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Articles 1 - 30 of 493

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Playing With Knives: The Socialization Of Self-Initiated Learners, David F. Lancy Jan 2016

Playing With Knives: The Socialization Of Self-Initiated Learners, David F. Lancy

David Lancy

Since Margaret Mead’s field studies in the South Pacific a century ago, there has been the tacit understanding that as culture varies, so too must the socialization of children to become competent culture users and bearers. More recently, the work of anthropologists has been mined to find broader patterns that may be common to childhood across a range of societies. One improbable commonality has been the tolerance, even encouragement, of toddler behavior that is patently risky, such as playing with or attempting to use a sharp-edged tool. This laissez faire approach to socialization follows from a reliance on children ...


Ethnographic Perspectives On Culture Acquisition., David F. Lancy Jan 2016

Ethnographic Perspectives On Culture Acquisition., David F. Lancy

David Lancy

The study of cultural transmission has been dominated by the view that it occurs largely through a process by which adults—especially parents—transfer what they know to children. However, “instructed learning” or teaching is, in fact, quite rare in the ethnographic record. Rogoff reports of the Highland Maya that “of the 1708 observations of nine-year-olds, native observers could identify only six occasions as teaching situations” (1981:32). Bruner, in viewing hundreds of hours of ethnographic film shot among !Kung and Netsilik foraging bands, was struck by the total absence of teaching episodes. In a very recent study of traditional ...


Teaching: Natural Or Cultural?, David F. Lancy Jan 2016

Teaching: Natural Or Cultural?, David F. Lancy

David Lancy

This chapter will argue that teaching, as we now understand the term, is historically and cross-culturally very rare. It appears to be unnecessary to transmit culture or to socialize children. Children are, on the other hand, primed by evolution to be avid observers, imitators, players and helpers—roles that reveal the profoundly autonomous and self-directed nature of culture acquisition (Lancy in press a). And yet, teaching is ubiquitous throughout the modern world—at least among the middle to upper class segment of the population. This ubiquity has led numerous scholars to argue for the universality and uniqueness of teaching as ...


23 Aprile: In Cataluña Si Festeggia Sant Jordi, Luis González Vaqué Apr 2015

23 Aprile: In Cataluña Si Festeggia Sant Jordi, Luis González Vaqué

Luis González Vaqué

Ogni anno, il 23 aprile, nei paesi della Catalogna si festeggia Sant Jordi (Sant Jorge) in modo originale e romantico. La tradizione vuole che l’uomo regali alla sua amata un libro accompagnato da una rosa rossa e le donne invece donano un libro al loro amato.


Curriculum Vitae, Megan E. Springate Apr 2015

Curriculum Vitae, Megan E. Springate

Megan E. Springate

No abstract provided.


Carving A Walled Village To Keep Friends In -- An Ethnographic Account In The Cyberspace Of Ingress, Leung-Sea, Lucia Siu Jan 2015

Carving A Walled Village To Keep Friends In -- An Ethnographic Account In The Cyberspace Of Ingress, Leung-Sea, Lucia Siu

Prof. SIU Leung-sea, Lucia

This paper investigates how new forms of classical social cohesion, as illustrated by Emile Durkheim, can be found in the mobile gaming community of Ingress. Ingress was a global game developed by Google that ran on mobile phones using location-based technologies. Gamers from two factions had to travel, cooperate and combat across actual geographical space to play. The paper investigates how the gaming community simultaneously possessed global connectivity and cultures of local enclave communities. It contains ethnographic records of a group of gamers from the satellite town of Tuen Mun, Hong Kong. The group used to build a symbolic wall ...


Chapters 1-2 (Drafts) Of Prehistoric Myths In Modern Political Philosophy: Chapter 1-2, Karl Widerquist, Grant Mccall Jan 2015

Chapters 1-2 (Drafts) Of Prehistoric Myths In Modern Political Philosophy: Chapter 1-2, Karl Widerquist, Grant Mccall

Karl Widerquist

These two chapters are early and very preliminary drafts of the first to chapters of the book, "Prehistoric Myths in Modern Political Philosophy." The first chapter sets up what we are trying to do with this research project and previews our findings. The basic argument of the book is that political philosophers make dubious claims about prehistory in theor theories. These claims are poorly (if at all) research even though they are essential premises in many important political theories. The role of the book is both to show that these claims are necessary to support the arguments in influential political ...


