Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Social and Behavioral Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 30 of 242

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Competition And Cooperation In Polygynous & Monogamous Households: Experimental Evidence From Sierra Leone, Bethany Gerdemann May 2019

Competition And Cooperation In Polygynous & Monogamous Households: Experimental Evidence From Sierra Leone, Bethany Gerdemann

Master's Theses

Competition and cooperation in polygynous households have both been widely documented across various disciplines. There is contradictory evidence as to whether these interpersonal dynamics produce better or worse outcomes for the household. This study uses a competitiveness game and a series of dictator games to measure competition and cooperation within households and between marriage types. Results show that there are key differences between monogamy and polygyny. Monogamous women compete less with their husbands than stranger and less in comparison to polygynous women. Monogamous spouses are more likely to forgo economic opportunities than polygynous spouses and have a greater preference for ...


Maize And Bone: An Evaluation And Expansion Of A Proposed Model For The Differential Diagnosis Of Pellagra In Human Remains, Myra Miller Apr 2019

Maize And Bone: An Evaluation And Expansion Of A Proposed Model For The Differential Diagnosis Of Pellagra In Human Remains, Myra Miller

Master's Theses

This study attempts to test and expand a previous study to establish a differential diagnosis of pellagra in human remains (Paine & Brenton, 2006a). Seven individuals with documented pellagra and nine individuals randomly selected for comparison from the Hamann-Todd Osteological Collection were evaluated for caries, alveolar bone loss, periostitis, osteoporosis, cribra orbitalia, and porotic hyperostosis. Results indicate that the pellagra sample had lower rates of caries and alveolar bone loss, and higher rates of periostitis of the tibia and fibula in relation to the comparison sample. No osteoporosis, cribra orbitalia, or porotic hyperostosis was found in the pellagra sample. No statistically ...


Virtual Realities In Archaeology: Employing The Oculus Rift For Artifact Visualization And Education, Jeffrey R. Nau Apr 2019

Virtual Realities In Archaeology: Employing The Oculus Rift For Artifact Visualization And Education, Jeffrey R. Nau

Master's Theses

Virtual reality (VR) is an emerging digital platform that can be utilized as an immersive educational tool. This thesis uses the Oculus Rift virtual reality head-mounted display to create a VR Museum, building upon research exploring video games in education. This VR Museum leverages virtual reality and video game technology to educate players about archaeology. Through virtual reality technology, players enter the digitally-constructed museum environment as if they are inside the virtual world. This technology provides new avenues for engaging the public in archaeological studies. This thesis also examines how digital copies of artifacts made with photogrammetry can be utilized ...


An Examination Of Flintlock Components At Fort St. Joseph (20be23), Niles, Michigan, Kevin Paul Jones Apr 2019

An Examination Of Flintlock Components At Fort St. Joseph (20be23), Niles, Michigan, Kevin Paul Jones

Master's Theses

The purpose of this study is to identify the age, country and place of origin, function (e.g. fusil, pistol), and intended use (e.g. military, trade gun) of flintlock components recovered from Fort St. Joseph (20BE23), an eighteenth-century French mission-garrison-trading post in southwest Michigan. Flintlock muskets were a vital technology in New France throughout the fur trade era, both in their roles as weapons and as hunting implements. They were also important because their relatively complex nature necessitated localized, frontier supply and repair; their use and maintenance were integrated into many facets of frontier life. Historical documents and archaeological ...


An Exploratory Study Of Acculturation Experiences Of Graduate Student Immigrants At The University Of San Francisco, Courtney Lamar Dec 2018

An Exploratory Study Of Acculturation Experiences Of Graduate Student Immigrants At The University Of San Francisco, Courtney Lamar

Master's Theses

This study explores the shared challenges during the acculturation process of graduate student immigrants pursuing higher education in the United States. 13 graduate student immigrants at the University of San Francisco discuss their experiences of cultural adjustment into U.S. culture. Through qualitative interviews and thematic analysis, this study seeks to understand the acculturation experiences of graduate student immigrants in the San Francisco Bay Area of the United States. This analysis is based on the individual-level experience examining attitudes and acculturation strategies in the dominant society. Analysis, possibly policy implication for institutions of higher education, and possible directions for future ...


