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Articles 1 - 15 of 15

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

What Benefits Do Parents Reap From Helpers At The Nest?, Kimber Haddix Mckay Dec 2008

What Benefits Do Parents Reap From Helpers At The Nest?, Kimber Haddix Mckay

Anthropology Faculty Publications

Review of "Maya Children: Helpers at the Farm."


A Pilot Study Into The Effects Of X-Ray And Computed Tomography Exposure On The Amplification Of Dna From Bone, Britta M. Grieshaber, Daniel L. Osborne, Alison F. Doubleday, Frederika A. Kaestle Mar 2008

A Pilot Study Into The Effects Of X-Ray And Computed Tomography Exposure On The Amplification Of Dna From Bone, Britta M. Grieshaber, Daniel L. Osborne, Alison F. Doubleday, Frederika A. Kaestle

Anthropology Faculty Publications

This research investigates the intersection of radiography and aDNA, two commonly used methods in bioarchaeology. The goal of this project was to investigate the effects of radiation on the ability to amplify DNA from bone. Bones (n = 124) from domestic pig (Sus scrofa) feet were randomly sorted into a control group and four treatment groups: (1) single exposure X-ray; (2) single exposure CT; (3) multiple exposures X-ray; and (4) multiple exposures CT. Number of PCR cycles required to amplify DNA in 100 bp, 200 bp and 400 bp segments were used as a proxy for the amount of available DNA ...


The Age, Function, And Distribution Of Keyhole Structures In The Upper Susquehanna River Valley, Douglas H. Macdonald Jan 2008

The Age, Function, And Distribution Of Keyhole Structures In The Upper Susquehanna River Valley, Douglas H. Macdonald

Anthropology Faculty Publications

This paper provides a summary of current data regarding the age, geographical distribution, and function of keyhole structures in the upper Susquehanna River Valley of north-central Pennsylvania and south-central New York. Keyhole structures have been identified at 11 sites in the West and North Branches of the Susquehanna River Valley. The feature type likely originated in the West Branch Valley from which it spread to the north, south, and east. Their main period of use was during the latter portion of the Late Woodland period, between approximately 1230 and 1670 A.D. Given the locations of the sites along major ...


Where Spirit And Bulldozer Roam: Environment And Anxiety In Highland Borneo, Matthew H. Amster Jan 2008

Where Spirit And Bulldozer Roam: Environment And Anxiety In Highland Borneo, Matthew H. Amster

Anthropology Faculty Publications

This paper explores changing perceptions of the natural environment among the Kelabit, an indigenous people of the Borneo interior. It considers both traditional and post-Christian conversion understandings about forest spaces. The former animistic ritual practices of the Kelabit centered on a spiritual dialogue with the natural world and this dialogue was often marked by active efforts to avoid or mitigate danger through ritual practice. One key example presented here is the former ceremony of 'calling the eagle' (nawar keniu), a ritual employed in times of crisis that exemplifies the dialogical and entwined relationship Kelabit had to the natural world. Such ...


Introduction: Economies And The Transformation Of Landscapes, Christopher A. Pool, Lisa Cliggett Jan 2008

Introduction: Economies And The Transformation Of Landscapes, Christopher A. Pool, Lisa Cliggett

Anthropology Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


The Role Of Basketry In Early Holocene Small Seed Exploitation: Implications Of A Ca. 9,000 Year-Old Basket From Cowboy Cave, Utah, Phil R. Geib, Edward A. Jolie Jan 2008

The Role Of Basketry In Early Holocene Small Seed Exploitation: Implications Of A Ca. 9,000 Year-Old Basket From Cowboy Cave, Utah, Phil R. Geib, Edward A. Jolie

Anthropology Faculty Publications

Despite ranking at the low end of the continuum in net caloric benefit relative to other foods, small seeds assumed great dietary importance in many parts of the world, including western North America. In a series of publications, Adovasio (1970a, 1974, 1980, 1986) argued that coiled basketry technology was invented in the eastern Great Basin during the early Holocene as a specialized food-processing technique. Coiled baskets are indeed useful for collecting and processing seeds, but it does not necessarily follow that they were originally designed for this purpose. A whole basket recently discovered at Cowboy Cave in southeastern Utah returned ...


Gender Balance And The Meanings Of Women In Governance In Post-Genocide Rwanda, Jennie E. Burnet Jan 2008

Gender Balance And The Meanings Of Women In Governance In Post-Genocide Rwanda, Jennie E. Burnet

Anthropology Faculty Publications

Across Africa, many countries have taken initiatives to increase the participation and representation of women in governance. Yet it is unclear what meaning these initiatives have in authoritarian, single-party states like Rwanda. Since seizing power in 1994, the Rwandan Patriotic Front has taken many steps to increase the participation of women in politics such as creating a Ministry of Gender, organizing women’s councils at all levels of government, and instituting an electoral system with reserved seats for women in the national parliament. This article explores the dramatic increase in women’s participation in public life and representation in governance ...


Dental Health At Oakwood Mound, Will County, Illinois, Daniel L. Osborne Jan 2008

Dental Health At Oakwood Mound, Will County, Illinois, Daniel L. Osborne

Anthropology Faculty Publications

Human dentitions from Oakwood Mound were examined to ascertain dental health in this population. Attrition rate, carious lesions, and antemortem tooth loss were scored for each adult. No significant differences were present between the aforementioned variables by age or sex. The attrition rate supports the hypothesis that the individuals interred in Oakwood Mound shared similar subsistence strategies. The prevalence of carious lesions suggests a dependence on carbohydrates as a major dietary resource. High rates of antemortem tooth loss also may have resulted from reliance on this food source, although this connection is not as direct as the caries data. These ...


