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Anthropology

Western Michigan University

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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Communication In Stormwater Utility Fees Across Michigan, Hailey Olson Apr 2019

Communication In Stormwater Utility Fees Across Michigan, Hailey Olson

Honors Theses

Stormwater Utilities (SWU) ordinances are gaining wide popularity in municipalities throughout the Great Lakes region of the United States. A SWU creates a fund to maintain and update stormwater infrastructure, which in turn helps to reduce destructive flooding, and also results in higher quality waterways. This study examines two SWUFs in the State of Michigan: one in the City of Jackson (COJ), which implemented a SWUF in 2011; and the second in the City of Ann Arbor (COAA), which implemented its SWUF in 1984. These two case studies offer important contrasts and lessons. For instance, as a result of resident ...


An Examination Of Flintlock Components At Fort St. Joseph (20be23), Niles, Michigan, Kevin Paul Jones Apr 2019

An Examination Of Flintlock Components At Fort St. Joseph (20be23), Niles, Michigan, Kevin Paul Jones

Master's Theses

The purpose of this study is to identify the age, country and place of origin, function (e.g. fusil, pistol), and intended use (e.g. military, trade gun) of flintlock components recovered from Fort St. Joseph (20BE23), an eighteenth-century French mission-garrison-trading post in southwest Michigan. Flintlock muskets were a vital technology in New France throughout the fur trade era, both in their roles as weapons and as hunting implements. They were also important because their relatively complex nature necessitated localized, frontier supply and repair; their use and maintenance were integrated into many facets of frontier life. Historical documents and archaeological ...


Virtual Realities In Archaeology: Employing The Oculus Rift For Artifact Visualization And Education, Jeffrey R. Nau Apr 2019

Virtual Realities In Archaeology: Employing The Oculus Rift For Artifact Visualization And Education, Jeffrey R. Nau

Master's Theses

Virtual reality (VR) is an emerging digital platform that can be utilized as an immersive educational tool. This thesis uses the Oculus Rift virtual reality head-mounted display to create a VR Museum, building upon research exploring video games in education. This VR Museum leverages virtual reality and video game technology to educate players about archaeology. Through virtual reality technology, players enter the digitally-constructed museum environment as if they are inside the virtual world. This technology provides new avenues for engaging the public in archaeological studies. This thesis also examines how digital copies of artifacts made with photogrammetry can be utilized ...


Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Project 2018 Annual Report, Michael S. Nassaney Jan 2019

Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Project 2018 Annual Report, Michael S. Nassaney

Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Project

Western Michigan University (WMU) hosted its 43rd annual archaeological field school this past July and August under the auspices of the Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Project. The Project is a long-term, multidisciplinary, community-based partnership between the City of Niles and WMU that investigates and interprets colonialism and the fur trade in the region.

We selected the theme “Technology Then and Now,” to focus our activities in 2019. We recognize that technology is not only important in the 21st century, but has defined humanity since our earliest ancestors crafted simple tools to assist them in their survival. Most of the archaeological ...


Curation, Erika K. Hartley, Miro Dunham Jan 2019

Curation, Erika K. Hartley, Miro Dunham

Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Project

Table of Contents

  • Preserving the Past for the Future
  • Common Curation Challenges
  • Fort St. Joseph Collection
  • Did You Know?
  • Collection Challenges
  • Fort St. Joseph Curatorial Fellowship
  • How You Can Help


Fat Bias And Culture Shock: Psychosocial Adjustments In Post-Obesity Life, Scott Thomas Macpherson Dec 2018

Fat Bias And Culture Shock: Psychosocial Adjustments In Post-Obesity Life, Scott Thomas Macpherson

Master's Theses

Obesity in the United States is unprecedented levels, affecting adults and children as well. As our society has become for sedentary since industrialization, the nation has become fatter. The escalating rate of obesity has had a negative effect on the health of millions of Americans. Health problems such as metabolic disorders and other comorbidities, for instance, hypertension, Type II diabetes, heart disease, weight related cancers etc., (Mozaffarian and Benjamin 2013). The collective cost of obesity is to the nation is staggering, weighing in at $270 billion a year, childhood obesity costs nearly $15 billion alone (Hammond and Levine 2010). This ...


