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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

A Feeling In Their Bones: Issues Of Deciphering Animal Ritual In The Archaeological Record Among The Naskapi Innu And Eastern Cree, Arwen M. Johns Aug 2016

A Feeling In Their Bones: Issues Of Deciphering Animal Ritual In The Archaeological Record Among The Naskapi Innu And Eastern Cree, Arwen M. Johns

Totem: The University of Western Ontario Journal of Anthropology

Whether religion and ritual are elements of past cultures that can be studied effectively by archaeologists has divided experts for some time within the discipline. This paper examines specific animal rituals from two mobile hunter gatherer groups from Canada’s North, the Naskapi Innu and Eastern Cree, in relation to Colin Renfrew’s 1985 book The Archaeology of Cult. In this paper I seek to demonstrate that the archaeological concepts and methods put forth in Renfrew’s (1985) work, related to analyzing religious and ritual contexts in large scale sedentary societies, cannot be neatly applied to Northern mobile hunter gatherer ...


Indigenous Knowledge Within Academia: Exploring The Tensions That Exist Between Indigenous, Decolonizing, And Nêhiyawak Methodologies, Paulina R. Johnson Ms Aug 2016

Indigenous Knowledge Within Academia: Exploring The Tensions That Exist Between Indigenous, Decolonizing, And Nêhiyawak Methodologies, Paulina R. Johnson Ms

Totem: The University of Western Ontario Journal of Anthropology

Over the last few decades the rewriting of Indigenous knowledge and history has been discussed, debated, and rewritten through the fields of Anthropology, History, and First Nation Studies, to name a few. One of the main tensions that exists in this reclamation process is the differences between Indigenous and Western methodological approaches. However, it has yet to be put forward as to what are the tensions that exist within Indigenous methodologies and their practice. This paper will bring forward three methodological approaches utilized within research for and by Indigenous peoples, as we examine how Indigenous, Decolonizing, and Nêhiyawak methodologies challenge ...


Aboriginal Performance Cultures And Language Revitalization: Foundations, Discontinuities, And Possibilities, Remi Alie Aug 2016

Aboriginal Performance Cultures And Language Revitalization: Foundations, Discontinuities, And Possibilities, Remi Alie

Totem: The University of Western Ontario Journal of Anthropology

This paper address the question of how indigenous art and performance culture(s) can contribute to institutionalized language revitalization efforts in Canada, through their use of threatened indigenous languages. Drawing from a wide range of sources published between 1988 and 2014 by scholars, the Assembly of First Nations, departments and agencies of the Canadian government, and artistic practitioners, I illustrate the absence of performance from the available literature on language revitalization. By analyzing these documents thematically, I argue that a substantial shift occurred in the public discourse surrounding language revitalization between the 1980s and 1990s, and the mid- to late-2000s ...


Bioarchaeological Sampling Strategies: Reflection On First Sampling Experience At The Templo Mayor Museum In Mexico City, Diana Karina Moreiras Reynaga Aug 2016

Bioarchaeological Sampling Strategies: Reflection On First Sampling Experience At The Templo Mayor Museum In Mexico City, Diana Karina Moreiras Reynaga

Totem: The University of Western Ontario Journal of Anthropology

Given that sampling strategies and protocols in bioarchaeology are rarely discussed in the literature, this paper is an attempt at reflecting upon the skeletal sampling process (e.g., preparation period, development of strategies and protocols, decision-making process, collaboration with those involved) as well as provide some considerations that may be useful to other junior researchers carrying out their sampling within the realm of bioarchaeology (also may be applicable to other research fields that engage in sampling specimens from museum collections). I provide the considerations about human bone and teeth as it pertains to stable isotope analysis from the literature and ...


Out Of Sight, In Mind: Cell-Phones And The Reconnection Of The Iraqi Diaspora With A (Home)Land, Abdulla Majeed Aug 2016

Out Of Sight, In Mind: Cell-Phones And The Reconnection Of The Iraqi Diaspora With A (Home)Land, Abdulla Majeed

Totem: The University of Western Ontario Journal of Anthropology

It was only after the invasion of 2003 and the gradual collapse of the Iraqi state that cellphones began to surface on Iraq's public market, for they have been previously banned by the regime of Saddam Hussein. This fairly recent breakage of the digital barrier rendered Iraq at the time as one of the most promising ICTs markets in the Middle East, with critical consequences on the larger Iraqi society, particularly since it also saw the introduction of the previously banned Internet. Using personal experience, as well as interviews with Iraqis from Baghdad, this paper argues that Iraqis creatively ...


