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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Labor Migration And Social Networking: Maasai Labor Migrants In Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania, Elise Rakoff May 2019

Labor Migration And Social Networking: Maasai Labor Migrants In Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania, Elise Rakoff

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Tanzania’s Maasai communities have historically occupied the northern and northeastern regions of the country, employing semi-nomadic and pastoralist practices. However, since the late 1990s, influxes of young, male Wamaasai have migrated to urban centers seeking economic and social opportunity, to diversify income when environmental changes limit the efficacy of pastoralism, and for other various reasons to be discussed herein. This research investigates the rural to urban migration of Maasai labor migrants from the northern regions to the coastal economic center of Dar es Salaam, utilizing ethnographic research and structured conversations.

Further, this research explores the processes through which urban ...


Meridian, Benjamin Fox May 2019

Meridian, Benjamin Fox

Undergraduate Honors Theses

For this year-long project, I set out to produce a film that would capture the energy and community of the Meridian Coffeehouse on the campus of the College of William & Mary. For three years, I have played an active role in the management of the space, from booking, managing, and recording live music events to hosting various shifts to watch films and create music. Being a double major in Anthropology and Film & Media Studies, and having been further inspired by a Visual Anthropology course that I took at the University of St Andrews in Spring 2018, I decided to attempt ...


Spheroidal Carbonaceous Particles In A Virginia Mill Pond Provide A Record Of Local And Regional Coal Combustion, Kayla Cahoon May 2019

Spheroidal Carbonaceous Particles In A Virginia Mill Pond Provide A Record Of Local And Regional Coal Combustion, Kayla Cahoon

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Spheroidal carbonaceous particles (SCP), a constituent of coal fly ash, are a sensitive indicator of local and regional coal combustion archived in lake sediments. Their unique morphology and chemical composition are not replicated by any naturally occurring substance on Earth. SCP accumulation in sediments has also been correlated to accumulation of heavy metals such as Mn, Fe, Ti, and Pb. We reconstructed SCP accumulation in a former mill pond in Williamsburg, VA, Lake Matoaka, and find a bimodal distribution with peaks c. 1790 and c. 1953. We believe that our study is the first to identify SCPs in sediments prior ...


How Classifications Shape Asylum Seeker And Italian Interactions And Experiences In Siena, Italy, Erin Kitchens Apr 2019

How Classifications Shape Asylum Seeker And Italian Interactions And Experiences In Siena, Italy, Erin Kitchens

Undergraduate Honors Theses

In recent years mass migration has taken place across the Mediterranean Sea, with individuals attempting to arrive in Europe from many countries in Africa and the Middle East. Italy is one of the primary countries that people arrive at, because of its vicinity to North Africa where many people cross the Sea. Italians have not had to deal with this kind of mass migration in the past and are thus struggling to define what assimilation will look like. Earlier works tend to focus on the crossing of transnational barriers, or migrants in the first stages of applying for documents. There ...


Canine Ceremonialism In The Algonquian Chesapeake: An Eventful Archaeology Of Dog Burials At The Hatch Site, Caroline Lehman Apr 2019

Canine Ceremonialism In The Algonquian Chesapeake: An Eventful Archaeology Of Dog Burials At The Hatch Site, Caroline Lehman

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Typical archaeological descriptions of the Precontact Chesapeake region focus on technological improvements and ignore the contributions of human beings in shaping their environment and social structures. Archaeology has shifted to align more with the principals of anthropology including incorporating the agency of those being described. A key component of recognizing this agency is the development of eventful archaeologies or thorough narratives of the past. In order to do this, archaeologists require a firm grasp on time. Obtaining dates for significant portions of archaeological sites has proven difficult. This thesis uses absolute seriation to generate dates for 340 features at the ...