What Provides For Me As I Provide For Others? A Study Of Homeless Shelters Employees Within Kalamazoo, Michigan, Melanie Jezior Aug 2018

What Provides For Me As I Provide For Others? A Study Of Homeless Shelters Employees Within Kalamazoo, Michigan, Melanie Jezior

Master's Theses

Homeless shelters run on one thing: workers. Without workers there is no supportive aid for the homeless. A daunting and emotional job that is taken on by thousands, but why? Is the goal in entering this line of work to make an impact on homeless populations, a lasting difference? Everyone has their own personal reasons, however what are the main reasons for people going into a job like shelter work? What is it that motivates these workers to continue this line of work or motivates them to leave? It is a job that offers low pay, and emotional settings. A ...


American Muslim Women: Feminism, Equality, And Difference, Amber Coniglio Apr 2018

American Muslim Women: Feminism, Equality, And Difference, Amber Coniglio

Honors Theses

American Muslim women face constant surveillance, stress, and pressure to change and adapt to mainstream society. In the United States, Muslim women find ways to negotiate their identities, express their concerns, and learn through their faith by means of Islamic scholarship, Islamic feminism, and reinterpretations of the Quran. They are reconciling their multifaceted identities with better understanding of sacred text as well as solidifying their desired gender roles within their communities. They are challenging norms and creating new spaces for themselves within the ummah as well as the United States. American Muslim women find courage, strength, and autonomy through Islamic ...


Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Project 2017 Annual Report, Michael Nassaney Jan 2018

Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Project 2017 Annual Report, Michael Nassaney

Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Project

In 2017, the Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Project (hereafter the "Project") continued its focus on discovering and sharing the history of Fort St. Joseph while emphasizing the importance of community partnerships. This was a logical theme for 2017 since the Project has long been a collaboration between Western Michigan University (WMU) faculty and students, the City of Niles, the Fort St. Joseph Archaeology Advisory Committee (see Appendix A), interested stakeholders, supporters, members, and community volunteers in the greater Niles area. In addition, the Project has embraced a community service-learning model to guide our field, laboratory, and outreach activities. Students learn ...


Technology Then And Now 4: Hide Processing In The Fur Trade, Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Project Jan 2018

Technology Then And Now 4: Hide Processing In The Fur Trade, Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Project

Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Project

Native Americans were the primary procedures of hides in the fur trade.

Technology Then and Now was developed by the students (Nicole Aquino, John Campbell, Patrick Dwyer, Abby Floyd, Jacob Kowalczyk, Allie Lewis, Amanda Owens, Brendan Sapato, and Callisto Wojcikowski) in the Museum Studies class (HIST 4080) at Western Michigan University under the direction of Professor Michael Nassaney. The research, contents, and design of the exhibit were made possible through the support and assistance of Christina Arseneau, David Brose, Mary Ellen Drolet, Joe Hines, Larry Horrigan, Cori Ivens, Erika Loveland, Meghan Williams and Michael Worline.

Full size panel available as ...


Technology Then And Now 3: Building A House In New France, Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Project Jan 2018

Technology Then And Now 3: Building A House In New France, Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Project

Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Project

Fort St. Joseph buildings were constructed using Old World techniques and local and imported raw materials.

Technology Then and Now was developed by the students (Nicole Aquino, John Campbell, Patrick Dwyer, Abby Floyd, Jacob Kowalczyk, Allie Lewis, Amanda Owens, Brendan Sapato, and Callisto Wojcikowski) in the Museum Studies class (HIST 4080) at Western Michigan University under the direction of Professor Michael Nassaney. The research, contents, and design of the exhibit were made possible through the support and assistance of Christina Arseneau, David Brose, Mary Ellen Drolet, Joe Hines, Larry Horrigan, Cori Ivens, Erika Loveland, Meghan Williams and Michael Worline.

Full ...


Technology Then And Now 1: Technology Then And Now, Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Project Jan 2018

Technology Then And Now 1: Technology Then And Now, Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Project

Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Project

Archaeologists employ technology to learn how goods were made and used at Fort St. Joseph in the eighteenth century.

Technology Then and Now was developed by the students (Nicole Aquino, John Campbell, Patrick Dwyer, Abby Floyd, Jacob Kowalczyk, Allie Lewis, Amanda Owens, Brendan Sapato, and Callisto Wojcikowski) in the Museum Studies class (HIST 4080) at Western Michigan University under the direction of Professor Michael Nassaney. The research, contents, and design of the exhibit were made possible through the support and assistance of Christina Arseneau, David Brose, Mary Ellen Drolet, Joe Hines, Larry Horrigan, Cori Ivens, Erika Loveland, Meghan Williams and ...


