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Anthropology

University of Tennessee, Knoxville

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Articles 1 - 30 of 486

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Mass Grave Detection With The Use Of Geophysics, Madelyn M. Knaub May 2019

Mass Grave Detection With The Use Of Geophysics, Madelyn M. Knaub

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Identifying Cystic Fibrosis (Cf) Skeletally: A Proposed Differential Diagnosis, Clare Remy Apr 2019

Identifying Cystic Fibrosis (Cf) Skeletally: A Proposed Differential Diagnosis, Clare Remy

EURēCA: Exhibition of Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an inherited disorder that affects the mucosal lining of the lungs and digestive system due to a defective gene that causes blockages of tubes, ducts, and passageways. The type of mutation correlates with the severity of the condition, but with modern medicine individuals can live into their 50s. We propose a differential diagnosis for identifying CF in the skeleton based on bony pathologies that occur in higher frequency in CF patients. CF patients exhibit chronic sinusitis, clubbing of hands and feet, vertebral fractures/collapse and abnormal curvature, significantly shorter stature, lower bone density, rib fractures, and ...


Representation Of The Human Musculature In The Bronze Age Aegean, Emily R Brower May 2018

Representation Of The Human Musculature In The Bronze Age Aegean, Emily R Brower

EURēCA: Exhibition of Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement

Bronze Age sculptures range from abstract to realistic, but how accurate are the realistic sculptures? To answer this question, it is useful to compare three pieces of artwork: Prince of Lilies from Knossos, Kouros from Palaikastro, and the Boxer Rhyta from Ayia Triadha to a musculature replica. These pieces originate from the Bronze Age in the Aegean. What this comparison will tell us is how much the ancient peoples were studying the human body, along with the reasons as to why these sculptures were portrayed with such realistic characteristics. To accomplish this goal this paper takes the artifacts background into ...


Understanding How Racism Physically Feels In The Moment For Young African American Women, Emma M. Burklin May 2018

Understanding How Racism Physically Feels In The Moment For Young African American Women, Emma M. Burklin

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Validating Geospatial Analysis With Community Risk Perception Survey In Big Island, Hawaii, Darcy Ann Ayers Dec 2017

Validating Geospatial Analysis With Community Risk Perception Survey In Big Island, Hawaii, Darcy Ann Ayers

EURēCA: Exhibition of Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement

Military vehicle-generated particulate matter released into the atmosphere are possible concerns for human health. The author’s prior geospatial research has been to identify, using GIS analysis, the local populations surrounding a military installation in Hawaii that are most at-risk from the vehicle-generated particulate matter. A continuation of the past research, this project aims to assess the perceived impact of the identified dust pollution among local residents by conducting a survey through both qualitative and quantitative methods. The survey of health and public perception is then used to validate the model developed in the previous GIS analysis. This research is ...


Variation In Cortical Bone Distribution In The Aging Adult Appendicular Skeleton, Alice Fazlollah Gooding Dec 2017

Variation In Cortical Bone Distribution In The Aging Adult Appendicular Skeleton, Alice Fazlollah Gooding

Doctoral Dissertations

This study considers the effects of age on the distribution of bone in the adult skeleton. Age effects on the skeleton have been studied for diagnosis of osteoporosis or as mechanical compensatory changes to bone shape with loss in density. However, adult skeletal morphology is the result of a lifetime of genetic, dietary, activity, and biochemical factors. With these influences, it unclear at what age(s) bone geometry shifts to adapt to the physiological and mechanical demands placed on it, or, how these adaptations vary within and between bones.

This research addresses these questions by examining skeletal data obtained from ...


The Influence Of Body Size On Sexual Dimorphism, Haley Elizabeth Horbaly Dec 2017

The Influence Of Body Size On Sexual Dimorphism, Haley Elizabeth Horbaly

Masters Theses

Accurate sex estimation of human skeletal remains is imperative for skeletal biologists, and relies upon the sexual dimorphism between males and females in a population. The degree of dimorphism, and hence the accuracy of sex estimation methods, are known to vary among populations, and while such global patterns have been well studied, the underlying causes of this variation are relatively unclear. Body size—a sexually dimorphic trait that also varies among populations—has previously been shown to affect skeletal morphology, yet whether specific body size parameters, such as stature and body mass, influence the expression of traits used for nonmetric ...