Myths About The State Of Nature And The Reality Of Stateless Societies, Karl Widerquist, Grant Mccall Jan 2015

Myths About The State Of Nature And The Reality Of Stateless Societies, Karl Widerquist, Grant Mccall

Karl Widerquist

This article is a spin-off of my book project (with Grant McCall), "Prehistoric Myths in Modern Political Philosophy." This article makes the following points. Most justifications of government using social contact theory (contractarianism) require a claim we call, “the Hobbesian hypothesis,” which we define as the claim that all people are better off under state authority than they would be outside of it. The Hobbesian hypothesis is an empirical claim about all stateless societies. Many small-scale societies are stateless. Anthropological evidence from the smallest-scale human societies provides sufficient reason to doubt the truth of the hypothesis, if not to reject ...


The Evolution Of Equality: Rethinking Variability And Egalitarianism Among Modern Forager Societies, Grant Mccall, Karl Widerquist Jan 2015

The Evolution Of Equality: Rethinking Variability And Egalitarianism Among Modern Forager Societies, Grant Mccall, Karl Widerquist

Karl Widerquist

This article is a spin off of our book project, "Prehistoric Myths in Modern Political Philosophy." Using hunter-gatherer societies as a focus, we argue for a heuristic continuum of egalitarian social systems ranging between relatively strong and weak forms. Weak egalitarianism is characterized by an absence of real political hierarchy, and limited differences between individuals in terms of rank, status, wealth, or power, while strongly egalitarian societies are characterized by these with some combination of powerful sharing and leveling norms, assertive social mechanisms of norm enforcement, extensive formal networks of reciprocity spanning geographical regions, and ritual practices designed to alleviate ...


Supporting The Expatriate Social Scientist: Faculty Research And Information Access In Post-Soviet Kazakhstan, Celia Emmelhainz Jan 2015

Supporting The Expatriate Social Scientist: Faculty Research And Information Access In Post-Soviet Kazakhstan, Celia Emmelhainz

Celia Emmelhainz

Librarians in America and Europe find that social scientists rely heavily on journal articles, specialized data, and feedback from colleagues in directing their research. This project uses 21 ethnographic interviews with librarians, students, and faculty at “Atameken University” in post-Soviet Kazakhstan to explore how social scientists adjust such research habits to a context of distant information sources and limited access. By developing technological adaptations to the local context, expatriate scholars can surmount most barriers to access—and yet librarians are then less able to effectively support research. Increased access to information and skilled librarians remains essential for Eurasian universities seeking ...


Cv References, Eric R. Force Jan 2015

Cv References, Eric R. Force

Eric R Force

Attached in chronological order are all my published articles, minus abstracts, showing citations as of 2015 (USGS publications etc. excepted). The greatest number of recent citations have been to my work on titanium-mineral deposits (especially #59) and manganese deposits (especially #54). More recent work includes my monograph on the geology of the Santa Catalina Mountains of Arizona (#79). Current work is on Nova Scotia (#91, 100-102) and tectonic environments of ancient complex cultures (#94, 96, 99, 103, 104). Of interest to those managing response to climate change is #101.


Livelihood Resilience: Preparing For Sustainable Transformations In The Face Of Climate Change, Thomas Tanner, David Lewis, David Wrathall, Saleemul Huq, Chris Lawless, Raphael Nawrotzki, Vivik Prasad, Md Ashiqur Rahman, Ryan Alaniz, Robin Bronen, Katherine King, Karen Mcnamara, Md Nadiruzzaman, Sarah Henley-Shepard, Frank Thomalla Jan 2015

Livelihood Resilience: Preparing For Sustainable Transformations In The Face Of Climate Change, Thomas Tanner, David Lewis, David Wrathall, Saleemul Huq, Chris Lawless, Raphael Nawrotzki, Vivik Prasad, Md Ashiqur Rahman, Ryan Alaniz, Robin Bronen, Katherine King, Karen Mcnamara, Md Nadiruzzaman, Sarah Henley-Shepard, Frank Thomalla

Ryan C. Alaniz

The resilience concept requires greater attention to human livelihoods if it is to address the limits to adaptation strategies and the development needs of the planet’s poorest and most vulnerable people. Although the concept of resilience is increasingly informing research and policy, its transfer from ecological theory to social systems leads to weak engagement with normative, social and political dimensions of climate change adaptation. A livelihood perspective helps to strengthen resilience thinking by placing greater emphasis on human needs and their agency, empowerment and human rights, and considering adaptive livelihood systems in the context of wider transformational changes.