(Re-) Staging Translation: Meaningful Interaction With Hindu Devotional Objects In The Western Museum, Emma Efkeman Apr 2019

(Re-) Staging Translation: Meaningful Interaction With Hindu Devotional Objects In The Western Museum, Emma Efkeman

Undergraduate Honors Theses

In this thesis, the Hindu devotional object will be tracked through many contexts and its role will change based on its geographic and cultural location. First, the original ritual context will be established, paying specific attention to ceremonial processes and actions that activate the objects. Next, I will sketch the approaches to interpretation used in the two museum spaces. In this movement between spaces, the Hindu object is de- and then re-contextualized. Museums can discover from this narrative the many ways that meaning is constructed, within and outside of a Western framework. It is this pivotal period of re-contextualization that ...


From Pain To Pillar: History And Identity Politics Of Asian-American Students And Youth In The 21st Century And Cultural Self Development Theory, Noah Kim Apr 2019

From Pain To Pillar: History And Identity Politics Of Asian-American Students And Youth In The 21st Century And Cultural Self Development Theory, Noah Kim

Undergraduate Honors Theses

With the Asian-American population growing at exponential rates, Asian-Americans are forced to face the reality of their place in society. As this processing of identity continues, more become passionate in their search, with some becoming empowered, others seek representation. But in the end, all the interviewees and those in my research sought a collective level movement. Though people were from all different walks to life, there was a sense of commonality and a recognition of the reality of the situation. While people recognized that the Asian-American identity was a socially constructed, there is also a strong sense of commonality that ...


“Life-Changing Bacon”: Transgression As Desire In Contemporary American Tastes, Brad Weiss Oct 2018

“Life-Changing Bacon”: Transgression As Desire In Contemporary American Tastes, Brad Weiss

Arts & Sciences Articles

This essay considers how Americans attribute moral qualities to pigs and pork. I explore the ways that producers and consumers of pasture-raised pigs understand their interests in—and especially appetite for—pork in terms of moral values. At once a source of economic distinction, ecological commitment, and culinary indulgence, the pork from pasture-raised (or “heritage breed”, or “outdoor raised”) pigs is, in many ways, simultaneously a contemporary icon of excess and restraint. This convergence of contrasting values is even more amplified in bacon, the now ubiquitous food, flavor, and substance that is, for many, the quintessence of pork. This contemporary ...


History Of Archaeological Research In The Yoruba-Edo Region Of Nigeria: New Directions For Urban Earthenworks, Olanrewaju Blessing Lasisi Jul 2018

History Of Archaeological Research In The Yoruba-Edo Region Of Nigeria: New Directions For Urban Earthenworks, Olanrewaju Blessing Lasisi

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

In this thesis, I examine the history and trends in Nigerian archaeology, through to the development of methods and theories in the study of urban space. The nascent period of the discipline aligns with the early 19th-century colonial administration. During this period, the attention of archaeologists was on art objects. It was followed by indigenous-directed research that sees universities spring up. I discussed how this new formation sought to decolonize archaeology by pointing out that the early studies were colonial-derived, hence ignoring the accomplishments of independent African cultures. The indigenous archaeology new school served to rectify these inherent problems by ...


"To Milk The Yankee Tourists": Mid-20th-Century Heritage Practice And The Social Construction Of Whiteness In The American South, Jessica Bittner Jul 2018

"To Milk The Yankee Tourists": Mid-20th-Century Heritage Practice And The Social Construction Of Whiteness In The American South, Jessica Bittner

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

This paper considers the appropriation of Indigenous heritage in northwest Georgia during the mid-20th century. Through this case study of the first state-funded historic preservation project in the state at Etowah Indian Mounds, I apply a recent theorizing on the nature of whiteness, settler colonialism, and the role of heritage in cementing racialized structures of colonial rule. I outline the long history of Indigenous dispossession and settler appropriation in the American South to show how the origins of Indigenous heritage tourism built on an established settler colonial apparatus that deployed race to service commercial and economic development schemes. in this ...