The Nêhiyawak Nation Through Âcimowina: Experiencing Plains Cree Knowledge Through Oral Narratives, Paulina Johnson Jul 2015

The Nêhiyawak Nation Through Âcimowina: Experiencing Plains Cree Knowledge Through Oral Narratives, Paulina Johnson

Totem: The University of Western Ontario Journal of Anthropology

Nêhiyawîhcikêwin, Plains Cree Culture, is an oral culture that shares their wisdom, insights, teachings, and warnings through the voices of the elders to the generations that will one day fill their place. Oral narratives have been used by the Nehiyawak nation for hundreds and if not thousands of years, and for particular interest we will focus on âcimowina, oral narratives of a time after Wîsahêcâhk, Elder Brother, but also touch on aspects of âtayôhkêwina, sacred stories that account how the world was shaped, when animals and humans could talk, and when Wîsahêcâhk transformed the ...


Emergence And Progression Of Acadian Ethnic And Political Identities: Alliance And Land-Based Inter-Peoples Relations In Early Acadia To Today, Katie K. Macleod Jul 2015

Emergence And Progression Of Acadian Ethnic And Political Identities: Alliance And Land-Based Inter-Peoples Relations In Early Acadia To Today, Katie K. Macleod

Totem: The University of Western Ontario Journal of Anthropology

This article provides an ethnohistorical overview of the emergence and progression of Acadian ethnic and political identities over time. Strongly based in their relations with the Mi’kmaq during the colonization of Nova Scotia, the Acadians became a unique political entity who identified themselves as neutral. Through the advances made in the colony, British authorities soon realized that the alliance formed between the Acadians and Mi’kmaq could present a threat. This article provides background for the reemerging Acadian-Mi’kmaq relations occurring today around environmental and land-based concerns and seeks to provide the reader with an overview of the shifting ...


Bodies Of Information: Human-Animal Entanglement At Çatalhöyük And Cis-Baikal As Seen Through Zooarchaeology, John Vandergugten Jul 2015

Bodies Of Information: Human-Animal Entanglement At Çatalhöyük And Cis-Baikal As Seen Through Zooarchaeology, John Vandergugten

Totem: The University of Western Ontario Journal of Anthropology

Zooarchaeology—the study of the human past through animal remains—has often been said to demonstrate that animals have had a variety of tangible roles in relation to human individuals and cultures throughout time: from sources of food to implements of labour. In contrast, intangible aspects of the human-animal relationship have been generally unrecognized and only recently appreciated within (zoo)archaeological discourse. Through exploratory case studies of research at the sites of Çatalhöyük and Cis-Baikal, it is suggested here that new modes of reflecting upon human-animal bonds are necessary in order to better understand the multifarious meanings and uses of ...


Research Reflections: Queering The Ethnographer, Queering Male Sex Work, Nathan Dawthorne Jul 2015

Research Reflections: Queering The Ethnographer, Queering Male Sex Work, Nathan Dawthorne

Totem: The University of Western Ontario Journal of Anthropology

This paper is a reflection on an ethnographic moment that occurred as I sought the narratives of male sex workers specific to London, Ontario, a mid-sized Canadian city. Here an informant effectively queered my inadvertent erasure of men-who-sell-sex-to-women during the initial phases of fieldwork. In order to understand what happened, I explore the important role of reflexivity to negotiate productive misunderstandings that occurred and to illuminate the assumptions I made. To provide a contextualized account of the phenomenon of male sex work ultimately requires that I move beyond homonormative (or any normative) pre/conceptualizations avoiding and acknowledging the re/production ...