Inside The Virtual Ambazonia: Separatism, Hate Speech , Disinformation And Diaspora In The Cameroonian Anglophone Crisis, Sombaye Eyango Jules Roger Dec 2018

Inside The Virtual Ambazonia: Separatism, Hate Speech , Disinformation And Diaspora In The Cameroonian Anglophone Crisis, Sombaye Eyango Jules Roger

Master's Theses

This study examines the dynamics of the anglophone separatist claims in Cameroon, the so-called “Anglophone Crisis”. I focus on explaining why the separatist claims reemerged in 2016 after being shut down for about 20 years. It explains how the Anglophone separatist revendications have sustained over time despite the extremely centralized power of the Paul Biya government.This paper first argues that the Anglophone Crisis is more than an identity struggle between Anglophone/Francophone Cameroonians, but rather a conflict about historical and institutional grievances, political competition, and regional politics involving the neighboring state of Nigeria.

Second, it verifies the hypothesis that ...


Fat Bias And Culture Shock: Psychosocial Adjustments In Post-Obesity Life, Scott Thomas Macpherson Dec 2018

Fat Bias And Culture Shock: Psychosocial Adjustments In Post-Obesity Life, Scott Thomas Macpherson

Master's Theses

Obesity in the United States is unprecedented levels, affecting adults and children as well. As our society has become for sedentary since industrialization, the nation has become fatter. The escalating rate of obesity has had a negative effect on the health of millions of Americans. Health problems such as metabolic disorders and other comorbidities, for instance, hypertension, Type II diabetes, heart disease, weight related cancers etc., (Mozaffarian and Benjamin 2013). The collective cost of obesity is to the nation is staggering, weighing in at $270 billion a year, childhood obesity costs nearly $15 billion alone (Hammond and Levine 2010). This ...


What Provides For Me As I Provide For Others? A Study Of Homeless Shelters Employees Within Kalamazoo, Michigan, Melanie Jezior Aug 2018

What Provides For Me As I Provide For Others? A Study Of Homeless Shelters Employees Within Kalamazoo, Michigan, Melanie Jezior

Master's Theses

Homeless shelters run on one thing: workers. Without workers there is no supportive aid for the homeless. A daunting and emotional job that is taken on by thousands, but why? Is the goal in entering this line of work to make an impact on homeless populations, a lasting difference? Everyone has their own personal reasons, however what are the main reasons for people going into a job like shelter work? What is it that motivates these workers to continue this line of work or motivates them to leave? It is a job that offers low pay, and emotional settings. A ...


Overlooking Men And Boys In Forced Criminality At The Border: A Content Analysis Of Human Trafficking Training And Awareness Materials, Eric Beasley May 2018

Overlooking Men And Boys In Forced Criminality At The Border: A Content Analysis Of Human Trafficking Training And Awareness Materials, Eric Beasley

Master's Theses

Executive Summary

In the Post 9/11 era, where American security is intimately linked to a militarized border management system designed to protect the United States and its territories from threats of terrorism, illegal drugs, and illegal immigration, the media continues to perpetuate the 'Latino Threat Narrative'. The images and information offered to us for consumption help us construct an understanding of events, people, and places. This paper explores how the 'Latino Threat Narrative' and inherent gender biases shape how the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) understands vulnerability and identifies human trafficking victims, particularly men and boys from Mexico and ...


Gendered Impacts Of Community-Based Conservation Initiatives In Kimana/Tikondo Group Ranch Outside Of Amboseli National Park, Megan Clemens Dec 2017

Gendered Impacts Of Community-Based Conservation Initiatives In Kimana/Tikondo Group Ranch Outside Of Amboseli National Park, Megan Clemens

Master's Theses

Community-based conservation has become a common solution to addressing local communities needs and concerns when it comes to conservation initiatives associated with, or outside the boundaries of national parks. Community-based initiatives associated with Amboseli National Park in southern Kenya mark one of the first attempts to include local communities in conservation initiatives and management as well as establish systems of benefit sharing between conservation and local communities. However, a critique of community-based conservation initiatives points out they often assume community homogeneity. Assumption of community homogeneity leads to inequities in benefits sharing, exclusion of subgroups (women, ethnic minorities) or even exacerbate ...