The Effects Of Racialization On European American Stress In The Nineteenth And Twentieth Centuries, Kimberly T. Wren Aug 2017

The Effects Of Racialization On European American Stress In The Nineteenth And Twentieth Centuries, Kimberly T. Wren

Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation explores disparities in stress among European Americans (EA) and between EA and African Americans (AA) in racialized communities in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Comparisons among EA and between EA and AA are conducted to understand the biological consequences of racialization. Racialization is the process of assigning people to hierarchical categories for purposes of political, social, and economic discrimination. This dissertation investigates how racialization might have affected childhood stress using biocultural theory and facets of critical archaeology theory. Indicators of stress from skeletonized individuals in the William M. Bass Donated Skeletal Collection, Hamann-Todd Osteological Collection, and the Robert ...


Adorned Identities: An Archaeological Perspective On Race And Self-Presentation In 18th-Century Virginia, Johanna Hope Smith Aug 2017

Adorned Identities: An Archaeological Perspective On Race And Self-Presentation In 18th-Century Virginia, Johanna Hope Smith

Doctoral Dissertations

Institutionalized slavery helped to create the concept of race in the American mind and forced people into new social categories based on superficial bodily characteristics. These new social categories resulted in the formation of identities that were continuously negotiated, reinforced or challenged through daily bodily practices of self-presentation that included ways of dress, adornment, and physical action. Because slavery was defined on the body, an embodiment approach to plantation archaeology can shed new light on the construction of racial identities. This historical archaeology project combines an archaeological analysis of personal adornment artifacts with a close reading of travel sketches, mass-produced ...


A Household Approach To Reconstructing The Townsend Sites In East Tennessee, U.S.A.: Foodways And Daily Practice Within A Mississippian Settlement, Jessie Luella Johanson Aug 2017

A Household Approach To Reconstructing The Townsend Sites In East Tennessee, U.S.A.: Foodways And Daily Practice Within A Mississippian Settlement, Jessie Luella Johanson

Doctoral Dissertations

This study examines how foodways differences between the multiple Mississippian settlements that were occupied circa 900 to 1300 CE at the Townsend sites (40BT89, 40BT90, and 40BT91) in East Tennessee, U.S.A., reflect the distinct choices people made in response to variation in the social conditions they faced in a boundary location. Located in a narrow valley cove at the foothills of the Smoky Mountains, these sites lie between two physiographic provinces, the Ridge and Valley Province to the west and the Blue Ridge Mountains Province to the east, as well as between two cultural traditions, the Hiwassee Island ...


Tactics, Strategies, Spaces, And Places: The Spatial Constructions Of Race And Class On Virginia Plantations, Andrew Philip Wilkins Aug 2017

Tactics, Strategies, Spaces, And Places: The Spatial Constructions Of Race And Class On Virginia Plantations, Andrew Philip Wilkins

Doctoral Dissertations

This research incorporates overseers into the discussion of how constructed space and social relations informed and shaped one another on colonial and antebellum Virginia plantations. Studies of plantation space and landscape often contrast slave owners and slaves in dualistic views of plantation societies. My question is how the organization, use, and meaning of spaces at multiple scales intersected with the historical constructions of race and class. I address this question through a detailed examination of plantation layouts, quarter arrangements, outdoor spaces, and architectural spaces to identify meaningful distinctions or similarities between the spaces created for and by slaves and overseers ...