Keeping Crm Archaeology Relevant: Presenting An Archaeology Of Children And Childhood In The Past, Katelyn E. Mather Jul 2015

Keeping Crm Archaeology Relevant: Presenting An Archaeology Of Children And Childhood In The Past, Katelyn E. Mather

Totem: The University of Western Ontario Journal of Anthropology

The industry of cultural resource management (CRM) has been criticized for its failure to communicate research results publicly, and to make contributions on a local and global scale. In this paper, I suggest that school-based archaeology programs – either through mock archaeological digs, participation in actual excavations, or the use of specific material culture types to tell stories about the past – provide a means to make CRM archaeology relevant to a wider audience. I also propose that an effective teaching tool about local archaeology would be to create a program on the archaeology of children and childhood. This would be an ...


Powers Of The Dead: Struggles Over Paper Money Burning In Urban China, Mingyuan Zhang Jul 2015

Powers Of The Dead: Struggles Over Paper Money Burning In Urban China, Mingyuan Zhang

Totem: The University of Western Ontario Journal of Anthropology

This paper explores how the Chinese customary ritual of burning paper money to commemorate the dead ancestors challenges the nature-culture dichotomy. The paper argues that the practice of burning paper money reflects a Chinese cosmology that is not based on a dichotomy between the living and the dead, instead, the dead is often mobilized to exert influential power over the living. The paper money that people use in such rituals are active actors that participates in people’s social, cultural and economic life. The paper also investigates how the conflict between government policy and traditional practice demonstrates that the modernists ...


“A Man Without A Country”: Experiences Of Francophone Migration During The Quiet Revolution, Jessie K. Tougas Jul 2015

“A Man Without A Country”: Experiences Of Francophone Migration During The Quiet Revolution, Jessie K. Tougas

Totem: The University of Western Ontario Journal of Anthropology

There are numerous studies on shifting Francophone-Anglophone relations during the Quiet Revolution, and migration studies tend to focus on Anglophones who sought opportunity outside Québec (Pettinicchio 2012). However, less attention has been paid to the experiences of Francophones who migrated to English Canada during this period. Undeniably, these people had their own unique political, economic and social motivations for leaving Québec at this time. Their adopted communities brought experiences of cultural assimilation and language loss, which have been previously explored in relation to First Peoples in Canada and the indigenous groups of other countries (e.g. Hallett et al. 2007 ...


Behind The Map: Crises And Crisis Collectives In High-Tech Actions, Fiona Gedeon Achi Jul 2014

Behind The Map: Crises And Crisis Collectives In High-Tech Actions, Fiona Gedeon Achi

Totem: The University of Western Ontario Journal of Anthropology

Abstract: Over the five last years, crisis mapping has gained wide popularity in the humanitarian world with collaboration between crisis mappers and the UN on several emergency projects. Crisis mapping relies on interactive maps to monitor both incidents and resources in settings undergoing a “crisis” (political, environmental, etc). Focusing on one case study (the monitoring of violence during the 2011 elections in the Democratic Republic of Congo) and building on several interviews conducted with leading crisis mappers and project coordinators, this paper shows that the deep significance of crisis mapping cannot be grasped through an understanding of the goals and ...


Frontier Wars: Violence And Space In Belfast, Northern Ireland, Jack Boulton Jul 2014

Frontier Wars: Violence And Space In Belfast, Northern Ireland, Jack Boulton

Totem: The University of Western Ontario Journal of Anthropology

Belfast seems well known as a violent city; it has experienced a long history of turmoil related to the British invasion and subsequent division based on ethnicity as seen through religion. Although the profile of the city has improved, meaning rising tourism and income, the Belfast Agreement of 1998, as well as divisions between ethnicities continues to haunt the city despite an apparent end to violence, fighting and paramilitary activity. This paper explores the relationship between violence and space as exemplified in Belfast through the ‘peacelines’ which stand in interface zones between Catholic and Protestant residential areas. As well as ...


"How Far Is It?" Of Geocaching And Emplacement In Athens, Greece, Julien Cossette Jul 2014

"How Far Is It?" Of Geocaching And Emplacement In Athens, Greece, Julien Cossette

Totem: The University of Western Ontario Journal of Anthropology

Geotechnologies are increasingly prominent, accessible, and interactive. Hand-held devices can localize one’s current geographic position with an unsettling precision. With the emergence of such mapping apparatuses, GPS-informed practices have proliferated. They redefine our engagement with space/place in ways that anthropologists need to attend to. Geocaching, a popular activity happening across the world, provides an ethnographic example of interest whose resonance extends beyond its practice.

