to Des Moines Lobe ice thickness in Iowa during the Late Wisconsinan glaciation are calculated. These limits are based on minimum and maximum ice thickness calculations for the Des Moines Lobe in eastern North Dakota using crustal depression indicated by Lake Agassiz strandlines. Minimum and maximum basal shear stresses for the Des Moines Lobe are calculated by projecting a flow line from the terminus of the Des Moines Lobe back up-ice to the study site in northeastern North Dakota. Ice thickness in Iowa is then calculated with a method that uses the basal shear stress values ...


Checklist Of Instructions For Authors Jan 2000

Checklist Of Instructions For Authors

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

No abstract provided.


Statement Of The Position Of The Iowa Academy Of Science On The Validity Of Evolutionary Science And On The Status Of Creationism As A Scientific Explanation Of Natural Phenomena Jan 2000

Statement Of The Position Of The Iowa Academy Of Science On The Validity Of Evolutionary Science And On The Status Of Creationism As A Scientific Explanation Of Natural Phenomena

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

Current attempts to introduce "scientific creationism", "creationism", or the Judeo-Christian biblical account of creation, as well as to reframe the discussion around terms such as "abrupt appearance theory", "intelligent design theory", or other disguised forms of creationism into the science classroom along with or instead of evolutionary science are strongly opposed by The Iowa Academy of Science on the grounds that creationism, in whatever form, is a religious doctrine and not science.


Announcements Of Upcoming Meetings And Symposia Jan 2000

Announcements Of Upcoming Meetings And Symposia

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

No abstract provided.


Editorial Board & Iowa Academy Of Science Officers And Directors Jan 2000

Editorial Board & Iowa Academy Of Science Officers And Directors

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

No abstract provided.


Back Cover Jan 2000

Back Cover

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

No abstract provided.