International Service Learning: Cultural Engagement And Archaeological Field Schools, Sara Bridget Poarch Aug 2017

International Service Learning: Cultural Engagement And Archaeological Field Schools, Sara Bridget Poarch

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Estimating Postmortem Intervals Of Human Remains Recovered In Mid-Western Waterways: A Test Of Terrestrial And Aquatic Body Scoring Methods, Amanda Rose Fink Aug 2017

Estimating Postmortem Intervals Of Human Remains Recovered In Mid-Western Waterways: A Test Of Terrestrial And Aquatic Body Scoring Methods, Amanda Rose Fink

Masters Theses

In attempt to determine postmortem intervals (PMI), forensic investigators often rely on observed amounts of postmortem taphonomic alterations of the human body. Research has been conducted in an attempt to understand and predict the sequence and rate of human decomposition using total body scoring methods as well as accumulated degree days (ADD) (Megyesi et al. 2005). While most research focuses on methods of decomposition scoring in terrestrial environments, Heaton et al. (2010) devised a method to aid in the prediction of PMI and postmortem submersion intervals (PMSI) in an aqueous environment. Using 73 forensic cases collected from the Hennepin County ...


Hiwassee Island: The Research Value And Limitations Of Legacy Collections, Erika Leigh Lyle Aug 2017

Hiwassee Island: The Research Value And Limitations Of Legacy Collections, Erika Leigh Lyle

Masters Theses

This thesis examines the research value and limitations of WPA-era archaeological collections at the University of Tennessee’s McClung Museum of Natural History and Culture from the Hiwassee Island site (40MG31) in east Tennessee. Excavations on Hiwassee Island were conducted from 1937–1939 and uncovered a multicomponent site with Woodland, Mississippian, and historic Native American occupations. The most common artifact from all time periods was pottery, numbering more than 80,000 sherds and 70 whole vessels (Lewis and Kneberg 1946:80). This ceramic assemblage was used to determine the research significance of the Hiwassee Island legacy collection by comparing it ...


In Pursuit Of A Good Glass And Good Company, Esther Louise Rimer Aug 2017

In Pursuit Of A Good Glass And Good Company, Esther Louise Rimer

Masters Theses

While glass appears rather homogeneous compared to ceramics and pipes, these small bits of amorphous solid silica can still reveal hidden information when aspects of their chemical composition are tested using a means as simple as short-wave UV light or as complex as X-Ray Fluorescence. Using short-wave UV light and a comparative approach, this thesis reevaluates archaeological table glass collections from Southern Maryland and the Northern Neck of Virginia dating from the mid-17th century to the early 18th century to find evidence for the presence and absence of English lead glass (flint glass). Using these data, the patterns in access ...


Gender, Lithics, And Perishable Technology: Searching For Evidence Of Split-Cane Technology In The Archaeological Record At The Mussel Beach Site (40mi70), Megan M. King Aug 2017

Gender, Lithics, And Perishable Technology: Searching For Evidence Of Split-Cane Technology In The Archaeological Record At The Mussel Beach Site (40mi70), Megan M. King

Doctoral Dissertations

Perishable artifacts made from plants and fibers were likely an integral part of daily life in the prehistoric Southeast. While these items rarely survive in the archaeological record, their manufacture may be identified through the examination of non-perishable tools, specifically lithic artifacts. Observations by ethnographers, travelers, and missionaries in the Southeast have cross-culturally identified women as the primary harvesters and collectors of plant materials for both subsistence and material culture production. While most accounts leave out specific details regarding the tools utilized in production of perishable objects, there is reason to suspect that lithic artifacts were used in various plant ...


An Exploration Of The Effects Of Taphonomy On Isotope Ratios Of Human Hair, Tiffany Bivens Saul Aug 2017

An Exploration Of The Effects Of Taphonomy On Isotope Ratios Of Human Hair, Tiffany Bivens Saul

Doctoral Dissertations

Isotope analyses of human remains have been conducted with growing frequency over the past thirty years in anthropology, in both archaeological and forensic contexts. Analyses of isotope ratios of elements such as carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen, oxygen, and strontium from teeth, bones, and hair have provided information regarding individual diet and geographic movement during different life stages. Hair grows at a predictable rate and provides a serial recording of diet and travel history for the weeks and months just prior to death. What has not been systematically studied is whether postmortem decompositional changes to the body have an effect upon isotope ...


