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Articles 1 - 30 of 2873

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

I’M Afraid Of That Water: A Collaborative Ethnography Of A West Virginia Water Crisis, Luke E. Lassiter, Brian A. Hoey, Elizabeth Campbell Mar 2020

I’M Afraid Of That Water: A Collaborative Ethnography Of A West Virginia Water Crisis, Luke E. Lassiter, Brian A. Hoey, Elizabeth Campbell

Brian A. Hoey, Ph.D.

On January 9, 2014, residents across Charleston, West Virginia, awoke to an unusual licorice smell in the air and a similar taste in the public drinking water. That evening residents were informed the tap water in tens of thousands of homes, hundreds of businesses, and dozens of schools and hospitals—the water made available to as many as 300,000 citizens in a nine-county region—had been contaminated with a chemical used for cleaning crushed coal. This book tells a particular set of stories about that chemical spill and its aftermath, an unfolding water crisis that would lead to months ...


Beyond City And Country At Mycenae: Urban And Rural Practices In A Subsistence Landscape, Lynne A. Kvapil, Jacqueline A. Meier, Gypsy Price, Kim Shelton Dec 2019

Beyond City And Country At Mycenae: Urban And Rural Practices In A Subsistence Landscape, Lynne A. Kvapil, Jacqueline A. Meier, Gypsy Price, Kim Shelton

Lynne A. Kvapil

No abstract provided.


“Find That Balance:” The Impact Of Cultural Consonance And Dissonance On Mental Health Among Utah And Mormon Women, Francois Dengah Dec 2019

“Find That Balance:” The Impact Of Cultural Consonance And Dissonance On Mental Health Among Utah And Mormon Women, Francois Dengah

Francois Dengah

Cultural consonance and religious participation are both associatedwith salutogenic
mental health outcomes. Yet studies of religious and other cultural models must take
into account multiple and conflicting cultural norms. In this article, we explore the
consequences of trying to adhere to the oppositional cultural models of religious
(Latter-day Saint or Mormon) and secular American gender roles as perceived by
college-aged women at a Utah university. Using cultural consensus and cultural
consonance analysis, we demonstrate that while conforming with one model may
provide social and mental health benefits, striving for consonance with both results
in increased perceived stress levels for Latter-day ...


Clinging To Life: Varecia Variegata Rubra And The Masoala Coastal Forests, Natalie Vasey Oct 2019

Clinging To Life: Varecia Variegata Rubra And The Masoala Coastal Forests, Natalie Vasey

Natalie Vasey

The article describes the authors field study from October 1993 to February 1995 in Madagascar, surveying coastal and riverine forests, villages, and watersheds, studying the ecology and behavior of Varecia varuegata rubra, the red ruffed lemur, and Lemur fulvus albifrons, the white fronted lemur.


The Land Of Meat And Potatoes? Exploring Ireland’S Vegan And Vegetarian Foodscape, Corey Lee Wrenn Oct 2019

The Land Of Meat And Potatoes? Exploring Ireland’S Vegan And Vegetarian Foodscape, Corey Lee Wrenn

Corey Lee Wrenn, PhD

While it would not be accurate to suggest that Ireland is a hub of veganism or vegetarianism, too often it is written off as inherently unsympathetic to the ethics of plant-based eating and anti-speciesist politics. While it is true that Irish culture is historically tied to speciesism and its economy is especially dependent upon “meat” and dairy production, Ireland’s relationship with other animals is complex and sometimes forgiving. This essay seeks to bring shape to the Irish vegan ethic, one that can be traced along its history of animism, agrarianism, ascendency, adaptation, and activism. From its pagan roots to ...