Articulated Indigeneity And Tourism In HawaiʻI, Erika Nielsen Dec 2017

Articulated Indigeneity And Tourism In HawaiʻI, Erika Nielsen

Master's Theses

The guiding research question for this thesis asks how Hawaiian indigeneity and self-determination are articulated within tourism spaces in Hawaiʻi. This thesis research works to uncover the nuanced ways that Hawaiian indigeneity is employed to manage and regulate tourism activities in Hawaiʻi. I seek to question the narrative that Hawaiians consent to, and prosper from, the largely unregulated mass tourism complex that has become a focal point of the post-colonial state. Native Hawaiians have actively resisted the erosion of their culture, lands, and nation through strategies that employ multiple understandings of indigeneity. We should not assume that the tourism industry ...


Life Being An International Student In The United States: Acculturation, Culture Shock, And Identity Transformation, Lai Yan Vivyan Lam Dec 2017

Life Being An International Student In The United States: Acculturation, Culture Shock, And Identity Transformation, Lai Yan Vivyan Lam

Master's Theses

The population of international students at community colleges in the United States has increased significantly over the past decade. International students play a big role in building the cultural diversity on campus by bringing over different cultures and sharing their global perspective to the local community. However, they often face challenges adapting into American culture due to cultural differences in education system, language, lifestyle, etc. By looking into the acculturation process of international students to analyze the culture shock and cultural identity changes they experienced, this paper intends to seek ways to help this group of students to ease their ...


Lois Lenski, A Friend To Children: An Interdisciplinary Analysis Of A Children's Book Author, Stephanie Evans Thomas Dec 2017

Lois Lenski, A Friend To Children: An Interdisciplinary Analysis Of A Children's Book Author, Stephanie Evans Thomas

Master's Theses

In her lifetime, Lois Lenski wrote, illustrated, and otherwise contributed to more than one hundred books for children and preteens. This study focuses on Lenski’s regional books for preteens, novels that Lenski claimed were written from real life. Using interpretive narrative analysis, this study evaluates two of Lenski’s regional novels: Strawberry Girl (1945), the 1946 Newbery award-winner and second installment in the American Regional series, and High-Rise Secret (1966), the eleventh installment in the Roundabout America series, focusing specifically on Lenski’s creative process. The analysis of Lenski’s works was contextualized using literature focusing on the concepts ...


Trading To Drink And Drinking To Trade: Assessing Alcohol Trade And Consumption In Seventeenth And Eighteenth Century New France, Cara A. Mosier Dec 2017

Trading To Drink And Drinking To Trade: Assessing Alcohol Trade And Consumption In Seventeenth And Eighteenth Century New France, Cara A. Mosier

Master's Theses

Alcohol is one of the most misunderstood commodities used by both Native Americans and Europeans during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries in North America. Although documentary sources are available, they can often provide conflicting information on the frequency of alcohol trade and its context of consumption. The archaeological record must be examined in conjunction with the primary and secondary sources to better understand alcohol consumption during this time. My research is conducted to answer the question: what patterns emerge when comparing the archaeological record to the documentary record concerning Native alcohol consumption in the seventeenth and eighteenth century fur trade ...


Minecrafting Archaeology: An Experimental Pedagogy For An Eighteenth-Century French Trading Post In Niles, Michigan, James B. Schwaderer Dec 2017

Minecrafting Archaeology: An Experimental Pedagogy For An Eighteenth-Century French Trading Post In Niles, Michigan, James B. Schwaderer

Master's Theses

The convergence of archaeology, digital technology, and public education has produced new and exciting ways for archaeologists to engage and inform the public. This thesis uses the video game Minecraft to recreate the process of archaeology in a digital format. The test case for this project was the Fort St. Joseph Archaeology Project and its excavation at Fort St. Joseph in Niles, Michigan. The target audience for this project is students in grades three to five. These grades were determined to be the most applicable because their content ranges from United States to Michigan history. A study of virtual archaeology ...


