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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Impacts Of Agricultural Practices On Soil Quality And The Resulting Soil Conservation Implication In Kizanda Village, Lushoto Region, Tanzania, Sarah Maccormick Oct 2019

Impacts Of Agricultural Practices On Soil Quality And The Resulting Soil Conservation Implication In Kizanda Village, Lushoto Region, Tanzania, Sarah Maccormick

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

This study examined soil conservation in Kizanda Village which is in the Lushoto District, Tanga Region in the West Usambara Mountains of Tanzania. In Tanzania, and more specifically, the rural montane area, agriculture is an important part of both social and economic development. Due to a reported high rate of land degradation in Tanzania, this development is threatened though the lack of soil conservation. This study conducted structured interviews with farmers in Kizanda through snowball sampling to collect information about local agricultural practices and farmers’ perceptions on soil conservation issues. Soil samples were then collected from the corresponding farms (n ...


A Comparative Study On Mental Health Knowledge Based On Socioeconomic Status In Kisumu Kenya 2019, Mashoud Kaba Oct 2019

A Comparative Study On Mental Health Knowledge Based On Socioeconomic Status In Kisumu Kenya 2019, Mashoud Kaba

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Studies show that people who live in rural Kenya have more positive attitudes toward mental illnesses than people in urban areas. They also had more mental health knowledge. One of the differentiating factors between the two environments is the socioeconomic status of those who live in each area. People in rural areas tend to be of lower socioeconomic status, while those living in urban areas tend to be of a higher socioeconomic status. I wanted to see if the previous findings would be observed if we were looking at people in the same area (strictly urban or rural) with the ...


Mining’S Impact On Environmental And Human Health: A Case Study Of Ramba County’S Gold Mine, Vivika Fernes Oct 2019

Mining’S Impact On Environmental And Human Health: A Case Study Of Ramba County’S Gold Mine, Vivika Fernes

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

This research project aims to gain a greater understanding of the health implications that Ramba County’s goldmine has on miners, their families, and the environment. While this study observes the community-at-large, inclusive of visiting miners and extended family members of workers, it will focus on women who engage in artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM). Millions of people in the developing word depend on ASGM for their livelihood, evident in this case study in Ramba County. However, while gold is associated with wealth, there is great irony in the fact that those working within the mining industry are being ...


The Transformative Potential Of High-Level Gender Equality: The Relationship Between Gendered Laws And Perceptions In Rwanda, Elena Ortiz Oct 2019

The Transformative Potential Of High-Level Gender Equality: The Relationship Between Gendered Laws And Perceptions In Rwanda, Elena Ortiz

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

As part of its reconstruction process following the 1994 genocide against the Tutsi, Rwanda introduced several laws and policies protecting gender equality, which stood it stark contrast to traditional patriarchal norms and structures. This study focuses on the relationship between institutional gender reform and local perceptions. Specifically, it seeks to explore the extent to which perceptions around gender have caught up to legal changes and identify where the greatest gaps exist across political, social, and economic dimensions. Data collection occurred in two parts: quantitatively, a multiple-choice survey was distributed to 76 Rwandan adults investigating their perceptions of gender in political ...


A Study Of Scars: Narratives Of Unintentional Childhood Injuries In Cato Manor, Carolyn Fox Oct 2019

A Study Of Scars: Narratives Of Unintentional Childhood Injuries In Cato Manor, Carolyn Fox

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

The purpose of this study is to identify the specific types of injuries children experience growing up in Cato Manor, specifically, KwaMasxha, to understand how community members process and make meaning of their injuries over time, and to analyze the social determinants of health in Cato Manor that have been conducive to these injuries.

In order to learn about experiences of unintentional childhood injuries in Cato Manor, data was collected using a qualitative, narrative-based approach. I conducted interviews with young adult community members aged 19 to 27 years, asking about their personal experiences with childhood injuries as someone who grew ...


Which Factors Influence The Usage And Perceptions Of Medicinal Plants In Kizanda Village (Lushoto District) And Ushongo Village (Tanga District)?, Callie Smith Oct 2019

Which Factors Influence The Usage And Perceptions Of Medicinal Plants In Kizanda Village (Lushoto District) And Ushongo Village (Tanga District)?, Callie Smith

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

The objective of this study was to compare and examine which factors impact usage and perceptions of traditional medicine in Ushongo Mtoni and Kizanda villages. More specifically, this study aimed to gain an understanding of the usages, with a specific focus on gendered usages of medicinal plants in Kizanda village and Ushongo Mtoni village and to try to examine the differences in perceptions towards traditional medicine usage in Kizanda and Ushongo. Additionally, this study aimed to determine if there are any major themes that are constant with medicinal plants in both Ushongo and Kizanda. In order to conduct this study ...