From Being To Thing: Personhood, Animalhood, And Deanimalization In The Human-Animal Relationship, Madeline White Apr 2018

From Being To Thing: Personhood, Animalhood, And Deanimalization In The Human-Animal Relationship, Madeline White

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Domesticated animals in the United States fluctuate between conceptualization as “people”, “property”, and the nebulous state between. The person making the assessment, the situation, and the context of the encounter determines the value assigned. Furthermore, these classifications are extremely flexible, and an animal’s use as a thing to be owned or discarded often overrides its temporary status as a person. The conception of animals as things perpetuates their ownership and treatment as goods to bought, sold, and used as products; pursuits which take priority over the animal’s well-being. However, even the perception of personhood does not guarantee good ...


Health And Medicine Among First-Generation African Immigrants In The United States, Anne Fuller Apr 2018

Health And Medicine Among First-Generation African Immigrants In The United States, Anne Fuller

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The focus of this research will be on the medicines and health practices of first-generation African immigrants in the U.S. and the role they play in an increasingly holistic formal American health field. For the Eurocentric American, traditional African practices are predominantly viewed as antithetical to modernity; for the Afrocentric American, White western medicine can represent a rejection of African culture and thus one’s complete identity. The dynamic of these two perspectives within African immigrants in the U.S. is proficient in both resolving health crises and creating cultural conflict. The rise of alternative medicine within the formal ...


The Gap On The Block: Aboriginality, Subjectivity, And Agency In Contemporary Urban Australia, Jennifer Michelle Ellis Jan 2018

The Gap On The Block: Aboriginality, Subjectivity, And Agency In Contemporary Urban Australia, Jennifer Michelle Ellis

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

This thesis utilizes a theoretical and methodological approach that explores subjectivity as the relational, complex, fluid, multidimensional, recursive and intersectional modes in which social subjects are animated (Ortner 2005, 31). I discuss these different aspects of subjectivity construction through a contemporary example from urban Australia and by employing frameworks that underscore the agency of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples (Aboriginal or Aboriginal Australians) in constructing and maintaining their own subjectivities through discourses that challenge settler colonialism. I work to intertwine related theoretical approaches such as practice theory as defined by Sherry Ortner, and Pierre Bourdieu's discussion of the ...


Knowing The River, Working The Land, And Digging For Clay: Pamunkey Indian Subsistence Practices And The Market Economy 1800-1900, Ashley Spivey Jun 2017

Knowing The River, Working The Land, And Digging For Clay: Pamunkey Indian Subsistence Practices And The Market Economy 1800-1900, Ashley Spivey

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

This dissertation explores the responses and engagement of the Pamunkey Indians with an expanding capitalist economy in nineteenth century Tidewater Virginia. Framed by theoretical discourses of political economy and landscape, I investigate the Pamunkey community’s Reservation subsistence economy, and the transitional effects the infiltration of industrial capitalism had on the economic life and experiences of Pamunkey people. Evidence uncovered from archaeological investigations on the Reservation, archival resources, and oral testimony from tribal members reveal how the Pamunkey community structured their engagement with the market. Pamunkey market engagement formed a mixed economy that followed an annual seasonal round grounded in ...


Natural Debts, Natural Dangers: An Ideology Of Nation-State And Subject In An Immunology Text, Quinn Monette May 2017

Natural Debts, Natural Dangers: An Ideology Of Nation-State And Subject In An Immunology Text, Quinn Monette

Undergraduate Honors Theses

In an inquiry into the systems of metaphor used in an immunology text, I argue that the conceptualization of science is ideological, non-neutral, and has important consequences in the formation of subjects.


Where The Sidewalk Ends: Reimagining Urban Place And Governance In Semarang, Indonesia, Emmaleah K. Jones May 2017

Where The Sidewalk Ends: Reimagining Urban Place And Governance In Semarang, Indonesia, Emmaleah K. Jones

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Purpose: This project analyzes the uses of space and geography up the scales of political organization – from the village to the municipal – attempting to find the intersections where physical space meets governance using Semarang, Indonesia as my strategic case. This research employs a biocultural lens, addressing the existing gaps in literature by advancing a framework to function across disciplines and ultimately reconnecting to its practical application in urban planning and design. Such a framework is important in providing a blueprint for building a coherent and supportive structure on which to assess the human impact of design and contribute new “human-centered ...