This paper focuses on the ways in which spaces have the potential to become meaningful in specific ways for those engaging in this practice. I adopt an autobiographical approach, which I carefully unpack, following ...


Dietary And Physiological Contributions To The Relationship Between Diet, Bone Collagen, And Structural Carbonate Δ13c Values, Alex Leatherdale Jul 2014

Dietary And Physiological Contributions To The Relationship Between Diet, Bone Collagen, And Structural Carbonate Δ13c Values, Alex Leatherdale

Totem: The University of Western Ontario Journal of Anthropology

Numerous models have been proposed to explain and predict the relationship between diet, bone collagen, and structural carbonate δ13C values. Within these models, many internal and external factors are implicated in generating the observed variation in δ13C values, such as trophic level, dietary protein source, digestive physiology, tissue growth and remodeling, and post-mortem chemical alteration of bone collagen and bone mineral. The current understanding of the relationship between the isotopic chemistry of bone and diet hinges on the observation that bone collagen and structural carbonate fractionate differentially from diet due to underlying metabolic differences. The stable ...


Language About Agroecological Practices: The Emergence Of A Linguistic Market In Post-Soviet Cuba, Lina Johnston Jul 2014

Language About Agroecological Practices: The Emergence Of A Linguistic Market In Post-Soviet Cuba, Lina Johnston

Totem: The University of Western Ontario Journal of Anthropology

Following the collapse of socialist bloc in the late 1980s, Cuba’s agricultural paradigm underwent a dramatic transition from conventional to agroecological practices. In part, this transition relied on shifting the research focus of the Cuban government toward alternative and sustainable modes of agriculture, and placing greater emphasis on local farmer knowledge and participation. This paper proposes that the changing knowledge base that has accompanied Cuba’s agroecological paradigm has given rise to the emergence of markets of symbolic power (in the Bourdieu sense). In particular, a linguistic market that revolves around "spreading" the message and practice of agroecology, and ...


White Skin And White Masquerades: The Performativity Of “Whiteness” At Trinity College, Alican A. Koc Jul 2014

White Skin And White Masquerades: The Performativity Of “Whiteness” At Trinity College, Alican A. Koc

Totem: The University of Western Ontario Journal of Anthropology

Trinity College has gained a reputation as a predominantly white elite institution over its years at the University of Toronto. Using both personal accounts from a member of the college, as well as participant observation based on three months of research, this essay attempts to understand how the college maintains its legacy as a white institution despite its existence in a supposedly multicultural university environment. Drawing upon Judith Butler's theory of performativity, the essay describes how "whiteness" is constructed through a reiteration of acts rather than on race or colour in the context of Trinity College.


The Creation Of Female Origin Myth: A Critical Analysis Of Gender In The Archaeology Of Neolithic China, Shu Xin Chen Jul 2014

The Creation Of Female Origin Myth: A Critical Analysis Of Gender In The Archaeology Of Neolithic China, Shu Xin Chen

Totem: The University of Western Ontario Journal of Anthropology

This essay explores and critiques the creation of female origin myths in the archaeology of Neolithic China. The first example is the debate surrounding the gender relations in the Yangshao culture. The second half of the paper focuses on whether or not the possible goddess worship in the Hongshan culture can shed light on the understanding of women. It concludes by stating this kind of gynocentric archaeology does not provide an accurate picture of gender in Neolithic China, or propel the feminist agenda.


Mating Behavior In Australopithecus And Early Homo: A Review Of The Diagnostic Potential Of Dental Dimorphism., Joseph J. Werner Jul 2014

Mating Behavior In Australopithecus And Early Homo: A Review Of The Diagnostic Potential Of Dental Dimorphism., Joseph J. Werner

Totem: The University of Western Ontario Journal of Anthropology

Dental dimorphism is one of the primary means by which the mating systems of extinct hominins are studied. Its use has been particularly significant for describing the behaviors of Australopithecus and early Homo, and consequently the factors involved in the evolution of our own species. Analysis however, has tended to produce ambiguous and contrasting results, with no firm agreement as to what mating strategies these genera practiced. Interpretation is confounded by numerous problems such as a generally poor understanding of how dental dimorphism develops in primates, and what factors influence its expression. It is also not well known how these ...