Using Qualitative Behaviour Assessment To Investigate Human-Animal Relationships In Zoo-Housed Giraffes (Giraffa Camelopardalis), Freisha Patel, Françoise Wemelsfelder, Samantha J. Ward Oct 2019

Using Qualitative Behaviour Assessment To Investigate Human-Animal Relationships In Zoo-Housed Giraffes (Giraffa Camelopardalis), Freisha Patel, Françoise Wemelsfelder, Samantha J. Ward

Françoise Wemelsfelder, PhD

Human-Animal Relationships (HAR) in zoos develop from repeated interactions between animals and their caretakers. HAR have been shown to affect health and welfare in farm animals, but limited zoo-based studies exist. This study investigates the association between the qualitative behaviour assessment (QBA) of emotional expression in giraffes and keeper action score in four types of keeper-animal interaction (KAI). Three giraffes generating 38 clips. QBA, using a free-choice profiling methodology, was applied instructing 18 observers to assess giraffe expressions shown in these clips. QBA scores were analysed using Generalized Procrustes Analysis. Keeper actions during each KAI event were rated by an ...


Racism: A Teenagers' Perspective Results Of Preliminary Research From Madrid, Spain, Teresa Aguado Odina, Belen Ballesteros Vwelazquez, Ines Gil Jaurena, Rosrio Jimenez Frias, Catalina Luque Donoso, Beatriz Malik Lievano, Patricia Mata Benito, Jose Antonio Tellez Munoz, Caridad Hernandez Sanchez, Margarita Del Olmo Pintado, Jennifer Lucko Oct 2019

Racism: A Teenagers' Perspective Results Of Preliminary Research From Madrid, Spain, Teresa Aguado Odina, Belen Ballesteros Vwelazquez, Ines Gil Jaurena, Rosrio Jimenez Frias, Catalina Luque Donoso, Beatriz Malik Lievano, Patricia Mata Benito, Jose Antonio Tellez Munoz, Caridad Hernandez Sanchez, Margarita Del Olmo Pintado, Jennifer Lucko

Jennifer Lucko

In mid-June, 2005, the members of the INTER Center received a collaboration proposal from FETE-UGT8, with the objective of carrying out a brief exploratory study on the perceptions and experiences that young people and adolescents, mainly immigrants, have concerning possible experiences of discrimination and racism in their immediate surroundings.

The initial objectives of the project were expanded due to the dynamics of the project itself. New focuses of attention and social, educational and personal dynamics, which can condition to a certain extent the experiences that immigrant adolescents undergo, were detected.

The project initially consisted of a series of interviews with ...


"Quiero Estar Con Mi Gente." La Negociación De La Identidad Étnica En La Escuela ("I Want To Be With My People." The Negotiation Among The Migrant Population), Jennifer Lucko Oct 2019

"Quiero Estar Con Mi Gente." La Negociación De La Identidad Étnica En La Escuela ("I Want To Be With My People." The Negotiation Among The Migrant Population), Jennifer Lucko

Jennifer Lucko

No abstract provided.


Report On Owned Dog Population Survey In Lingayen, Philippines, Tamara Kartal, Lynne U. Sneddon, Amit Chaudhari Sep 2019

Report On Owned Dog Population Survey In Lingayen, Philippines, Tamara Kartal, Lynne U. Sneddon, Amit Chaudhari

Lynne Sneddon, PhD

The Philippines is among the Southeast Asian countries that has a long-standing problem with rabies. About 200 people die of rabies each year in the Philippines, and most are attributed to dog bite cases (Deray, 2015). The sources of infection of more than 95% of human rabies cases worldwide have been reported to be domestic dogs (Cleaveland, et al., 2006). Focusing on the main source rather than the human population, is therefore, the best strategy to eliminate rabies. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends covering at least 70% of the existing domestic dog population with rabies vaccination in the shortest ...


Report On Owned Dog Population Survey In Zamboanga, Philippines, Tamara Kartal, Lynne U. Sneddon, Amit Chaudhari Sep 2019

Report On Owned Dog Population Survey In Zamboanga, Philippines, Tamara Kartal, Lynne U. Sneddon, Amit Chaudhari

Lynne Sneddon, PhD

The Philippines is among the Southeast Asian countries that has a long-standing problem with rabies. About 200 people die of rabies each year in the Philippines, and most are attributed to dog bite cases (Deray, 2015). The sources of infection of more than 95% of human rabies cases worldwide have been reported to be domestic dogs (Cleaveland, et al., 2006). Focusing on the main source rather than the human population, is therefore, the best strategy to eliminate rabies. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends covering at least 70% of the existing domestic dog population with rabies vaccination in the shortest ...