"It's All About The Food:" Food, Land, And Sovereignty On The White Earth Reservation, Minnesota, Colleen M. Truskey May 2017

"It's All About The Food:" Food, Land, And Sovereignty On The White Earth Reservation, Minnesota, Colleen M. Truskey

Undergraduate Honors Theses

This project explores the ties between food and indigenous land claims, treaty rights, and issues of sovereignty, utilizing the White Earth Indian Reservation (located in northwestern Minnesota) as a case study. Based off of fieldwork conducted during the summer of 2016 and March of 2017, this research aims to draw a direct link between foodways and notions of Native American sovereignty, both as they are conceptualized and actually practiced.


En Busca De La Alfabetización. Three 20th Century Literacy Movements In Spanish Speaking Countries: Impacts And Implications, Morgan Sehdev May 2017

En Busca De La Alfabetización. Three 20th Century Literacy Movements In Spanish Speaking Countries: Impacts And Implications, Morgan Sehdev

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Why do we report literacy rates with GDP and infant mortality rates? Why is it so important that we have a literate nation? In this thesis, I examine the three case studies of the Spanish, Cuban, and Nicaraguan literacy movements. Then, I analyze the successes and shortcomings of each. From there, I define literacy in a larger context. Using this information, I propose a "health literacy campaign", which I believe will help the current state of literacy rates in the United States.


A Case Study In The Interdisciplinary: The Role Of Anthropology, Archaeology And History In Academia And Museums, Alexnadra A. Rosenberg May 2017

A Case Study In The Interdisciplinary: The Role Of Anthropology, Archaeology And History In Academia And Museums, Alexnadra A. Rosenberg

Undergraduate Honors Theses

This thesis will examine the importance of an interdisciplinary approach to anthropology, archaeology and history in both academic and museum settings. Using the “Lives Bound Together: Slavery at George Washington’s Mount Vernon” exhibit as a case study, the necessity of teaching from an interdisciplinary perspective at an undergraduate level, if not before is stressed. Specific attention is given to the subfield of archaeology, the role of oral histories and descendant communities in creating museum exhibitions and the ways in which the museum presents a historical narrative about a complex and emotionally charged topic to visitors who arrive with diverse ...


Understanding Human-Landscape Interaction: Geoarchaeology In The Society Islands, French Polynesia, Katherine M. Peck Apr 2017

Understanding Human-Landscape Interaction: Geoarchaeology In The Society Islands, French Polynesia, Katherine M. Peck

Undergraduate Honors Theses

In this study, I explore the impact of human actions on the Society Island environment, as well as the ecological resilience of these islands over the 1,000 year sequence of human occupation. I utilize geoarchaeological methods to analyze soil samples collected from archaeological excavations on the islands of Maupiti and Mo‘orea in the Society Islands. Using these data, I examine whether humans (anthropogenic factors) or climate (natural factors) influenced the depositional processes at these sites, and if Tahitians altered their behavior to modify their impacts on island environments.


Entangled By Salt: Historical Archaeology Of Seafarers And Things In The Venezuelan Caribbean, 1624–1880, Konrad Andrzej Antczak Mar 2017

Entangled By Salt: Historical Archaeology Of Seafarers And Things In The Venezuelan Caribbean, 1624–1880, Konrad Andrzej Antczak

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

This doctoral dissertation is aimed at determining changes in seafarer-thing relationships—which I define as entanglements—from 1624 to 1880 at two saltpans on two islands of the Venezuelan Caribbean. Three sites with four occupational phases will be discussed: one site with two occupational phases (Dutch, 1624–1638; Anglo-American, 1638–1781) on the island of La Tortuga, and two sites each comprising one occupational phase (multi-component, c. 1700–1800; Dutch Antillean/US American, 1810s–1880) on the island of Cayo Sal, in the Los Roques Archipelago. More specifically, this research seeks to determine how the development of European capitalism and ...


