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Articles 1 - 16 of 16

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Settlement-Size Scaling Among Prehistoric Hunter-Gatherer Settlement Systems In The New World, W. Randall Haas, Cynthia J. Klink, Greg J. Maggard, Mark S. Aldenderfer Nov 2015

Settlement-Size Scaling Among Prehistoric Hunter-Gatherer Settlement Systems In The New World, W. Randall Haas, Cynthia J. Klink, Greg J. Maggard, Mark S. Aldenderfer

Anthropology Faculty Publications

Settlement size predicts extreme variation in the rates and magnitudes of many social and ecological processes in human societies. Yet, the factors that drive human settlement-size variation remain poorly understood. Size variation among economically integrated settlements tends to be heavy tailed such that the smallest settlements are extremely common and the largest settlements extremely large and rare. The upper tail of this size distribution is often formalized mathematically as a power-law function. Explanations for this scaling structure in human settlement systems tend to emphasize complex socioeconomic processes including agriculture, manufacturing, and warfare-behaviors that tend to differentially nucleate and disperse populations ...


Producing Goods, Shaping People: The Materiality Of Crafting, Julia A. Hendon Sep 2015

Producing Goods, Shaping People: The Materiality Of Crafting, Julia A. Hendon

Anthropology Faculty Publications

The study of craft production has a long and venerable history in archaeological research on ancient societies. In this chapter, I consider the crafting of useful and desired things from a materiality perspective by looking at the interactions between the craftpersons, the materials with which they work, and the ways that their end products are valued in society. I use two examples: working with fibers by the Maya of Mesoamerica and with metals by the Moche of Andean South America. These are two very different kinds of materials whose characteristics affect how one interacts with them. Crafting was a part ...


Kin Selection, Raymond Hames Aug 2015

Kin Selection, Raymond Hames

Anthropology Faculty Publications

When Hamilton (1964) published his theory of inclusive fitness it had no immediate impact in the social and behavioral sciences, even though ethnographers knew kinship to be a universally fundamental factor in human social organization, especially in egalitarian societies in which humans have spent nearly all their evolutionary history. In many ways, it was a theory that perhaps anthropologists should have devised: Anthropologists knew kinship fundamentally structured cooperation, identity, coalition formation, resource exchange, marriage, and group membership in traditional societies. It was not until 1974 with the publication of Wilson’s Sociobiology (1975) and especially Richard Alexander’s The Evolution ...


The Archaeology Of Disjuncture: Classic Period Disruption And Cultural Divergence In The Tuxtla Mountains Of Mexico, Wesley D. Stoner, Christopher A. Pool Jun 2015

The Archaeology Of Disjuncture: Classic Period Disruption And Cultural Divergence In The Tuxtla Mountains Of Mexico, Wesley D. Stoner, Christopher A. Pool

Anthropology Faculty Publications

Reconstructing human interaction systems has been a major objective of archaeological research, but we have typically examined the topic in a conceptually limited manner. Most studies have—intentionally or unintentionally—focused on how trade, communication, conquest, and migration foster cultural similarities over long distances. It has largely been a positivistic endeavor that exclusively features groups linked through a single network but glosses over how alternative networks intersect with the former through common nodes. Models of long-distance interaction have largely ignored variation in how external influences are negotiated across space within the receiving region. We adapt Arjun Appadurai’s concept of ...


How The Commons Was Changed: Politics, Ecology, And The History Of Floodplain Institutions, Lisa Cliggett Apr 2015

How The Commons Was Changed: Politics, Ecology, And The History Of Floodplain Institutions, Lisa Cliggett

Anthropology Faculty Publications

A review of The Contested Floodplain: Institutional Change of the Commons in the Kafue Flats, Zambia. By Tobias Haller. Lanham, Maryland: Lexington Books, 2013.


Putting A Price On Zen: The Business Of Redefining Religion For Global Consumption, Joshua A. Irizarry Jan 2015

Putting A Price On Zen: The Business Of Redefining Religion For Global Consumption, Joshua A. Irizarry

Anthropology Faculty Publications

Over the past several decades, Zen has become a mark of global cosmopolitanism. Largely divorced from its religious context, the word “zen” appears in many languages with a remarkable diversity of accepted meanings and usages. In this paper, I outline the historical and cultural factors which have contributed to the dramatic semiotic transformation of Zen in the popular imagination and international media over the past century. I demonstrate that ideas about Zen have evolved through strategic cultural and linguistic associations, and show how the resulting polysemy has led to Zen becoming an ideal marketing byword—one that is freely appropriated ...