Allometric Variation In Modern Humans And The Relationship Between Body Proportions And Elite Athletic Success, Tesla A. Monson, Marianne F. Brasil, Leslea J. Hlusko Sep 2019

Allometric Variation In Modern Humans And The Relationship Between Body Proportions And Elite Athletic Success, Tesla A. Monson, Marianne F. Brasil, Leslea J. Hlusko

Tesla Monson

In many sports, greater height and arm span are purportedly linked to athletic success. While variation in body proportions has been explored across an array of scientific disciplines, studies focusing on humans of tall stature outside of clinical cases are limited. We investigated body size proportions in a sample of elite athletes, employing data on recruits for the National Basketball Association (NBA, n=2,990), mixed martial arts (MMA) fighters (mixed-sex, n=1,284), as well as a control sample of healthy young adults who are not professional athletes, represented here by male (n=4,082) and female (n=1 ...


Using Machine Learning To Classify Extant Apes And Interpret The Dental Morphology Of The Chimpanzee-Human Last Common Ancestor, Tesla A. Monson, David W. Armitage, Leslea J. Hlusko Sep 2019

Using Machine Learning To Classify Extant Apes And Interpret The Dental Morphology Of The Chimpanzee-Human Last Common Ancestor, Tesla A. Monson, David W. Armitage, Leslea J. Hlusko

Tesla Monson

Machine learning is a formidable tool for pattern recognition in large datasets. We developed and expanded on these methods, applying machine learning pattern recognition to a problem in paleoanthropology and evolution. For decades, paleontologists have used the chimpanzee as a model for the chimpanzee-human last common ancestor (LCA) because they are our closest living primate relative. Using a large sample of extant and extinct primates, we tested the hypothesis that machine learning methods can accurately classify extant apes based on dental data. We then used this classification tool to observe the affinities between extant apes and Miocene hominoids. We assessed ...


Cross Burning, Cockfighting, And Symbolic Meaning: Toward A First Amendment Ethnography, Timothy Zick Sep 2019

Cross Burning, Cockfighting, And Symbolic Meaning: Toward A First Amendment Ethnography, Timothy Zick

Timothy Zick

No abstract provided.


Ties That Bind: Marital Networks And Politics In Punjab, Pakistan, Stephen Lyon, Muhammad Aurang Zeb Mughal Sep 2019

Ties That Bind: Marital Networks And Politics In Punjab, Pakistan, Stephen Lyon, Muhammad Aurang Zeb Mughal

Stephen Lyon

Pakistani politics are characterised by strong corporate social links through kinship and caste that impose reciprocal obligations and rights. Marital maps enable allow for accurate prediction of allegiances and decision making and contribute to a transparent assessment of political processes in the country. While much of the focus on reciprocal relations has understandably been on descent relations (dynasties), the complex network of marital alliances that cut across lineage and sectarian divides helps explain notable levels of stability despite the fragility of the state and other public institutions. Using the example of one of the most successful political dynasties in post ...


“We Always Hurt The Things We Love”—Unnoticed Abuse Of Companion Animals, Bernard E. Rollin Sep 2019

“We Always Hurt The Things We Love”—Unnoticed Abuse Of Companion Animals, Bernard E. Rollin

Bernard Rollin, PhD

Despite the fact that companion animals enjoy the status of “members of the family” in contemporary society, there are numerous diseases affecting the longevity of these animals and their quality of life. Some of the most pervasive and damaging problems accrue to pedigreed animals whose genetic lines contain many major and severe diseases which are detrimental to both the quality and length of life. If one considers the most popular dog breeds in the United States, the top 10 include the Labrador Retriever, German Shepherd, Golden Retriever, French Bulldog, Beagle, Poodle, Rottweiler, Yorkshire Terrier, and German Shorthaired Pointer. Some idea ...