A Paradigm Shift Within University Museums, Emily Bagdasarian Mar 2017

A Paradigm Shift Within University Museums, Emily Bagdasarian

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

This thesis examines the role of university museums in the United States and their relationship to academic and local communities as well as their influence on a national and international level. The purpose of this study is to identify how changes in educational, social, and cultural issues have affected the role of university museums in the United States during their almost two hundred and fifty years of evolution. A second goal is to identify which audiences (academic or public) they chose to focus on. Taking a multifaceted approach, this thesis studies three museums from Ivy League institutions: The University of ...


The Archaeology Of Enslavement In Plantation Jamaica: A Study Of Community Dynamics Among The Enslaved People Of Good Hope Estate, 1775-1838, Hayden Frith Bassett Mar 2017

The Archaeology Of Enslavement In Plantation Jamaica: A Study Of Community Dynamics Among The Enslaved People Of Good Hope Estate, 1775-1838, Hayden Frith Bassett

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

The “slave village” occupies an important place in New World plantation archaeology, though one in which the variation of experience and the internal social organization have yet to be thoroughly addressed. Through archaeological investigation, this dissertation explores the social dynamics and institutions created by enslaved people to negotiate their domestic circumstances. In many plantation settings, enslaved people lived in dedicated villages or the rear-yards of plantation houses. their domestic boundaries were prescribed, but the life they created within those boundaries was by and large a product of their own sense of sociability, domesticity, and ingenuity. The ways in which people ...


Beyond The Butcher's Block: The Animal Landscapes Of Eighteenth-Century Chesapeake And Lowcountry Plantations, Jenna Kay Carlson Dietmeier Mar 2017

Beyond The Butcher's Block: The Animal Landscapes Of Eighteenth-Century Chesapeake And Lowcountry Plantations, Jenna Kay Carlson Dietmeier

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

This dissertation argues that working oxen, horses, and mules contributed to the physical and social landscapes of eighteenth-century plantations in the Chesapeake and the Lowcountry. This research embraces an animal landscape approach, exploring how humans and animals were both active agents in shaping animal husbandry strategies, social interactions, and power negotiations on plantations. This exploration utilized archaeological and historical sources, predominately faunal assemblages from Oxon Hill Manor, Maryland, Mount Vernon, Virginia, Drayton Hall, South Carolina, and Stobo Plantation, South Carolina; articulated equine skeletons from Jamestown Island, Virginia, and Yorktown, Virginia; and probate inventories from plantations within the eighteenth-century Upper Chesapeake ...


Making History Stick: Representations Of Naval Stores In North Carolina Museums, Catherine Widin Bailey Mar 2017

Making History Stick: Representations Of Naval Stores In North Carolina Museums, Catherine Widin Bailey

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

This thesis explores the extent to which three North Carolina museums, the North Carolina Museum of History, the Cape Fear Museum, and the Maritime Museum at Southport, represent the state’s history of naval stores. Being a crucial part of North Carolina’s past that is frequently ignored in the formal education system, naval stores should be highlighted in museum exhibits about the state’s history and heritage. A critical analysis of these exhibits shows how these representations form a significant part of civic engagement and suggests improvements that would enhance the education of audiences about the importance of naval ...


Algonquian Taskscapes And Changing Landscapes: Archaeobotanical Findings From Tidewater Virginia, Jessica Marie Herlich Nov 2016

Algonquian Taskscapes And Changing Landscapes: Archaeobotanical Findings From Tidewater Virginia, Jessica Marie Herlich

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

The historical ecology of Tidewater Virginia from the Late Archaic to Early Colonial eras (ca. 1200 BC–AD 1600) indicates human-environmental dynamics that modified the landscape and simultaneously impacted the histories of Native groups in the region. I consider Algonquian Tidewater Virginia through the perspectives of historical ecology, taskscapes (a model of the landscape interweaving space, time, and human activities [Ingold 1993, 2000]), and gendered landscapes to explore the intersections of place, labor, and time. The Middle Woodland (ca. 500 BC-AD 800) is an important time period in my discussion. During this era, the region’s archaeology suggests shifts towards ...