Creating Community After Disaster: Norm Formation In Post-Hurricane Mitch Resettlements, Ryan Alaniz Jan 2015

Creating Community After Disaster: Norm Formation In Post-Hurricane Mitch Resettlements, Ryan Alaniz

Ryan C. Alaniz

How does a group of displaced disaster survivors living in a resettlement develop into a community with common vision, trust, collective efficacy and participation? Path dependency theory provides the framework to track the social development of resettlements over time. Drawing on 932 household surveys, 34 interviews, and nine months of ethnography, it is found that initial key processes and the creation and maintenance of social structures shape long-term outcomes. In the case of two similar post-Hurricane Mitch resettlements in Honduras, the development of social norms created unique community cultures. These social structures set the tone for the long-term social development ...


Kpelle Children At Play, David F. Lancy Jan 2015

Kpelle Children At Play, David F. Lancy

David Lancy

Although children’s play has been a relatively popular subject for anthropologists who study childhood, comprehensive studies of the entire play repertoire in a society are rare. One such study was carried out among the Kpelle people in the remote Liberian village of Gbarngasuakwelle four decades ago. A summary of that study reveals that Kpelle children have access to a rich store of traditional play-forms including make-believe, board-type games, active play, contests and folklore. A major finding affirmed that play, far from being the antithesis of work or a reversal of cultural ideals, fundamentally supports and affirms the child’s ...


Por Una Antropología Del Derecho Más Allá De Los Márgenes., Daniel Quiñonez Oct 2014

Por Una Antropología Del Derecho Más Allá De Los Márgenes., Daniel Quiñonez

Daniel Quiñonez Oré

El presente artículo tiene por finalidad plantear un estudio antropológico del Derecho más allá de los márgenes; esto es, más allá de los temas tradicionales que se han venido desarrollando en la Antropología del Derecho Peruana, a efectos de que mediante la antropología y su método se cuestionen las instituciones jurídicas que se presentan como cotidianas y normalizadas en nuestro contexto.


El Surgimiento Del Paisaje Monumentalizado En La Cuenca Del Lago Titicaca, Luis A. Flores Jan 2014

El Surgimiento Del Paisaje Monumentalizado En La Cuenca Del Lago Titicaca, Luis A. Flores

Luis FLORES

The present paper proposes a new interpretation on the origin of the monumentalized landscape in the Titicaca lake area (South-Central Andes), whose consequences were the emergence of barrow structures at the transition from the Formative to the Archaic periods. Such process could be detected through the analysis of the last complex hunter-gatherers’ houses, where domestic and funerary practices coexisted. Both of them allowed the houses to be seen at objects and subjects at the same time within a cyclical system of existence. In that way monumentality is understood as conveying a form of thinking, whose origins are in the domestic ...


Controlled Vocabulary Standards For Anthropological Datasets, Celia Emmelhainz Jan 2014

Controlled Vocabulary Standards For Anthropological Datasets, Celia Emmelhainz

Celia Emmelhainz

This article seeks to outline the use of controlled vocabulary standards for qualitative datasets in cultural anthropology, which are increasingly held in researcher-accessible government repositories and online digital libraries. As a humanistic science that can address almost any aspect of life with meaning to humans, cultural anthropology has proven difficult for librarians and archivists to effectively organize. Yet as anthropology moves onto the web, the challenge of organizing and curating information within the field only grows. In considering the subject classification of digital information in anthropology, I ask how we might best use controlled vocabularies for indexing digital anthropological data ...


Introduction: Obesity, Eating Disorders, And The Media, Karin Eli, Stanley Ulijaszek Jan 2014

Introduction: Obesity, Eating Disorders, And The Media, Karin Eli, Stanley Ulijaszek

Karin Eli

No abstract provided.


Judging Emotion In Reason: The Effect Of Emotion In The Anglo-American Legal System, Diana B. Kontsevaia Jan 2014

Judging Emotion In Reason: The Effect Of Emotion In The Anglo-American Legal System, Diana B. Kontsevaia

Diana Kontsevaia

The social construction of emotion shapes communities’ definitions of what is “appropriate” to feel in a given situation. The social construction of emotion is especially salient and imperative to understand in the context of the current Anglo-American legal system. In this system, the perceived cognitive separation between emotion and reason is accepted as commonly held understanding for evaluating people’s behavior, which prescribes a set of expectations that in certain cases comes forth in gendered terms. This study in cognitive anthropology explores how perceptions of the human cognitive mechanism affect how people are treated even in the allegedly most rational ...