Time-Averaged Deposits And Multi-Temporal Processes In The Wyoming Basin, Intermontane North America: A Preliminary Consideration Of Land Tenure In Terms Of Occupation Frequency And Integration., Luann Wandsnider Jan 2008

Time-Averaged Deposits And Multi-Temporal Processes In The Wyoming Basin, Intermontane North America: A Preliminary Consideration Of Land Tenure In Terms Of Occupation Frequency And Integration., Luann Wandsnider

Anthropology Faculty Publications

Archaeological time perspectivism encompasses the notion that archaeological deposits are formed through the operation of processes occurring at a variety of tempos over the short, medium, and long term (Bailey 1981, 1983, 1987, 2007, this volume). The processes involved may be behavioral, social, formational, organizational, or evolutionary, to name a few. Through their operation, material consequences may be immediate, lagged, or follow after some threshold is breached. Moreover, interaction may occur among and between different processes, depending on whether they operate at approximately the same scale (Bailey 1983; Fletcher 1995).

A corollary of the first statement is that different archaeological ...


Time In Archaeology: An Introduction, Simon J. Holdaway, Luann Wandsnider Jan 2008

Time In Archaeology: An Introduction, Simon J. Holdaway, Luann Wandsnider

Anthropology Faculty Publications

Lifeway reconstruction is listed as one of the objectives of "World Prehistory," the ubiquitous course taught in universities and colleges the world over (e.g., Fagan 1995:8). It complements well the other subdisciplines of anthropology, at least for beginning anthropology students, offering them a familiar approach to foreign material: if cultural anthropologists study the behavior of present-day (or at least near-to-present-day) peoples, then archaeologists may be expected to deal with peoples' behavior from the past. Certainly, some archaeologists study the past aided by textual records, and some cultural anthropologists are interested in past historical experience. But this overlap only ...


References For Time In Archaeology: Time Perspectivism Revisited, Simon J. Holdaway, Luann Wandsnider Jan 2008

References For Time In Archaeology: Time Perspectivism Revisited, Simon J. Holdaway, Luann Wandsnider

Anthropology Faculty Publications

22 pages of reference bibliography for the 2008 anthology of articles on archeology, methodology, and time.


Age Discrepancies With The Radiocarbon Dating Of Sagebrush (Artemisia Tridentata Nutt.)., Phil R. Geib Jan 2008

Age Discrepancies With The Radiocarbon Dating Of Sagebrush (Artemisia Tridentata Nutt.)., Phil R. Geib

Anthropology Faculty Publications

When ancient hearths at open archaeological sites do not yield carbonized annual plant remains or other highquality samples, wood charcoal is commonly used for radiocarbon dating. Sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt.), a shrub frequently used for fuel across much of the western United States, seems a potentially better candidate for 14C dating than tree wood since the possibility for significant age discrepancy might be less. A comparison of multiple assays from single features reveals that sagebrush can overestimate age more than even tree wood charcoal. A plausible cause of this appears to be persistence of the shrub on the ground surface ...


Archeological Survey Within The Chickasaw National Recreation Area, Murray County, Oklahoma, Alan J. Osborn, Ralph J. Hartley Jan 2008

Archeological Survey Within The Chickasaw National Recreation Area, Murray County, Oklahoma, Alan J. Osborn, Ralph J. Hartley

Anthropology Faculty Publications

Introduction

The Midwest Archeological Center (MWAC), National Park Service in Lincoln, Nebraska was contacted by the staff of the Chickasaw National Recreation Area in Sulphur, Oklahoma to request assistance in the completion of an archeological survey of areas that would be impacted by future renovations, rehabilitations, and upgrades of facilities within Chickasaw NRA. These projects include: 1) installation and/or replacement of twenty-two 18’ steel culverts along back country roads; 2) the installation of thirteen vault toilets; 3) rehabilitation of the comfort station near Buffalo Springs; 4) installation of a electrical conduit and solar panel at Antelope Springs; 5) upgrade ...


Archaeoparasitology, Karl J. Reinhard, Adauto Araújo Jan 2008

Archaeoparasitology, Karl J. Reinhard, Adauto Araújo

Anthropology Faculty Publications

Parasites are the major cause of ill health and early death in the world today. Malaria, sleeping sickness, amoebic dysentery, and hookworm infection are examples of commonplace parasitic diseases that are endemic in most parts of the world (see Health, Healing, and Disease). They were significant threats in prehistory, especially in cultures whose social complexity outstripped the development of effective sanitation, hygiene, and germ theory awareness.


Burials: Dietary Sampling Methods, Karl J. Reinhard, Vaughn M. Bryant, Jr. Jan 2008

Burials: Dietary Sampling Methods, Karl J. Reinhard, Vaughn M. Bryant, Jr.

Anthropology Faculty Publications

The analysis of burials for botanical and zoological remains evidence of diet is a proven method of nondestructive analysis in the mortuary setting. The value of such analyses is directly dependent on sampling strategies that must include a number of control samples.