The Materiality Of Authority: Ornamental Objects And Negotiations Of Sovereignty In The Algonquian Middle Atlantic (A.D. 900 - 1680), Christopher Judd Shephard Nov 2016

The Materiality Of Authority: Ornamental Objects And Negotiations Of Sovereignty In The Algonquian Middle Atlantic (A.D. 900 - 1680), Christopher Judd Shephard

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

This dissertation investigates the emergence, development, and transformation of centralized political authority within Algonquian societies of the Late Woodland and early Colonial period (A.D. 900 – 1680) southern Middle Atlantic. Sixteenth and 17th century European accounts describe coastal Algonquian-speaking societies of modern day Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina as organized into multi-community polities structured by hierarchical political authority, centralized decision-making and pervasive inequality. However, the hallmarks typically associated with chiefly political organization—monumental architecture, settlement hierarchies, and widespread differentiation in mortuary symbolism—are almost non-existent in the region’s archaeological record. Colonial chroniclers, however, were adamant that the objects most ...


The Teapots In The Tempest: Ceramics And Military Order At 18th Century Fort Stanwix, Elizabeth Scholz Oct 2016

The Teapots In The Tempest: Ceramics And Military Order At 18th Century Fort Stanwix, Elizabeth Scholz

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Historically, there has been significant interest in examining pre-contact and historic sites of conflict. Recent studies in historic conflict archaeology have contributed to scholars’ understanding of military sites, specific battles, and sites of sieges and encampments. Archaeological excavations at the 18th century Fort Stanwix in Rome, New York have uncovered a rich assemblage that has facilitated the reconstruction of the fort; however, it is a careful analyses of the artifacts recovered during this process that can help scholars explore life at the fort. Integrating archaeological, historical, and documentary evidence, this paper analyzes the spatial and typological distribution of ceramics at ...


Slate Pencils?: Education Of Free And Enslaved African American Children At The Bray School, Williamsburg, Virginia, 1760-1774, Valerie Susan Scura Trovato Oct 2016

Slate Pencils?: Education Of Free And Enslaved African American Children At The Bray School, Williamsburg, Virginia, 1760-1774, Valerie Susan Scura Trovato

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

There is a dearth of literature on the archaeology of childhood. Historical archaeology, by its unique nature as a discipline, can use a combination of written documents, the archaeological record, and oral histories to interpret past lives. Historical documents and correspondence of the Associates of the Late Reverend Dr. Thomas Bray attest to the establishment of The Bray School, a school created for free and enslaved African American children in eighteenth-century Williamsburg, Virginia. Appointed schoolmistress Mrs. Ann Wager played a significant role in what the children were being taught. An abundance of slate pencil fragments found on the Bray School ...


“Sugary Mixed-Plate”: Landscape Of Power And Separation On 20th-Century Hawaiian Sugar Plantations, Joshua Timsing Maka'ala Gastilo Oct 2016

“Sugary Mixed-Plate”: Landscape Of Power And Separation On 20th-Century Hawaiian Sugar Plantations, Joshua Timsing Maka'ala Gastilo

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Archaeology in the Hawaiian Islands predominantly focuses on pre-contact and immediate post-contact contexts, while largely ignoring post-1870 phenomena. The scarcity of studies examining these settings points out the rich opportunities for investigating dynamics that influenced Hawaiian sugar plantation laborer perceptions of power, authority, and class relations on 20th century Hawaiian plantations. Part of the Hawaiian sugar planters’ strategy to dominate the political governance of Hawaiʻi and the social dynamics of the plantations was the establishment of racial hierarchies. Planters reinforced such hierarchies by promoting divisions and segregation and by establishing places of power in the form of managers’ and luna ...