Technology Then And Now 6: Flintlock Muskets, Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Project Jan 2018

Technology Then And Now 6: Flintlock Muskets, Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Project

Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Project

Flintlocks were imported from Europe and widely distributed in New France for hunting and warfare.

Technology Then and Now was developed by the students (Nicole Aquino, John Campbell, Patrick Dwyer, Abby Floyd, Jacob Kowalczyk, Allie Lewis, Amanda Owens, Brendan Sapato, and Callisto Wojcikowski) in the Museum Studies class (HIST 4080) at Western Michigan University under the direction of Professor Michael Nassaney. The research, contents, and design of the exhibit were made possible through the support and assistance of Christina Arseneau, David Brose, Mary Ellen Drolet, Joe Hines, Larry Horrigan, Cori Ivens, Erika Loveland, Meghan Williams and Michael Worline.

Full size ...


Technology Then And Now 5: Birch Bark Canoes, Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Project Jan 2018

Technology Then And Now 5: Birch Bark Canoes, Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Project

Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Project

Birch bark canoes were a technologically-sophisticated means to travel and transport goods during the fur trade.

Technology Then and Now was developed by the students (Nicole Aquino, John Campbell, Patrick Dwyer, Abby Floyd, Jacob Kowalczyk, Allie Lewis, Amanda Owens, Brendan Sapato, and Callisto Wojcikowski) in the Museum Studies class (HIST 4080) at Western Michigan University under the direction of Professor Michael Nassaney. The research, contents, and design of the exhibit were made possible through the support and assistance of Christina Arseneau, David Brose, Mary Ellen Drolet, Joe Hines, Larry Horrigan, Cori Ivens, Erika Loveland, Meghan Williams and Michael Worline.

Full ...


Technology Then And Now 2: Glass Beads, Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Project Jan 2018

Technology Then And Now 2: Glass Beads, Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Project

Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Project

People at Fort St. Joseph used glass beads to embellish their appearance in the eighteenth century.

Technology Then and Now was developed by the students (Nicole Aquino, John Campbell, Patrick Dwyer, Abby Floyd, Jacob Kowalczyk, Allie Lewis, Amanda Owens, Brendan Sapato, and Callisto Wojcikowski) in the Museum Studies class (HIST 4080) at Western Michigan University under the direction of Professor Michael Nassaney. The research, contents, and design of the exhibit were made possible through the support and assistance of Christina Arseneau, David Brose, Mary Ellen Drolet, Joe Hines, Larry Horrigan, Cori Ivens, Erika Loveland, Meghan Williams and Michael Worline.

Full ...


Trading To Drink And Drinking To Trade: Assessing Alcohol Trade And Consumption In Seventeenth And Eighteenth Century New France, Cara A. Mosier Dec 2017

Trading To Drink And Drinking To Trade: Assessing Alcohol Trade And Consumption In Seventeenth And Eighteenth Century New France, Cara A. Mosier

Master's Theses

Alcohol is one of the most misunderstood commodities used by both Native Americans and Europeans during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries in North America. Although documentary sources are available, they can often provide conflicting information on the frequency of alcohol trade and its context of consumption. The archaeological record must be examined in conjunction with the primary and secondary sources to better understand alcohol consumption during this time. My research is conducted to answer the question: what patterns emerge when comparing the archaeological record to the documentary record concerning Native alcohol consumption in the seventeenth and eighteenth century fur trade ...


Overcoming Ideology: Examining The Tension Between Sex Work And Anti-Human Trafficking Advocacy, Emily R. Williams Dec 2017

Overcoming Ideology: Examining The Tension Between Sex Work And Anti-Human Trafficking Advocacy, Emily R. Williams

Master's Theses

Human trafficking has become a national conversation and concern. Grassroots organizations designed to combat human trafficking spring up rapidly and help shape public perception on what trafficking is – and what it isn’t. Drawing on participant observation and indepth interviewing, I speak with anti-trafficking advocates determined to eradicate human trafficking and sex workers who prefer to stay in their profession. This thesis will largely explore the unintended consequences of well-meaning advocacy, and the tension between their views on the sex industry and the views from within the sex industry. I aim to use this work not only as a local ...