Analysis Of Two Human Skeletons From Smith's Fort, Bermuda, Michael L. Blakey, Autumn Barrett Sep 2019

Analysis Of Two Human Skeletons From Smith's Fort, Bermuda, Michael L. Blakey, Autumn Barrett

Michael Blakey

No abstract provided.


The Local Food Movement: Relationships Among Animals, Farmers, And Customers On A Family-Owned Meat Producing Pennsylvania Farm, Hannah S. Rosen Sep 2019

The Local Food Movement: Relationships Among Animals, Farmers, And Customers On A Family-Owned Meat Producing Pennsylvania Farm, Hannah S. Rosen

Hannah Rosen

The present research is an ethnography for the purpose of anthropological exploration into the motivations of consumers who buy locally produced meat, through the experiences of the customers and farmers on a local farm in central Pennsylvania. This paper questions why people participate in the local food movement through analyses of the customers and farmers of Begonia Farms. Through field research and interviews, varying potential motivations were explored. First, the ways in which alienation drives consumers to the local food movement. This alienation includes disconnect between consumers and producers, consumers and the animals they eat, consumers and food preparation, and ...


The Value Of Pets To Public And Private Health And Well-Being, Leslie Irvine, Laurent Cilia Sep 2019

The Value Of Pets To Public And Private Health And Well-Being, Leslie Irvine, Laurent Cilia

Leslie Irvine, PhD

This analysis reviews empirical studies of the health benefits of pet ownership published between 1980 and 2016 and collected in the database of the Human-Animal Bond Research Initiative, or HABRI. The analysis began with 373 titles and eventually encompassed a dataset of 151 full-text documents. Along with analysis of substantive content, each study received a score for methodological rigor. The number of studies has steadily increased, particularly since 2000, and methodological rigor has improved. The literature encompasses four topics, including cardiovascular, general, and psychosocial health, and physical activity. Overall, the research finds that pets benefit human health, although the available ...


The Question Of Animal Selves: Implications For Sociological Knowledge And Practice, Leslie Irvine Sep 2019

The Question Of Animal Selves: Implications For Sociological Knowledge And Practice, Leslie Irvine

Leslie Irvine, PhD

The question of whether sociologists should investigate the subjective experience of non-human others arises regularly in discussions of research on animals. Recent criticism of this research agenda as speculative and therefore unproductive is examined and found wanting. Ample evidence indicates that animals have the capacity to see themselves as objects, which meets sociological criteria for selfhood. Resistance to this possibility highlights the discipline’s entrenched anthropocentrism rather than lack of evidence. Sociological study of the moral status of animals, based on the presence of the self, is warranted because our treatment of animals is connected with numerous “mainstream” sociological issues ...


Dog Population & Dog Sheltering Trends In The United States Of America, Andrew N. Rowan, Tamara Kartal Sep 2019

Dog Population & Dog Sheltering Trends In The United States Of America, Andrew N. Rowan, Tamara Kartal

Andrew N. Rowan, DPhil

Dog management in the United States has evolved considerably over the last 40 years. This review analyzes available data from the last 30 to 40 years to identify national and local trends. In 1973, The Humane Society of the US (The HSUS) estimated that about 13.5 million animals (64 dogs and cats per 1000 people) were euthanized in the US (about 20% of the pet population) and about 25% of the dog population was still roaming the streets. Intake and euthanasia numbers (national and state level) declined rapidly in the 1970s due to a number of factors, including the ...