Overcoming Ideology: Examining The Tension Between Sex Work And Anti-Human Trafficking Advocacy, Emily R. Williams Dec 2017

Overcoming Ideology: Examining The Tension Between Sex Work And Anti-Human Trafficking Advocacy, Emily R. Williams

Master's Theses

Human trafficking has become a national conversation and concern. Grassroots organizations designed to combat human trafficking spring up rapidly and help shape public perception on what trafficking is – and what it isn’t. Drawing on participant observation and indepth interviewing, I speak with anti-trafficking advocates determined to eradicate human trafficking and sex workers who prefer to stay in their profession. This thesis will largely explore the unintended consequences of well-meaning advocacy, and the tension between their views on the sex industry and the views from within the sex industry. I aim to use this work not only as a local ...


A Microdebitage Analysis Of The Winterville Mounds Site (22ws500), Stephanie Leigh-Ann Guest Oct 2017

A Microdebitage Analysis Of The Winterville Mounds Site (22ws500), Stephanie Leigh-Ann Guest

Master's Theses

The Winterville Mounds site (22WS500) was a civic ceremonial center of 23 mounds and is located near Greenville in northwest Mississippi. Winterville excavations as field schools are ongoing since 2005 under the direction of Dr. H. Edwin Jackson of The University of Southern Mississippi. Examination of the >1/4" (6.35 mm) mesh screened lithic material provided mixed results of reduction stages and lacked variety of non-local materials (Guest 2006, Winter 2009, McClendon 2012). Authors of these analyses called for the examination of the 1/16” (1.58 mm) water-screened lithic material to identify reduction stages and traces of non-local ...


A Study Of Empathy In The Context Of Religious Identity In The United States, Kiana Sakimehr Jun 2017

A Study Of Empathy In The Context Of Religious Identity In The United States, Kiana Sakimehr

Master's Theses

This thesis considers representations of Muslims in the United States and the impact of Muslim extremism on those representations and on American attitudes towards Muslims. After a careful review of representations of Islam and Muslims in the United States, the thesis reports on the results of an experiment performed to consider the effects of representations on empathy. This was accomplished through a comparison of the empathy self-ratings of 40 international Arab Muslim college students studying in the U.S. to 39 non-Muslim college students from the same public university, in response to hearing narrative vignettes featuring the hypothetical suffering of ...


Biological Stress Indicators Among Historically Documented Populations (1913-1935): An Analysis Of Labor Through Entheses And Joint Disease, Anna Paraskevi Alioto Jun 2017

Biological Stress Indicators Among Historically Documented Populations (1913-1935): An Analysis Of Labor Through Entheses And Joint Disease, Anna Paraskevi Alioto

Master's Theses

Recent studies about the American past have aimed to examine multiple lines of evidence to reanalyze the American lived experience. Despite this, there has been limited research conducted using methods from biological anthropology. Skeletal analysis of a sample from the Hamann-Todd Osteological Collection, consisting of individuals (n=118) who lived in Cleveland, Ohio was utilized to understand how the American lived experience impacted the biological stresses of these individuals. The objective was to investigate entheseal changes and degenerative joint disease on the upper limb to reconstruct activity patterns and to test for possible disparities which may represent differing biological stress ...


Rapping Back: Counter-Narratives From Auckland, New Zealand, Mariel Lopez Rogers May 2017

Rapping Back: Counter-Narratives From Auckland, New Zealand, Mariel Lopez Rogers

Master's Theses

Across the Pacific in Auckland, New Zealand two rap groups, Homebrew and @Peace, are contributing to a theoretically rich and socially conscious Hip Hop scene. Their music critically questions commercialism and conformity in a culture shaped by a history of colonialism. This makes their message starkly opposed to the normative values of New Zealand. The musicians of Homebrew and @Peace, a mix of Polynesian and Pakeha (people of European descent), employ methods of decolonization theory through the use of storytelling and focus on indigenous values. In a country that has adopted the neoliberal beliefs that competition drives human relations, and ...