Minecrafting Archaeology: An Experimental Pedagogy For An Eighteenth-Century French Trading Post In Niles, Michigan, James B. Schwaderer Dec 2017

Minecrafting Archaeology: An Experimental Pedagogy For An Eighteenth-Century French Trading Post In Niles, Michigan, James B. Schwaderer

Master's Theses

The convergence of archaeology, digital technology, and public education has produced new and exciting ways for archaeologists to engage and inform the public. This thesis uses the video game Minecraft to recreate the process of archaeology in a digital format. The test case for this project was the Fort St. Joseph Archaeology Project and its excavation at Fort St. Joseph in Niles, Michigan. The target audience for this project is students in grades three to five. These grades were determined to be the most applicable because their content ranges from United States to Michigan history. A study of virtual archaeology ...


Community Partnerships: Building Meaningful Connections Through Archaeology, Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Project Jul 2017

Community Partnerships: Building Meaningful Connections Through Archaeology, Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Project

Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Project

Flyer: The Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Project Presents Community Partnerships: Building Meaningful Connections Through Archaeology - July and August 2017 in the Niles District Library.


I Was Taught To Yell Fire, Marina Gutierrez Jun 2017

I Was Taught To Yell Fire, Marina Gutierrez

Honors Theses

From a very young age my mother always told me to yell, “Fire,” if I was ever in a situation where I needed help from a potential attacker, but I never understood why I couldn’t just yell, “Help.” Her reasoning was that many people will run towards a fire to help put it out or save potential victims, but when someone yells for help others will shy away because they don’t want to get involved. I would just nod and promise to yell fire not really understanding the underlying meaning she had just explained to me.

It wasn ...


A Study Of Empathy In The Context Of Religious Identity In The United States, Kiana Sakimehr Jun 2017

A Study Of Empathy In The Context Of Religious Identity In The United States, Kiana Sakimehr

Master's Theses

This thesis considers representations of Muslims in the United States and the impact of Muslim extremism on those representations and on American attitudes towards Muslims. After a careful review of representations of Islam and Muslims in the United States, the thesis reports on the results of an experiment performed to consider the effects of representations on empathy. This was accomplished through a comparison of the empathy self-ratings of 40 international Arab Muslim college students studying in the U.S. to 39 non-Muslim college students from the same public university, in response to hearing narrative vignettes featuring the hypothetical suffering of ...


Biological Stress Indicators Among Historically Documented Populations (1913-1935): An Analysis Of Labor Through Entheses And Joint Disease, Anna Paraskevi Alioto Jun 2017

Biological Stress Indicators Among Historically Documented Populations (1913-1935): An Analysis Of Labor Through Entheses And Joint Disease, Anna Paraskevi Alioto

Master's Theses

Recent studies about the American past have aimed to examine multiple lines of evidence to reanalyze the American lived experience. Despite this, there has been limited research conducted using methods from biological anthropology. Skeletal analysis of a sample from the Hamann-Todd Osteological Collection, consisting of individuals (n=118) who lived in Cleveland, Ohio was utilized to understand how the American lived experience impacted the biological stresses of these individuals. The objective was to investigate entheseal changes and degenerative joint disease on the upper limb to reconstruct activity patterns and to test for possible disparities which may represent differing biological stress ...


Identity Development In Korean-American Adoptees: A Content Analysis Of Personal Reflections, Charles Rachor Apr 2017

Identity Development In Korean-American Adoptees: A Content Analysis Of Personal Reflections, Charles Rachor

Honors Theses

This paper examines Korean-American Adoptees and their identity development through a content analysis of online comments concerning four major themes: Parents and Parenting, Siblings, Self-identity, and Current Events. Using two Facebook groups consisting exclusively of adoptees, examinations were made of positive, neutral, and negative replies to posts about the themes. The findings from this analysis lend credence to previous studies about self-identity, some of the influential factors, and the struggles faced in achieving levels of comfort expressing multiple racial and cultural identities.


Partnerships 1: Community Partnerships In Niles, Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Project Apr 2017

Partnerships 1: Community Partnerships In Niles, Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Project

Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Project

Community partnerships inspired by the Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Project have the potential for mutual benefi­ts when community groups collaborate around shared interests.