How Is Disability Seen? An Auto-Ethnographic Exploration Of Disability In Urban Townships In Ethekwini, South Africa, Connie Chao Oct 2019

How Is Disability Seen? An Auto-Ethnographic Exploration Of Disability In Urban Townships In Ethekwini, South Africa, Connie Chao

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Disability is a topic that is often overlooked and not seen in day to day life. Disability may be visible or invisible to others, and individuals may have varying attitudes and opinions towards people with disabilities. Disability can also be conceptualized in different ways depending on if one takes on a bio-medical model or a social model of disability. In this study, I explored how disability is seen, both literally and metaphorically in urban townships in the eThekwini Municipality in South Africa. I conducted semi-structured interviews with individuals with disabilities and community members at large to understand people’s perspectives ...


Health And Education: Perspectives On The Role Of Schools In Health Promotion, Miranda Powell Oct 2019

Health And Education: Perspectives On The Role Of Schools In Health Promotion, Miranda Powell

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

The purpose of this study was to understand learners’ perceptions of the role schools play in health promotion. Health promotion encompasses health education and can be highly effective in the school setting. Given the high rates of HIV/AIDS, teen pregnancy, early sexual debut, and abuse, health education is highly important in South African schools. All learners are required to take Life Orientation classes, which cover many topics including health education. Comparing the views of what learners expect, experience, and the curriculum, my study addressed the gaps in Life Orientation classes with regards to health promotion education.

For this study ...


The Practice Of Dhikr Among Senegalese Taalibe Baay Women: Individual Devotion, Communal Well-Being, Natalie Marsh Oct 2019

The Practice Of Dhikr Among Senegalese Taalibe Baay Women: Individual Devotion, Communal Well-Being, Natalie Marsh

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

For Sufis, dhikr—the practice of invoking the Name of God—pervades the fabric of everyday life. For Taalibe Baay (disciples of Ibrahim Niasse) living in Senegal, dhikr takes on particular significance in relation to the experience of tarbiya, an intense spiritual initiation aimed at achieving a vision of God. If tarbiya is the door to the spiritual path, some Taalibe Baay say, then dhikr is a tool by which disciples can continue to progress along this path, purifying themselves internally and reaffirming their connection to God each time they perform these prayers. But for some Senegalese Taalibe Baay women ...


Foreign Direct Investment In Kigali’S Special Economic Zone And Its Impact On Rwanda’S Economic Reconstruction, Sabrina Roberts Oct 2019

Foreign Direct Investment In Kigali’S Special Economic Zone And Its Impact On Rwanda’S Economic Reconstruction, Sabrina Roberts

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Vision 2020 is a development strategy implemented by the Rwandan government. It aims to make Rwanda a middle-income country with a per capita income of $1240 USD. One pillar of this strategy is increasing regional and international integration. The Kigali Special Economic Zone (KSEZ) was created in direct response to this pillar.

The paper begins with an introduction to Rwanda’s post-conflict economic situation and goes on to describe and explain the role that Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in the KSEZ has played in reconstructing the Rwandan economy. The study focuses on the impacts of the KSEZ and the significance ...


Queer Spaces, Future Places: Conversations With 3 Black Capetonian Femmes On Embodying Liberation, Ivana Onubogu Oct 2019

Queer Spaces, Future Places: Conversations With 3 Black Capetonian Femmes On Embodying Liberation, Ivana Onubogu

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Black femme bodies face multi-axial oppressive forces resting on their racialization, gendering, sexuality and possible other factors like socioeconomic status and ability. I interviewed 3 queer-identified Black femmes between the ages of 18 and 35 that are based in or work out of the Cape Town area. Femmes is defined as trans womxn, nonbinary femmes, femme lesbians and femme bisexuals, effeminate mxn, or any other femme-identified queer person. The purpose of this project is to investigate the possibility of a liberated Black queer future as an embodied practice within the context of the Black Capetonian queer community. Participants were selected ...


The Effect Of Tribalism On Political Parties, Cyrus Lloyd Oct 2019

The Effect Of Tribalism On Political Parties, Cyrus Lloyd

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Tribalism has been the fundamental organizational unit of Middle Eastern Society for thousands of years. Recently however, modern scholars have questioned the viability of tribalism in the burgeoning democratic systems of the region. This study weighs in on this debate, focusing specifically on how tribal loyalties influence the effectiveness of political parties, considered by political science researchers to be the most effective way for the people to impose their will on the government. Focusing specifically on Jordan, this research takes into account information collected from interviews with several prominent members of Jordanian political, social, and intellectual life, including the heads ...