Women’S Role In Their Reproductive Process: The Effects Of Authoritative Knowledge And Biomedical Interventions On The American Birth Experience, Shannon Sheffey Apr 2017

Women’S Role In Their Reproductive Process: The Effects Of Authoritative Knowledge And Biomedical Interventions On The American Birth Experience, Shannon Sheffey

Master's Theses

The primary focus of this study is to analyze the effects of authoritative knowledge and biomedical interventions on women’s role within their reproductive process as it occurs within the US.I explore the technological advances surrounding childbirth practices within the United States and how through this technology, biomedical forms of authoritative knowledge of birth practices have developed and how these changes have benefitted as well as hindered women. Through interviews and interactions with mothers and pregnant women I evaluate how medical interventions emotionally and physically affect women; evaluate the necessity of increasing technological interventions as opposed to low technology ...


Alaska Native Artifacts; Eskimos And Aleuts Of The Bering Sea Rhythm Of The Sea Collection, Marcia Sue Taylor Apr 2017

Alaska Native Artifacts; Eskimos And Aleuts Of The Bering Sea Rhythm Of The Sea Collection, Marcia Sue Taylor

Master's Theses

“Only his artifacts provide his earthly testimony” (Thiry 1977, p. 5). The purpose of the research is to catalogue Eskimo and Aleut artifacts that comprise an unprovenienced (anonymous) collection in the Anthropology Department at Western Michigan University, and provide a corresponding ethnography. This will be accomplished in two ways: (1) a museum curation project, and (2) an ethnographic study that will focus on cultural synthesis within the parameters of artistic styles of harpoon head artifacts and geography as these pertain to the artifacts and their distribution. Analysis of the collection’s harpoon heads will provide both artistic and inventive evidence ...


Anything But Race: Content Analysis Of Racial Discourse, Christopher Smith Apr 2017

Anything But Race: Content Analysis Of Racial Discourse, Christopher Smith

Master's Theses

This research adds to previous scholarship on colorblind racism which investigates the ways in which students at Western Michigan University use new language compared to the Jim Crow past to defend or challenge the modern racial order in the United States. Using data collected from 15 voluntary participants I conducted a content analysis of participant’s responses to questions regarding race and racism with the purpose of demonstrating the use of colorblind racism or the challenge to the dominant racial order.


Archaeological Evidence Of Architectural Remains At Fort St. Joseph (20be23), Niles, Mi, Erika K. Loveland Apr 2017

Archaeological Evidence Of Architectural Remains At Fort St. Joseph (20be23), Niles, Mi, Erika K. Loveland

Master's Theses

Throughout New France, Native and non-Native peoples frequently interacted as a result of French colonialism. These prolonged relationships affected the ways in which people identified themselves and others around them. To explore this dynamic process, historical archaeologists can examine the material culture left behind. Architectural remains are particularly informative because inhabitants construct their buildings in accordance to their needs and cultural values. Fort St. Joseph, an eighteenth-century mission, garrison, and trading post, is utilized as a case study to examine architecture and how it was employed to express identity. Daily interaction between Native and French peoples in the fur trade ...


Guided By The Spirits: The Meanings Of Life, Death And Youth Suicide In An Ojibwa Community, Seth Allard Apr 2017

Guided By The Spirits: The Meanings Of Life, Death And Youth Suicide In An Ojibwa Community, Seth Allard

Master's Theses

Suicide is a leading cause of death amongst indigenous North American youth. The majority of studies on indigenous youth suicide focus on quantitative data collection and analysis. Qualitative and collaborative methods provide the cultural and historical contexts necessary for a critical understanding of youth suicide in indigenous communities. Through classic ethnographic methods (structured interviews, participant observation) and descriptive analysis, this work highlights the value of qualitative data. Medical anthropology informs an ethnomedical approach toward youth suicide, death, life, health and related concepts. Analyzing the semantics of prevention and intervention aids a critical-interpretive approach to current research and prevention-intervention frameworks and ...