On The Limits Of Liberalism In Participatory Environmental Governance: Conflict And Conservation In Ukraine's Danube Delta, Tanya Richardson Jan 2015

On The Limits Of Liberalism In Participatory Environmental Governance: Conflict And Conservation In Ukraine's Danube Delta, Tanya Richardson

Anthropology Faculty Publications

Participatory management techniques are widely promoted in environmental and protected area governance as a means of preventing and mitigating conflict. The World Bank project that created Ukraine’s Danube Biosphere Reserve included such ‘community participation’ components. The Reserve, however, has been involved in conflicts and scandals in which rumour, denunciation and prayer have played a prominent part. The cases described in this article demonstrate that the way conflict is escalated and mitigated differs according to foundational assumptions about what ‘the political’ is and what counts as ‘politics’. The contrasting forms of politics at work in the Danube Delta help to ...


El Proyecto Costa Escondida: Una Investigación Arqueológica Del Puerto Maya Conil, Quintana Roo, México, Jeffrey Glover, Dominique Rissolo, Sebastian Afshari, Daniel Leonard, Eric Lo, Dominique Meyer, Vera Smirnova, Andrew Vaughan Jan 2015

El Proyecto Costa Escondida: Una Investigación Arqueológica Del Puerto Maya Conil, Quintana Roo, México, Jeffrey Glover, Dominique Rissolo, Sebastian Afshari, Daniel Leonard, Eric Lo, Dominique Meyer, Vera Smirnova, Andrew Vaughan

Anthropology Faculty Publications

Capítulo 1. Introducción (por Jeffrey B. Glover y Dominique Rissolo)

Capítulo 2. Recorrido y Mapeo (por Jeffrey B. Glover)

Capítulo 3. Inspección a través de Vehículos Aéreos No Tripulados (por Dominique Meyer, Andrew Vaughan, Eric Lo, Sebastian Afshari y Vera Smirnova)

Capítulo 4. Programa de excavaciones de sondeo en Conil (por Jeffrey B. Glover y Dan Leonard)

Capítulo 5. Análisis de artefactos (por Jeffrey B. Glover)

Capítulo 6. Comentarios finales y futuros planes de investigación (por Jeffrey B. Glover y Dominique Rissolo)


Genocide, Evil And Human Agency: The Concept Of Evil In Rwandan Explanations Of The 1994 Genocide, Jennie E. Burnet Jan 2015

Genocide, Evil And Human Agency: The Concept Of Evil In Rwandan Explanations Of The 1994 Genocide, Jennie E. Burnet

Anthropology Faculty Publications

Evil, conceived of as the opposite of good, is defined by a moral system and thus cannot be abstracted as a portable theoretical concept to be applied cross-culturally. David Parkin solved this problem by assuming a “common awareness of evil acts” and then raising “the question of how and to what extent certain kinds of behavior and phenomenon come to be identified by this or a comparable term” (Parkin: 1985, p. 224). Following this same methodology, this chapter explores the ways Rwandans made sense of their experiences of violence during the civil war (1990-1994) and genocide (April – June 1994) by ...


Rape As A Weapon Of Genocide: Gender, Patriarchy, And Sexual Violence In The Rwandan Genocide, Jennie E. Burnet Jan 2015

Rape As A Weapon Of Genocide: Gender, Patriarchy, And Sexual Violence In The Rwandan Genocide, Jennie E. Burnet

Anthropology Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Competition Expressed: Marking Places Within Rural And Urban Landscapes, Ralph J. Hartley, Sharon L. Kennedy Jan 2015

Competition Expressed: Marking Places Within Rural And Urban Landscapes, Ralph J. Hartley, Sharon L. Kennedy

Anthropology Faculty Publications

The extent to which marking places with images, symbols and/or script on a landscape reflect the dynamics of a socio-economic environment continues to be a subject of interest in social science. Places become socio-culturally meaningful often because of the content of the markings on non-portable surfaces. In some contexts the information content of the markings reveal a perception of propriety when competition for space or other resources between groups and non-kin related individuals characterizes a social environment. In other contexts the content of markings reflect competition between individuals for resources, status, or prestige. Urban environments, dense with diverse human ...