Risk Interpretation And Action (Ria): Decision Making Under Conditions Of Uncertainty, Emma H. Doyle, Shabana Kahn, Carolina Adler, Ryan Alaniz, Simone Athayde, Kuan-Hui Lin, Todd Schenk, Fabiola Sosa-Rodriguez, Victoria Sword-Daniels Jan 2014

Risk Interpretation And Action (Ria): Decision Making Under Conditions Of Uncertainty, Emma H. Doyle, Shabana Kahn, Carolina Adler, Ryan Alaniz, Simone Athayde, Kuan-Hui Lin, Todd Schenk, Fabiola Sosa-Rodriguez, Victoria Sword-Daniels

Ryan C. Alaniz

The paper reports on the World Social Science (WSS) Fellows seminar on Risk Interpretation and Action (RIA), undertaken in New Zealand in December, 2013. This seminar was coordinated by the WSS Fellows program of the International Social Science Council (ISSC), the RIA working group of the Integrated Research on Disaster Risk (IRDR) program, the IRDR International Center of Excellence Taipei, the International START Secretariat and the Royal Society of New Zealand. Twenty-five early career researchers from around the world were selected to review the RIA framework (Eiser et al., 2012) under the theme of ‘decision-making under conditions of uncertainty’, and ...


Babies Aren’T Persons:” A Survey Of Delayed Personhood., David F. Lancy Jan 2014

Babies Aren’T Persons:” A Survey Of Delayed Personhood., David F. Lancy

David Lancy

To better understand attachment from a cross-cultural and historical perspective, I have amassed over 200 cases from the ethnographic and archaeological records that reveal cultural models (D'Andrade and Strauss 1992) of infancy. The 200 cases represent all areas of the world, historical epochs from the Mesolithic to the present and all types of subsistence patterns (Appendix 1). The approach is inductive where cases with similar models of infancy are clustered into archetypes. My principal finding from this analysis is that, in the broadest overview, infants are, effectively, placed on probation and not immediately integrated into the society. Attachment failure ...


Cultural Variation In Life Phases., David F. Lancy, M. Annette Grove Jan 2014

Cultural Variation In Life Phases., David F. Lancy, M. Annette Grove

David Lancy

The knowledge base in the study of human development is built primarily from work with children from the modern, global, post-industrial population. This population is unrepresentative in many respects, not least in that childhood and adolescence is dominated by the experience of formal schooling—an experience missing from the lives of most of the world’s children until very recently. This entry will examine child development from the perspective of pre-modern societies as described in the ethnographic, archaeological and historic records. Specifically, we will review material indicative of cultural or indigenous models of development, phases and phase transitions, in particular.


Propiedad Y Organización Comunal En Las Comunidades Campesinas Del Perú. Un Análisis Crítico, Daniel Quiñonez Dec 2013

Propiedad Y Organización Comunal En Las Comunidades Campesinas Del Perú. Un Análisis Crítico, Daniel Quiñonez

Daniel Quiñonez Oré

El presente artículo analiza de manera crítica la regulación impuesta por el Estado Peruano con relación a la organización y propiedad comunal de las comunidades campesinas. Asimismo, se analiza el tratamiento que la antropología peruana le ha brindado a los derechos de propiedad y organización comunal de las comunidades campesinas en el Perú


A Reinventar Las Fiestas, Fernando Carrión Mena Arq. Dec 2013

A Reinventar Las Fiestas, Fernando Carrión Mena Arq.

Fernando Carrión Mena

El orden y la ritualidad de las fiestas -originalmente de base ciudadana- empiezan a ser regulados municipalmente


A Reinventar Las Fiestas, Fernando Carrión Mena Arq. Dec 2013

A Reinventar Las Fiestas, Fernando Carrión Mena Arq.

Fernando Carrión Mena

El orden y la ritualidad de las fiestas -originalmente de base ciudadana- empiezan a ser regulados municipalmente


Sobre La Importancia De Una Antropología Del Derecho, Daniel Quiñonez Nov 2013

Sobre La Importancia De Una Antropología Del Derecho, Daniel Quiñonez

Daniel Quiñonez Oré

En el presente artículo se manifiesta la importancia que la antropología reviste para el análisis y el estudio del Derecho, postulando la necesidad de salir del esquema postivisita y jerarquizante del mismo, dando cuenta de la existencia de distintas realidades y actores.


Critiquing Cultural Relativism, Jaret Kanarek Oct 2013

Critiquing Cultural Relativism, Jaret Kanarek

The Intellectual Standard

No abstract provided.


Domingo Moll_Farmacéutico Oct 2013

Domingo Moll_Farmacéutico

Clàudia Pons-Moll

No abstract provided.


Anthropology, My Publications Aug 2013

Anthropology, My Publications


No abstract provided.


Secularity, Religion And The Possibilities For Religious Citizenship, Lyn Parker, Chang Yau Hoon Jul 2013

Secularity, Religion And The Possibilities For Religious Citizenship, Lyn Parker, Chang Yau Hoon

Chang Yau HOON

No abstract provided.