The Effect Of Stray Dogs On Urban Arusha Residents And Existing Preventative Measures, Brooke Magliabatista Oct 2019

The Effect Of Stray Dogs On Urban Arusha Residents And Existing Preventative Measures, Brooke Magliabatista

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

The study at hand encompasses interviews and observations conducted in three areas of Urban Arusha. The areas of choice are Njiro Complex, Sinoni, and Kaloleni areas, in addition to interviews with individuals situated at Clocktower, input from a veterinary practitioner and information gathered from the organization Mbwa Wa Africa situated next to the Arusha National Park. The study took place from Nov. 7-Nov 26, 2019. The interviews include random sampling of local populations and encompassed pre-formed survey questions for each level of person interviewed. The question being addressed ask: what is the dynamic between Arusha residents and stray dogs, and ...


E-Waste Shouldn’T Be Waste: A Study On The Practices, Perceptions, And Policies On E-Waste In Urban Arusha, Tanzania, Melanie Mckenzie Oct 2019

E-Waste Shouldn’T Be Waste: A Study On The Practices, Perceptions, And Policies On E-Waste In Urban Arusha, Tanzania, Melanie Mckenzie

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

This study examines the e-waste stream in urban Arusha, answer the questions of where electronics go, how people usually dispose of them, if people are aware of the impacts of e-waste, and what next steps are necessary. The study took place in November 2019 in urban Arusha, Tanzania. Through snowball and convenience sampling in 4 quotas (community members, electricians, business members, and a policy maker), the study finds that there is no place for the proper disposal of e-waste in Arusha. Many electronics are disposed of improperly by being put into the landfill or burned. Most participants were unaware of ...


Queer Otherwise: Embodying A Queer Identity In Cape Town, Teak Emanuel Hodge Oct 2019

Queer Otherwise: Embodying A Queer Identity In Cape Town, Teak Emanuel Hodge

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

This research responds to the following question: how do LGBTQ South Africans in Cape Town come to understand and embody their queerness? Drawing on ideas of the body as a sense making agent (Meyburgh 2006) and site of socio-political contestation (Foucault 1975) this research adapts body-mapping methodologies (de Jager, Tewson, Ludlow, Boydell 2016) to excavate the ways in which LGBT South Africans negotiate their queerness. Through centering the experiences of three LGBTQ identified South African’s in conversation with the experiences of the researcher, this paper delves into how queer people make sense of and understand themselves in relation to ...


Lived Experiences Of Temporary Permanence: The Syrian Perspective On Humanitarian Response And ‘Guest Status’ In Jordan, Leila A. Ismaio Oct 2019

Lived Experiences Of Temporary Permanence: The Syrian Perspective On Humanitarian Response And ‘Guest Status’ In Jordan, Leila A. Ismaio

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

As the conflict in Syria has evolved into a long-term crisis, Syrian refugees have found themselves in a state of both temporality and permanence, frequently cited as being ‘stuck’. Syrians in Jordan, particularly, have fallen victim to this status, frequently labeled as ‘guests’, with corresponding humanitarian aid also reflecting this temporality. No studies have yet explored Syrian refugees perceptions and experiences with ‘guest’ status and its relationship with humanitarian assistance. The purpose of this study is to explore Syrian perception of ‘guest’ status and current humanitarian efforts in Jordan and see how this demonstrates and challenges the dichotomy present in ...


Syrian Refugee Mothers In Jordan: Perceived Social Support And Postpartum Depression, Marya Rana Oct 2019

Syrian Refugee Mothers In Jordan: Perceived Social Support And Postpartum Depression, Marya Rana

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Many women suffer from postpartum depression; migrant women experience postpartum depression at rates almost triple that of the general population. This study investigated the associations between perceived social support and postpartum depression among Syrian refugee mothers living in Amman, Jordan. Eleven mothers completed a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), and the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List (ISEL) - Shortened Version. Four of those mothers also participated in individual interviews, and four others were included in a focus group. Multiple recurring themes were identified from the interviews and focus group, including: perceived differences in child and social support in Syria ...


The Role Of Local Communities In Preventing And Countering Violent Extremism (P/Cve) In Jordan, Anna Fraher Klingensmith Oct 2019

The Role Of Local Communities In Preventing And Countering Violent Extremism (P/Cve) In Jordan, Anna Fraher Klingensmith

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Bordering Syria, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, and Israel/Palestine, with Lebanon not too far away, Jordan’s location makes it at high risk for violent extremism. Although Jordan is considered one of the safest countries in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, the country is known for having one of the highest numbers of foreign fighters in the world, and for being the homeland of the father of ISIS (Abu Musab al-Zarqawi). Also worrisome is the increasing number of desperate people turning to extremist ideologies due to the country’s economic crisis and lack of opportunities for political engagement ...