Geographic Information Systems (Gis) And Predictive Modeling Of Body Disposal Sites, Annemarie Catherine Gundel Aug 2017

Geographic Information Systems (Gis) And Predictive Modeling Of Body Disposal Sites, Annemarie Catherine Gundel

Masters Theses

Homicide victims are often discovered by accident or located through witness testimony, both of which are unreliable methods. Moving a victim’s body from the scene of the crime to a secondary disposal site may further complicate their discovery, delaying recovery, identification, and evidence collection. Homicides are exponentially more difficult to investigate, solve, and prosecute without a body. In the medicolegal context, a body disposal site prediction model is an alternative to relying on luck or witness testimony. Predictive models were created using body disposal data collected from the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner (OCME), Connecticut, to explore the ...


The Accuracy Of The Biological Profile In Casework: An Analysis Of Forensic Anthropology Reports In Three Medical Examiners’ Offices, Hillary Renee Parsons May 2017

The Accuracy Of The Biological Profile In Casework: An Analysis Of Forensic Anthropology Reports In Three Medical Examiners’ Offices, Hillary Renee Parsons

Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation examines the accuracy of the biological profile from forensic anthropology reports among 204 resolved and 284 unresolved skeletal cases at the medical examiners’ offices in New York City, NY; Harris County, TX; and Pima County, AZ. Current forensic anthropological methods used to estimate the biological profile are developed from skeletal reference collections conferring variable degrees of accuracy. Evolving standards for evidence and expert witness testimony have ushered in an era of robust statistical validation for forensic methods, yet accuracy rates are unknown in anthropological casework. Considering 40,000 sets of unidentified human remains persist in medical examiner’s ...


Parents’ Perceptions And Responses To Infant Emotions, Lauren Renee Bader May 2017

Parents’ Perceptions And Responses To Infant Emotions, Lauren Renee Bader

Doctoral Dissertations

Parents respond to their infants’ emotions in ways they believe are most appropriate. These reciprocal interactions make up the infants’ social-emotional environment and appear to guide future development and relationship formation; this trajectory is supported mostly from research in Western industrialized contexts. This dissertation consists of three studies and addresses the following over-arching research questions: How have parents’ perceptions of infant emotions been studied? How do Gamo mothers in rural Southern Ethiopia perceive their infants’ emotions and what do they believe are appropriate responses to emotions? Do Gamo mothers vary in their feelings about their infants’ negative emotions and is ...


Wood Charcoal Analysis From Coan Hall (44nb11), Sierra Snively Roark May 2017

Wood Charcoal Analysis From Coan Hall (44nb11), Sierra Snively Roark

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Immersion Schools And Language Learning: A Review Of Cherokee Lanugage Revitalization Efforts Among The Eastern Band Of Cherokee Indians, Elizabeth Albee May 2017

Immersion Schools And Language Learning: A Review Of Cherokee Lanugage Revitalization Efforts Among The Eastern Band Of Cherokee Indians, Elizabeth Albee

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Cross-Linguistic Phonosemantics, Raleigh Anne Butler May 2017

Cross-Linguistic Phonosemantics, Raleigh Anne Butler

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Addressing The Challenges Of Identifying Migrant Remains, Jamie C. Bazen May 2017

Addressing The Challenges Of Identifying Migrant Remains, Jamie C. Bazen

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Excessive Acquisition: What Is It? What Makes It Happen?, Melanie Doss May 2017

Excessive Acquisition: What Is It? What Makes It Happen?, Melanie Doss

Doctoral Dissertations

This qualitative study draws on the philosophical concept of hermeneutics and theories of the self and self-regulation to investigate the underlying meanings expressed and experienced by the self and the other in the behavior of excessive acquisition. In accordance with the methods outlined by the phenomenological and grounded theory traditions, data were collected from 15 persons afflicted with excessive acquisition, defined as the self and 12 persons afflicted by excessive acquisition, defined as the other. The data content collected from in-depth interviews, field notes, observations, and electronic messages formulated the emergent Parent Themes of Emotion, Space, Economics, and Time. These ...