A Community-Based Approach To Archaeological Site Preservation In A Changing Climate: A Proposed Risk Assessment Along The Lower Columbia, Phillip Daily, Virginia L. Butler Sep 2019

A Community-Based Approach To Archaeological Site Preservation In A Changing Climate: A Proposed Risk Assessment Along The Lower Columbia, Phillip Daily, Virginia L. Butler

Virginia L. Butler

Global climate change is an increasing threat to cultural resources, especially in coastal areas. Archaeologists have responded with risk assessments that gauge these threats and create preservation priorities for land managers. However, most assessments do not include input from descendant communities, which limits their potential value and relevance to archaeologists and tribal partners. We are in the initial stages of developing a risk assessment model for the Lower Columbia that includes a process for collaborating with tribes. In addition to incorporating the existing archaeological and ethnohistorical data typically used in risk assessments, our project will also incorporate indigenous stakeholder priorities ...


La Nourriture Qui Ne Rassassié Jamais: Une Histoire Sociale Du Café Haya, Brad Weiss Sep 2019

La Nourriture Qui Ne Rassassié Jamais: Une Histoire Sociale Du Café Haya, Brad Weiss

Brad Weiss

No abstract provided.


Objects And Bodies: Some Phenomenological Implications Of Knowledge And Practice In Mayotte, Brad Weiss Sep 2019

Objects And Bodies: Some Phenomenological Implications Of Knowledge And Practice In Mayotte, Brad Weiss

Brad Weiss

Grounded in collective interactions that are often quite contentious, knowledge is formulated in the world (objectified), and tangibly experienced (embodied) by the agents engaged in these interactions. As a means of acting on the world in order to transform it, knowledge is implicitly powerful. Yet, the consequences of that power are only realized through the context in which they are carried out. Thus, the ambiguous character of such knowledge must be evaluated by social agents in the course of their activities. By drawing attention to these dimensions of knowledge as power which enable social agents to act on, and so ...


In Tastes, Lost And Found: Remembering The Real Flavor Of Fat Pork, Brad Weiss Sep 2019

In Tastes, Lost And Found: Remembering The Real Flavor Of Fat Pork, Brad Weiss

Brad Weiss

"Fat". In contemporary society the word never fails to elicit powerful emotions, especially as it relates to bodily health and appearance. But fat is a noun as well as an adjective and has a cultural life outside of its relationship with the human body. By focusing on the complex physical and experiential dimensions of this problematic substance, Fat: Culture and Materiality breaks new ground in the study of the relationship between culture and the material world.

With contributions from well-respected international scholars, this innovative and interdisciplinary collection will appeal to a wide range of readers interested in fat and its ...


Chronic Mobb Asks A Blessing: Apocalyptic Hip-Hop In A Time Of Crisis, Brad Weiss Sep 2019

Chronic Mobb Asks A Blessing: Apocalyptic Hip-Hop In A Time Of Crisis, Brad Weiss

Brad Weiss

Child laborers in South Asia, child soldiers in Sierra Leone and Uganda, Chinese youth playing computer games to earn virtual gold, youth involved in sex trafficking in the former Soviet republics and Thailand: these are just some of the young people featured in the news of late. The idea that young people are more malleable and the truisms that "youth are the future" or "children are our hope for the future" give news stories and scholarly accounts added meaning. To address how and why youth and children have come to seem so important to globalization, the contributors to this book ...


Food, Brad Weiss Sep 2019

Food, Brad Weiss

Brad Weiss

The study of food is at once a classic theme in anthropological theorizing, as well as a burgeoning field in contemporary ethnography. Some of the earliest attempts to characterize culture, or identify the minimal, “elementary” features of social life, drew inspiration from a consideration of food prohibitions. In the 19th century, and again in the middle of the 20th century, the text of Leviticus provided fodder for a host of theories—historical, symbolic, and materialist—that attempted to account for the kosher food laws this text details. The study of these same prohibitions laid the foundation for a comparative anthropology ...


Welfare Of Non-Traditional Pets, Catherine A. Schuppli, David Fraser, H. J. Bacon Sep 2019

Welfare Of Non-Traditional Pets, Catherine A. Schuppli, David Fraser, H. J. Bacon

David Fraser, PhD

The keeping of non-traditional or ‘exotic’ pets has been growing in popularity worldwide. In addition to the typical welfare challenges of keeping more traditional pet species like dogs and cats, ensuring the welfare of non-traditional pets is complicated by factors such as lack of knowledge, difficulties meeting requirements in the home and where and how animals are obtained. This paper uses examples of different species to highlight three major welfare concerns: ensuring that pets under our care i) function well biologically, ii) are free from negative psychological states and able to experience normal pleasures, and iii) lead reasonably natural lives ...