The Politics Of Contagion, Joseph M. Young Dec 2016

The Politics Of Contagion, Joseph M. Young

Master's Theses

Contagion events have occurred throughout history leaving death and destruction in their wake. Often sensationalized in movies and shows such as Contagion and The Walking Dead, contagion events are life-altering events filled with gory symptoms and elevated mortality rates. The dangers of contagion events prompted governments to develop agencies with the purpose of preventing and mitigating the risks contagions pose. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and other agencies across the globe pour millions of dollars each year into eliminating the risk of contagions and making the world a safer place. However, while more resources are dedicated to ...


Challenging Filipino Colonial Mentality With Philippine Art, Francesca V. Mateo Dec 2016

Challenging Filipino Colonial Mentality With Philippine Art, Francesca V. Mateo

Master's Theses

For 350 years, the Philippines was colonized by Spain and the United States. The Philippines became a sovereign nation in 1946 yet, fifty years later, colonial teachings continue to oppress Filipinos due to their colonial mentality (CM.) CM is an internalized oppression among Filipinos in which they experience an automatic preference for anything Western—European or U.S. American—and rejection of anything Filipino. Although Filipinos show signs of a CM, there are Filipinos who are challenging CM by engaging in Philippine art. Philippine art is defined as Filipino-made visual art, literature, music, and dance intended to promote Philippine culture ...


Three-Dimensional Analysis Of The Development Of Upper Arm Musculoskeletal Stress Markers In Late Adolescents And Young Adults Of Archaic And Mississippian Populations Of Tennessee, Heather Marie Guzik Dec 2016

Three-Dimensional Analysis Of The Development Of Upper Arm Musculoskeletal Stress Markers In Late Adolescents And Young Adults Of Archaic And Mississippian Populations Of Tennessee, Heather Marie Guzik

Master's Theses

This study compares three methods for the evaluation of morphology of musculoskeletal attachment sites. Two methods were macroscopic and the third was microscopic, utilizing three-dimensional laser scanning and fractal analysis The morphology of 19 upper limb attachment sites was observed in 33 males aged 15 and 30+ years, dating to the Archaic and Mississippian periods from the southeastern U.S. It was hypothesized that 1) the microscopic method would identify subtler differences than the macroscopic methods; 2) enthesis development would be greater in the Mississippian population due to the increased subsistence workload, even among younger individuals; and 3) late adolescents ...


Understanding How Intentionally Unplugging From Cell Phones Shapes Interpersonal Relationships And The Undergraduate College Experience, Jadelin P. Felipe Aug 2016

Understanding How Intentionally Unplugging From Cell Phones Shapes Interpersonal Relationships And The Undergraduate College Experience, Jadelin P. Felipe

Master's Theses

The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of what motivated college students—the Unplugged Students—to intentionally use their cell phones less and how they understood the impact that unplugging had on their interpersonal relationships and college experience. Nine undergraduate college students from four private schools were interviewed in one-on-one semi- structured interviews. These students, considered non-users, provided a particularly useful perspective as these students made a conscious choice to counteract social norms and experienced both being plugged in and unplugged. Cell phones and the act of unplugging proved to make up a complex and more nuanced ...


Being With Bees: An Anthropological Study On Human-Animal Relations In Southern Beekeeping, Kori Nadine Armstrong Aug 2016

Being With Bees: An Anthropological Study On Human-Animal Relations In Southern Beekeeping, Kori Nadine Armstrong

Master's Theses

This thesis investigates the complex and dynamic communicative relationship between beekeepers and their managed honey bee colonies, providing insight into the relationship between bees, their stewards, and the interface between nature and culture. It also helps unravel the ways in which this interspecies relationship changes a beekeepers’ perception of what it means to be human. Data collection features extensive participant observation with 21 semi-structured interviews with Southern beekeepers.

The interrelationship between communication and interaction, as well as diverse ways in which messages and cues manifest in the bee yard are explored through olfactory, optical, touch, and mechanical modalities. Variables including ...