Operational Jakarta: The Problem Of Representation, Kevin Patrick Jeffers May 2017

Operational Jakarta: The Problem Of Representation, Kevin Patrick Jeffers

Masters Theses

As the twenty-first century unfolds with newly formed degrees of hypercomplex interactions and reactions amongst space, time, economy, politics, social dynamics, and cultural paradigms, we are observing new typologies of urbanism that are different in kind, rather than degree, from the previous “urban” upon which the vast majority of present theoretical and practical discourse has been based. The techniques, strategies, and methodologies of the twentieth-century no longer serve to adequately represent or to explain the phenomena of today’s incipient mega-cities. A new vocabulary must be developed. A new way of seeing is required in order to understand and therefor ...


Identity By The Numbers: Cancerous Lesions And Likelihood Ratios, William Daniel Cawley May 2017

Identity By The Numbers: Cancerous Lesions And Likelihood Ratios, William Daniel Cawley

Masters Theses

The use of Bayesian theory has been gaining popularity within the forensic anthropology community for its ability to model the way in which decisions are made based upon varying levels of confidence. However, many forensic anthropologists have been reticent to adapt Bayesian approaches given the general lack of knowledge in regards to this approach (Konigsberg and Frankenburg, 2013:153). The purpose of this thesis is to demonstrate how the application of an establish Bayesian framework can be used to determine likelihood ratios representing the probative value of skeletal lesions consistent with cancer for use in forensic personal identification. To do ...


Faunal Remains As A Potential Indicator Of Ritual Behavior: Griffin Rockshelter (40fr151), Connie Marie Randall May 2017

Faunal Remains As A Potential Indicator Of Ritual Behavior: Griffin Rockshelter (40fr151), Connie Marie Randall

Masters Theses

Faunal remains are typically interpreted with a focus on utilitarian activity. However, animals were used for a variety of purposes, with some species having special cultural associations. This thesis explores the potential for a faunal assemblage to enhance the belief that Griffin Rockshelter (40FR151), a relatively small sandstone rockshelter, was a space where ritual activity occurred.

This project makes use of a comprehensive analysis of the archaeofauna recovered from Griffin, with data from previous analyses of the lithics and pottery, along with the petroglyphs that cover the shelter’s back wall. To further demonstrate the uniqueness of the material, the ...


Macrobotanical Analysis Of The Topper Site (38al23), Sierra Snively Roark Apr 2017

Macrobotanical Analysis Of The Topper Site (38al23), Sierra Snively Roark

EURēCA: Exhibition of Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement

The Topper Site (38AL23) is a multicomponent precontact site located along the Savannah River in central South Carolina. Recent excavations conducted by the University of Tennessee have resulted in the identification,mapping, excavation, and processing of over 357 features of possible pits, postholes, and other traces of human activity. Fill from each feature was individually excavated and processed via drum flotation. This poster presents a detailed macrobotanical identification and analysis of the contents of a selection of these features using paleoethnobotanical standards. This project provides insight into Native American foodways, structure locations, and overall daily practices which occurred in the ...


A Morphometric Examination Of Cranial Vault Modification In The Middle Cumberland Region Of Central Tennessee, Gregory James Wehrman Dec 2016

A Morphometric Examination Of Cranial Vault Modification In The Middle Cumberland Region Of Central Tennessee, Gregory James Wehrman

Masters Theses

Cranial vault modification (CVM) is a physical manifestation of intersections between culture and biology. Cultural practices that apply pressure to the head during infancy result in significant reshaping of the skull and can be either intentional or unintentional. Occipital flattening is present among many Mississippian skeletal samples from the Middle Cumberland Region (MCR) of central Tennessee and is thought to be an unintentional result of childcare practices. Traditional methods for CVM classification have concentrated on visual assessment of location and means of flattening; however, this method is subjective. This thesis seeks to evaluate visual assessment of CVM through a morphometric ...