Water And War: The Potential For Perpetuation Of Conflict Due To Climate Change, Kaufman Butler Oct 2019

Water And War: The Potential For Perpetuation Of Conflict Due To Climate Change, Kaufman Butler

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Climate change has had a dramatic impact on the world’s weather for years, scientists can only make predictions about how global climate will continue to change going forward; but in all scenarios the circumstances are quite dire. The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) will see some of the most severe effects of climate change, which will permanently alter the lives of millions of people in the region. In the MENA region, climate change is projected to result in extreme drought and temperatures which will lead to increased water scarcity, in what is already the most water poor region ...


The Understandings And Human Cost Of ‘Prevention Through Deterrence,’ As Seen Amongst Advocates In The United States And Mexico, Margaret Edwards Apr 2019

The Understandings And Human Cost Of ‘Prevention Through Deterrence,’ As Seen Amongst Advocates In The United States And Mexico, Margaret Edwards

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

In the last two years of President Donald Trump and his administration, immigration and border regulations between the United States (US) and Mexico has become one of the most decisive and hottest political issues. This political struggle has brought into question US border practices and strategies such as physical barriers, denial of entry, detention, and, most importantly, how the US should respond to immigration. In reality, though, this question has existed since immigration along the US-Mexico border began.

In this paper, I examine a 1994 US Border Strategy, first introduced under President Bill Clinton, called ‘Prevention Through Deterrence.’ This border ...


Subsistence In Samoa: Influences Of The Capitalist Global Economy On Conceptions Of Wealth And Well-Being, Tess Hosman Apr 2019

Subsistence In Samoa: Influences Of The Capitalist Global Economy On Conceptions Of Wealth And Well-Being, Tess Hosman

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

This paper studies Samoa’s position in the global economy as an informal agricultural economy. A country’s access to the global economy reflects a level of socio-economic development and political power. It is also reflective of the country’s history of globalization. This research uses an analysis of past and current forms of colonization that continue to influence cultural and ideological practices, specifically practices regarding food. Concepts of wealth and well-being in subsistence and capitalist economies are compared and contrasted. Research takes place on the main island of Upolu, in and around the capital, Apia. Information is accumulated from ...


We Are All Alive: Understanding Connections Between People And Coral Reefs In Samoa, Kalamakaleimahoehoe Porter Apr 2019

We Are All Alive: Understanding Connections Between People And Coral Reefs In Samoa, Kalamakaleimahoehoe Porter

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

This work seeks to incorporate ecological research methods, socioeconomic data analysis, and local story collection into one understanding of coral reefs on the island of Upolu in Samoa. Data collection utilized transects and timed dives to assess four reef health indicators, and socio-economic indicators were sourced from the Samoa Bureau of Statistics. Interviews were also conducted to gain Samoan perspectives on the importance of coral reefs. Findings include patterns between the socioeconomic factors of population demographics, unemployment rates, education, and improved water, waste, and sanitation facilities and the environmental indicators of prevalence of plastic, percentage cover of living coral, parrotfish ...


Music As A Cultural Gateway: A Short-Term Folk Music Program In Albania, Catherine Pierattini Apr 2019

Music As A Cultural Gateway: A Short-Term Folk Music Program In Albania, Catherine Pierattini

Capstone Collection

Folk songs have been described as a musical representation of a society’s entire culture. The field of ethnomusicology combines aspects of music and anthropology, and the study of folk music can give considerable insight into worldviews, histories, and traditions. Yet there are few study abroad program providers using this discipline as an approach to cultural analysis and exploration.

The proposed Middlebury Music Studies in Albania program would introduce diverse folk music traditions in three distinct cities, giving students the chance to learn the basics of the Albanian language, understand the historical, geographical, and social influences on the music in ...


The Impacts Of Warming Coffee: The Climate Change-Coffee-Migration Nexus In The Northern Triangle Of Central America, Connor Lynch Apr 2019

The Impacts Of Warming Coffee: The Climate Change-Coffee-Migration Nexus In The Northern Triangle Of Central America, Connor Lynch

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

As climate change continues to threaten every corner of the world, one of the key features of the 21st century is migration, as a response to the myriad of effects related to a warming planet. This paper seeks to analyze the role of climate change as a motive for migration. The climate change-migration nexus is illustrated in this paper by revealing how slow-onset effects of climate change jeopardize the production of coffee in the Northern Triangle of Central America (NTCA), a region that is particularly vulnerable to the many effects. Thousands of people who depend on coffee production around Guatemala ...