The Red-Haired Chimpanzee: Integrated Conservation And Development, Engagement, And (Mis)Understandings In Hoima District, Western Uganda, Steven Slowka Jul 2014

The Red-Haired Chimpanzee: Integrated Conservation And Development, Engagement, And (Mis)Understandings In Hoima District, Western Uganda, Steven Slowka

Totem: The University of Western Ontario Journal of Anthropology

Drawing on research completed in seven villages in Hoima District, western Uganda, in 2013, this paper explores the social complexities inherent to integrated conservation and development projects orchestrated by transnational ENGOs in developing countries. I frame this exploration through a discussion of a story from my fieldwork - the sighting of a "red-haired" chimpanzee - and use it as a metaphor to encompass the ways in which groups of people involved in such conservation and development work think about, act towards, and "other" one another. Moreover, this paper explores the role that anthropologists can assume in articulating the implications of, and mediating ...


Contemporary Mediumship: Anthropological Perspectives On The Long Island Medium, Rasha Darghawth Apr 2013

Contemporary Mediumship: Anthropological Perspectives On The Long Island Medium, Rasha Darghawth

Totem: The University of Western Ontario Journal of Anthropology

Bereavement following the loss of a loved one has and always will remain a panhuman constant. An increasingly popularized form of healing is asserting itself in the form of mediumship. This paper seeks to investigate contemporary forms of mediumship in North America through critical analysis of the TLC show, Long Island Medium. Rather than questioning the validity of such practices, it instead strives to deconstruct the symbolic healing system surrounding the medium. This healing system serves to assure cultural constructions of an afterlife while acknowledging the presence and ability of spirits gaining agency through after-death communication. Furthermore, this paper seeks ...


Mothering From Afar: Conceptualizing Transnational Motherhood, Heather L. Millman Apr 2013

Mothering From Afar: Conceptualizing Transnational Motherhood, Heather L. Millman

Totem: The University of Western Ontario Journal of Anthropology

This paper explores the social, economic, and familial implications of transnational motherhood as experienced by women who leave their families behind in order to work internationally. In addressing the personal, sociocultural, and economic contexts which both motivate mothers to migrate for work, and emerge from their decision to do so, this article argues that motherhood is a relational concept, contingent upon social, cultural, and personal perceptions. In particular, it focuses on the experiences of transnational mothers in how they reveal the social, cultural, political, and economic structurings of the concept of motherhood. In doing so, this paper illustrates how motherhood ...


False Frontiers: Archaeology And The Myth Of The Canadian Wilderness, Joshua Dent Apr 2013

False Frontiers: Archaeology And The Myth Of The Canadian Wilderness, Joshua Dent

Totem: The University of Western Ontario Journal of Anthropology

Terra nullius provided a, now defunct, legal allowance for colonial activities in North America. No longer widely used, the concept persists in the widespread use of the term wilderness. Inferring that the Canadian landscape is largely unaltered, pathless, and without attached meaning, wilderness negates the creation and maintenance of Indigenous landscapes. The myth that much of the Canadian landscape consists of pristine and untouched wilderness is perpetuated by several aspects of Canadian society: the natural resource industry, environmentalists, wilderness tourism, and Canadian nationalism. Each of these areas benefits from or exploits in some way, the concept of wilderness. Archaeology, through ...


Interpreting Stable Carbon And Nitrogen Isotope Ratios In Archaeological Remains: An Overview Of The Processes Influencing The Δ13c And Δ15n Values Of Type I Collagen, Alexander J. Leatherdale Apr 2013

Interpreting Stable Carbon And Nitrogen Isotope Ratios In Archaeological Remains: An Overview Of The Processes Influencing The Δ13c And Δ15n Values Of Type I Collagen, Alexander J. Leatherdale

Totem: The University of Western Ontario Journal of Anthropology

The application of isotopic ratio mass spectrometry to archaeological science has produced many important contributions to the study and understanding of ancient human and animal populations. Paleodietary reconstruction through the analysis of stable isotope ratios in skeletal, dental, and soft tissue remains presents another avenue for interpreting the past. The methodology employed to obtain isotopic data from archaeological remains directly influences the types of questions that can be addressed and the interpretation of the data. Furthermore, there are fundamental idiosyncrasies of archaeological specimens and their ante- and post-mortem environments that may influence the results of an isotopic study. This paper ...