Successful Enrichment And Recovery Of Whole Mitochondrial Genomes From Ancient Human Dental Calculus, Andrew T. Ozga, Maria A. Nieves-Colon, Tanvi P. Honap, Krithivasan Sankaranarayanan, Courtney A. Hofman, George R. Milner, Cecil M. Lewis Jr., Anne C. Stone, Christina Warinner Aug 2019

Successful Enrichment And Recovery Of Whole Mitochondrial Genomes From Ancient Human Dental Calculus, Andrew T. Ozga, Maria A. Nieves-Colon, Tanvi P. Honap, Krithivasan Sankaranarayanan, Courtney A. Hofman, George R. Milner, Cecil M. Lewis Jr., Anne C. Stone, Christina Warinner

Andrew Ozga

Objectives

Archaeological dental calculus is a rich source of host‐associated biomolecules. Importantly, however, dental calculus is more accurately described as a calcified microbial biofilm than a host tissue. As such, concerns regarding destructive analysis of human remains may not apply as strongly to dental calculus, opening the possibility of obtaining human health and ancestry information from dental calculus in cases where destructive analysis of conventional skeletal remains is not permitted. Here we investigate the preservation of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in archaeological dental calculus and its potential for full mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) reconstruction in maternal lineage ancestry analysis.

Materials ...


Origins Of An Unmarked Georgia Cemetery Using Ancient Dna Analysis, Andrew T. Ozga, Raul Y. Tito, Brian M. Kemp, Hugh Matternes, Alexandra J. Obregon-Tito, Leslie Neal, Cecil M. Lewis Jr. Aug 2019

Origins Of An Unmarked Georgia Cemetery Using Ancient Dna Analysis, Andrew T. Ozga, Raul Y. Tito, Brian M. Kemp, Hugh Matternes, Alexandra J. Obregon-Tito, Leslie Neal, Cecil M. Lewis Jr.

Andrew Ozga

Determining the origins of those buried within undocumented cemeteries is of incredible importance to historical archaeologists and, in many cases, the nearby communities. In the case of Avondale Burial Place, a cemetery in Bibb County, Georgia, in use from 1820 to 1950, all written documentation of those interred within it has been lost. Osteological and archaeological evidence alone could not describe, with confidence, the ancestral origins of the 101 individuals buried there. In the present study, we used ancient DNA extraction methods in well-preserved skeletal fragments from 20 individuals buried in Avondale Burial Place to investigate the origins of the ...


Comparison Of Two Ancient Dna Extraction Protocols For Skeletal Remains From Tropical Environments, Maria A. Nieves-Colon, Andrew T. Ozga, William J. Pestle, Andrea Cucina, Vera Tiesler, Travis W. Stanton, Anne C. Stone Aug 2019

Comparison Of Two Ancient Dna Extraction Protocols For Skeletal Remains From Tropical Environments, Maria A. Nieves-Colon, Andrew T. Ozga, William J. Pestle, Andrea Cucina, Vera Tiesler, Travis W. Stanton, Anne C. Stone

Andrew Ozga

Objectives

The tropics harbor a large part of the world's biodiversity and have a long history of human habitation. However, paleogenomics research in these climates has been constrained so far by poor ancient DNA yields. Here we compare the performance of two DNA extraction methods on ancient samples of teeth and petrous portions excavated from tropical and semi‐tropical sites in Tanzania, Mexico, and Puerto Rico (N = 12).

Materials and Methods

All samples were extracted twice, built into double‐stranded sequencing libraries, and shotgun sequenced on the Illumina HiSeq 2500. The first extraction protocol, Method D, was previously designed ...