Partnerships 2: An Archaeological Partnership With The Religious Of Niles, Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Project Apr 2017

Partnerships 2: An Archaeological Partnership With The Religious Of Niles, Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Project

Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Project

The Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Project aims to build an active partnership with the religious community of Niles. Given the importance of Catholicism at Fort St. Joseph, the Project has reached out to one of these communities, St. Mary of the Immaculate Conception Parish, to explore their potential interest in collaboration.


Alaska Native Artifacts; Eskimos And Aleuts Of The Bering Sea Rhythm Of The Sea Collection, Marcia Sue Taylor Apr 2017

Alaska Native Artifacts; Eskimos And Aleuts Of The Bering Sea Rhythm Of The Sea Collection, Marcia Sue Taylor

Master's Theses

“Only his artifacts provide his earthly testimony” (Thiry 1977, p. 5). The purpose of the research is to catalogue Eskimo and Aleut artifacts that comprise an unprovenienced (anonymous) collection in the Anthropology Department at Western Michigan University, and provide a corresponding ethnography. This will be accomplished in two ways: (1) a museum curation project, and (2) an ethnographic study that will focus on cultural synthesis within the parameters of artistic styles of harpoon head artifacts and geography as these pertain to the artifacts and their distribution. Analysis of the collection’s harpoon heads will provide both artistic and inventive evidence ...


Guided By The Spirits: The Meanings Of Life, Death And Youth Suicide In An Ojibwa Community, Seth Allard Apr 2017

Guided By The Spirits: The Meanings Of Life, Death And Youth Suicide In An Ojibwa Community, Seth Allard

Master's Theses

Suicide is a leading cause of death amongst indigenous North American youth. The majority of studies on indigenous youth suicide focus on quantitative data collection and analysis. Qualitative and collaborative methods provide the cultural and historical contexts necessary for a critical understanding of youth suicide in indigenous communities. Through classic ethnographic methods (structured interviews, participant observation) and descriptive analysis, this work highlights the value of qualitative data. Medical anthropology informs an ethnomedical approach toward youth suicide, death, life, health and related concepts. Analyzing the semantics of prevention and intervention aids a critical-interpretive approach to current research and prevention-intervention frameworks and ...


Anything But Race: Content Analysis Of Racial Discourse, Christopher Smith Apr 2017

Anything But Race: Content Analysis Of Racial Discourse, Christopher Smith

Master's Theses

This research adds to previous scholarship on colorblind racism which investigates the ways in which students at Western Michigan University use new language compared to the Jim Crow past to defend or challenge the modern racial order in the United States. Using data collected from 15 voluntary participants I conducted a content analysis of participant’s responses to questions regarding race and racism with the purpose of demonstrating the use of colorblind racism or the challenge to the dominant racial order.


Women’S Role In Their Reproductive Process: The Effects Of Authoritative Knowledge And Biomedical Interventions On The American Birth Experience, Shannon Sheffey Apr 2017

Women’S Role In Their Reproductive Process: The Effects Of Authoritative Knowledge And Biomedical Interventions On The American Birth Experience, Shannon Sheffey

Master's Theses

The primary focus of this study is to analyze the effects of authoritative knowledge and biomedical interventions on women’s role within their reproductive process as it occurs within the US.I explore the technological advances surrounding childbirth practices within the United States and how through this technology, biomedical forms of authoritative knowledge of birth practices have developed and how these changes have benefitted as well as hindered women. Through interviews and interactions with mothers and pregnant women I evaluate how medical interventions emotionally and physically affect women; evaluate the necessity of increasing technological interventions as opposed to low technology ...


Archaeological Evidence Of Architectural Remains At Fort St. Joseph (20be23), Niles, Mi, Erika K. Loveland Apr 2017

Archaeological Evidence Of Architectural Remains At Fort St. Joseph (20be23), Niles, Mi, Erika K. Loveland

Master's Theses

Throughout New France, Native and non-Native peoples frequently interacted as a result of French colonialism. These prolonged relationships affected the ways in which people identified themselves and others around them. To explore this dynamic process, historical archaeologists can examine the material culture left behind. Architectural remains are particularly informative because inhabitants construct their buildings in accordance to their needs and cultural values. Fort St. Joseph, an eighteenth-century mission, garrison, and trading post, is utilized as a case study to examine architecture and how it was employed to express identity. Daily interaction between Native and French peoples in the fur trade ...