Re-Thinking The Value Of 20th-Century Archaeological Sites In Canada, Colleen Haukaas Apr 2013

Re-Thinking The Value Of 20th-Century Archaeological Sites In Canada, Colleen Haukaas

Totem: The University of Western Ontario Journal of Anthropology

Though archaeological sites dating to the 20th century in Ontario are eligible for protection under the recently updated Standards and Guidelines for Consulting Archaeologists, many archaeologists do not consider them to valuable heritage resources. In academic archaeology in other parts of Canada, however, 20th-century sites have proven to be useful in archaeological research in several ways. This paper will discuss how 20th-century archaeological sites are investigated in Ontario, and then compare case studies from academic archaeology in the Yukon, British Columbia, and Newfoundland and Labrador where recent archaeological sites were found to be valuable to ...


Mass Graves And The Politics Of Reconciliation: Construction Of Memorial Sites After The Srebrenica Massacre, Diana B. Kontsevaia Apr 2013

Mass Graves And The Politics Of Reconciliation: Construction Of Memorial Sites After The Srebrenica Massacre, Diana B. Kontsevaia

Totem: The University of Western Ontario Journal of Anthropology

Burial is an integral part of reconciling with death. In this way, mortuary practices are made for the living; and the manner of death and burials continue to affect the politics of the living. Especially after collective traumatic events such as the Srebrenica massacre, reburials become central to the reconciliation process of the surviving communities. The process of reburial, however, also facilitates the claims that a particular territory is part of a specific, ethnic ‘homeland’. As reburials aim to forget the atrocities, they also commemorate them. Although reburial is one of the few ways of moving on after the death ...


Excavating Zion: Archaeology And Nation-Making In Palestine/Israel, Peige Desjarlais Apr 2013

Excavating Zion: Archaeology And Nation-Making In Palestine/Israel, Peige Desjarlais

Totem: The University of Western Ontario Journal of Anthropology

This paper demonstrates that archaeological discourse and practice in Palestine/Israel is intertwined with a nation-making project of settler colonialism that contains both spatial and temporal dimensions. This project primarily serves to invent a link between the ancient Israelite past and the modern Israeli state, presenting colonization as “return” to “the homeland” through familiar narratives of frontier settlement. This article proposes that Israeli archaeological practices not only help to reproduce these narratives, but also participate in the inscription of the national territory as Jewish, and the consequent dispossession of the Palestinians


The Shifting Phases Of A Commodity: Textiles And Ethnic Tourism On A Lake Titicaca Island, Daniel Escobar López Jul 2012

The Shifting Phases Of A Commodity: Textiles And Ethnic Tourism On A Lake Titicaca Island, Daniel Escobar López

Totem: The University of Western Ontario Journal of Anthropology

The case study of the island of Taquile in the Peruvian part of Lake Titicaca will be used to explore how textiles functions as intermediaries for social interactions and change and how they respond to demands from ethnic tourism. By using theories of material culture, specifically the analytical approach of "the biography", I aim to shed light on the process by which some textiles in Taquile have passed from being the person’s “second skin” to a commodity responding to ethnic tourism. However, such a process, rather than being contradictory, expresses the capacity of Taquilean culture to adapt the local ...


Power Relations And Its Influence In The Sphere Of Globalization Since World War Ii, Colin P.T. Baillie Jul 2012

Power Relations And Its Influence In The Sphere Of Globalization Since World War Ii, Colin P.T. Baillie

Totem: The University of Western Ontario Journal of Anthropology

Although the movement of technology, information, ideas and money is not new, it has been influencing human social behaviour at an ever increasing rate by the process of globalization. Power relations in the form of a centre-periphery relationship, cultural homogenization and cultural hybridization are investigated to examine their impact on cultural exchange within the context of globalization. A centre-periphery relationship has arisen since World War II that places the United States of America at the centre and all other nation-states on the periphery. This relationship creates an unequal power dynamic that allows cultural phenomena to diffuse from the centre out ...