The Relevance Of Maize Pollen For Assessing The Extent Of Maize Production In Chaco Canyon, Carrie C. Heitman, Phil R. Geib Jan 2015

The Relevance Of Maize Pollen For Assessing The Extent Of Maize Production In Chaco Canyon, Carrie C. Heitman, Phil R. Geib

Anthropology Faculty Publications

Opinion is hardly unanimous, but many authors endorse the idea that Chaco Canyon is and was a marginal place for growing corn (Zea mays), a chief source of food energy for Puebloan groups in the Southwest. Poor soils with “toxic” levels of salts, inadequate and unpredictable precipitation, and a short growing season have all been identified as contributing to the agricultural marginality of the place (Benson 2011a; Bryan 1954; Force et al. 2002; Judd 1954:59–61). Benson has been the most vocal proponent of this view of late, and his research has culminated in the conclusion that “the San ...


The House Of Our Ancestors: New Research On The Prehistory Of Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, A.D. 800–1200, Carrie Heitman Jan 2015

The House Of Our Ancestors: New Research On The Prehistory Of Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, A.D. 800–1200, Carrie Heitman

Anthropology Faculty Publications

In a paper honoring the career of archaeologist Gwinn Vivian presented at the Society for American Archaeology 70th annual meeting, Toll and others (2005) discussed the still often-overlooked role of small house sites in Chacoan prehistory. They pointed out that many of the attributes we reserve for the category of “great house” are in fact present at some small house sites and that both the diversity and overlapping characteristics across this dichotomy require greater attention if we are to understand “how Chaco worked.” In this chapter, I present contextual data from 12 house assemblages through a comparative theoretical and ethnographic ...


"Fighting Over A Shadow?": Hellenistic Greek Cities And Greco-Roman Cities As Fora And Media For Multi-Level Social Signaling, Luann Wandsnider Jan 2015

"Fighting Over A Shadow?": Hellenistic Greek Cities And Greco-Roman Cities As Fora And Media For Multi-Level Social Signaling, Luann Wandsnider

Anthropology Faculty Publications

The cities of Hellenistic western Anatolia and Roman Asia Minor served as fora for complex social, economic, and political transactions. This chapter introduces social signaling theory in which these transactions are considered as social signals emitted by individuals (i.e., citizens) and groups (i.e., cities) and emphasizes the different qualities of these signals, especially their materiality and differential costliness. Social signals convey information about the otherwise difficult-to-assess capabilities of individual and groups; only some have the talents or resources to emit a high-quality signal. At the individual level, the nature, location, and possibly size of a civic benefaction signal ...


Procedural Modeling For Ancient Maya Cityscapes: Initial Methodological Challenges And Solutions, Heather Richards-Rissetto, Rachel Plessing Jan 2015

Procedural Modeling For Ancient Maya Cityscapes: Initial Methodological Challenges And Solutions, Heather Richards-Rissetto, Rachel Plessing

Anthropology Faculty Publications

Digital reconstruction of 3D cityscapes is expensive, time-consuming, and requires significant expertise. We need a 3D modeling approach that streamlines the integration of multiple data types in a time-efficient and low-cost manner. Procedural modeling—rapid proto-typing of 3D models from a set of rules— offers a potential solution to this problem because it allows scholars to create digital reconstructions that can be quickly updated and used to test and formulate alternative hypotheses that are derived from and linked to underlying archaeological data. While procedural modeling is being used to visualize ancient Roman, Etruscan, and Greek cities, in the Maya region ...


Multilevel Modeling Analysis Of Dyadic Network Data With An Application To Ye’Kwana Food Sharing, Jeremy Koster, George Leckie, Andrew Miller, Raymond B. Hames Jan 2015

Multilevel Modeling Analysis Of Dyadic Network Data With An Application To Ye’Kwana Food Sharing, Jeremy Koster, George Leckie, Andrew Miller, Raymond B. Hames

Anthropology Faculty Publications

Behavioral ecologists have recently begun using multilevel modeling for the analysis of social behavior. We present a multilevel modeling formulation of the Social Relations Model that is well suited for the analysis of dyadic network data. This model, which we adapt for count data and small datasets, can be fitted using standard multilevel modeling software packages. We illustrate this model with an analysis of meal sharing among Ye’kwana horticulturalists in Venezuela. In this setting, meal sharing among households is predicted by an association index, which reflects the amount of time that members of the households are interacting. This result ...