Where Do We Go From Here?: Two Key Informants' Perspectives On How To Address Conscientious Objection In Top Provision In South Africa, Talia Parker Apr 2019

Where Do We Go From Here?: Two Key Informants' Perspectives On How To Address Conscientious Objection In Top Provision In South Africa, Talia Parker

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

This perspectives research endeavor examines the barriers to TOP access that arise from conscientious objection through the conflicting network of rights and legislation in South Africa. While previous research has evidenced the demonstrable barriers to accessing TOP care in South Africa, this project aims to push the existing literature and the field as a whole one step further to interrogate how to move forward within the realities of conscientious objection.

To do so, I conducted interviews with key informants in the field of reproductive healthcare provision, research, and activism in Cape Town on their perspectives about the practice of conscientious ...


Mind Over (What Doesn’T) Matter: De-Stigmatizing Mental Health From Senegalese Women’S Perspectives, Jenna Marks Apr 2019

Mind Over (What Doesn’T) Matter: De-Stigmatizing Mental Health From Senegalese Women’S Perspectives, Jenna Marks

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

As a matrilocal and collectivist society, Dakar is an urban space where the woman is at the center. With this in mind, it is possible to understand all the pressures women in urban Senegalese society face. Women are the center of the household, thus being responsible for the family, finances, and the social aspect of welcoming visitors. In addition to these factors, women in Senegal also deal with community expectations and responsibilities since there is larger emphasis on the community, rather than the nuclear family in Senegalese society. This paper examines how these two aspects of Senegalese society (matrilocality and ...


Child’S Play: A Service Learning Project Conducted At Roroš, Nové Mešto Pod Smrkem, Sanaya Attari Apr 2019

Child’S Play: A Service Learning Project Conducted At Roroš, Nové Mešto Pod Smrkem, Sanaya Attari

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

For my Independent Study Project, I designed a board game for young children inspired by the service learning activities held at ROROŠ. ROROŠ is a private organization located in the town of Nové Mešto pod Smrkem, offering different activities for children which provide a meaningful use of their leisure time. For a period of three weeks, I lived in Nové Mešto with Yveta Svobodová, one of the head directors of the organization. During my stay, I partook in several activities each week and used my experiences to generate new ideas when designing the final game. The game was completed by ...


Endangered Danger: Christianity, Affect, And Harmless Snakes In Samoa, Ariel Abonizio G. S. Apr 2019

Endangered Danger: Christianity, Affect, And Harmless Snakes In Samoa, Ariel Abonizio G. S.

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

The Candoia bibroni (Pacific Boa), is a non-venomous Samoan snake that recently become an endangered species, possibly due to human killing on sight. This interdisciplinary research investigates how Pacific Boa came to be perceived as dangerous animals that need to be killed. Following snake tracks through the history of Samoa and into the present, this research suggests that the relationship between Samoans and the Pacific Boa questions the simple binaries of real/imagined, material/semiotic, subjective/objective, and material/immaterial. Particularly with the introduction of Christianity by missionaries in the early-1800s, the Pacific Boa snake came to inhabit the liminal ...


Home And Healing In The In-Between: Migrant And Refugee Mental Health In Tunisia, Donia Torabian Apr 2019

Home And Healing In The In-Between: Migrant And Refugee Mental Health In Tunisia, Donia Torabian

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

This research is a study of migrant conceptions of home and healing in Tunisia. It seeks to understand the ways in which migration, trauma, and healing interact as lived experiences for people who migrate for various reasons to Tunisia. Using past research from Terre d’Asile and Médecins du Monde, the research seeks to understand the main risk and protective factors of migrant mental health. The research is a qualitative study of the ways in which migrants identify with having experienced trauma and the healing practices they may have brought to or learned in Tunisia. It also hopes to build ...


Self-Perceptions Of The French Community In Morocco, Madeleine L. Breunig Apr 2019

Self-Perceptions Of The French Community In Morocco, Madeleine L. Breunig

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

North-South migration is growing trend; however, this type of migration is overlooked in the literature because it is not viewed as urgent or negative. Migrants from the global North are associated with wealth, and are referred to by the term expatriate, which distinguishes them from migrants, placing them in a more positive light. In Morocco, there is a growing community of Europeans. Among them, the French community stands out as one of the largest migrant groups in Morocco. Their presence is an interesting one, as they have a shared history with Morocco and a common language in Morocco, in theory ...