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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

The Ethnohistory Of Freshwater Use On Rapa Nui (Easter Island, Chile), Sean W. Hixon, Robert J. Dinapoli, Carl P. Lipo, Terry L. Hunt Jun 2019

The Ethnohistory Of Freshwater Use On Rapa Nui (Easter Island, Chile), Sean W. Hixon, Robert J. Dinapoli, Carl P. Lipo, Terry L. Hunt

Anthropology Faculty Scholarship

Sources of drinking water on islands often present critical constraints to human habitation. On Rapa Nui (Easter Island, Chile), there is remarkably little surface fresh water due to the nature of the island’s volcanic geology. While several lakes exist in volcanic craters, most rainwater quickly passes into the subsurface and emerges at coastal springs. Nevertheless, the island sustained a relatively large human population for hundreds of years, one that built an impressive array of monumental platforms (ahu) and statues (moai). To understand how Rapanui acquired their scarce fresh water, we review ethnohistoric data from first European arrival (1722) through ...


Becoming Chacoan: The Archaeology Of The Aztec North Great House, Michelle I. Turner May 2019

Becoming Chacoan: The Archaeology Of The Aztec North Great House, Michelle I. Turner

Graduate Dissertations and Theses

Between 900 and 1140 CE, people at Chaco Canyon and throughout its region built multistory monumental structures with hundreds of rooms, known as great houses. This dissertation reports on recent archaeological testing on one such great house, the Aztec North great house at Aztec Ruins National Monument.

I argue that Aztec North’s occupation represents an early, transitional period, as people previously not involved in the Chaco world made choices that increasingly brought them into Chaco’s orbit and changed their way of life forever. The structure represents a remarkable architectural experiment in large-scale adobe construction, one that likely was ...


Foundation For Measuring Community Sustainability, Pamela A. Mischen, George C. Homsy, Carl P. Lipo, Robert Holahan, Valerie Imbruce, Andreas Pape, Joe Graney, Ziang Zhang, Louisa M. Holmes, Manuel Reina Apr 2019

Foundation For Measuring Community Sustainability, Pamela A. Mischen, George C. Homsy, Carl P. Lipo, Robert Holahan, Valerie Imbruce, Andreas Pape, Joe Graney, Ziang Zhang, Louisa M. Holmes, Manuel Reina

Anthropology Faculty Scholarship

In order to understand the impact of individual communities on global sustainability, we need a community sustainability assessment system (CSAS). While many sustainability assessment systems exist, they prove inadequate to the task. This article presents the results of a systematic review of the literature on existing sustainability assessment systems; offers a definition of a sustainable community; provides a multi-scale, systems approach to thinking about community; and makes recommendations from the field of performance measurement for the construction of a CSAS.


Rapa Nui (Easter Island) Monument (Ahu) Locations Explained By Freshwater Sources, Robert J. Dinapoli, Carl P. Lipo, Tanya Brosnan, Terry L. Hunt, Sean W. Hixon, Alex E. Morrison, Matthew Becker Jan 2019

Rapa Nui (Easter Island) Monument (Ahu) Locations Explained By Freshwater Sources, Robert J. Dinapoli, Carl P. Lipo, Tanya Brosnan, Terry L. Hunt, Sean W. Hixon, Alex E. Morrison, Matthew Becker

Anthropology Faculty Scholarship

Explaining the processes underlying the emergence of monument construction is a major theme in contemporary anthropological archaeology, and recent studies have employed spatially-explicit modeling to explain these patterns. Rapa Nui (Easter Island, Chile) is famous for its elaborate ritual architecture, particularly numerous monumental platforms (ahu) and statuary (moai). To date, however, we lack explicit modeling to explain spatial and temporal aspects of monument construction. Here, we use spatially-explicit point-process modeling to explore the potential relations between ahu construction locations and subsis- tence resources, namely, rock mulch agricultural gardens, marine resources, and freshwa- ter sources—the three most critical resources on ...


5-Httlpr, Drd4 Gene, College Students’ Psychological Characters And Academic Performance., Weiyi Guo Jul 2018

5-Httlpr, Drd4 Gene, College Students’ Psychological Characters And Academic Performance., Weiyi Guo

Graduate Dissertations and Theses

The purpose of this study, “Genetic basis of Academic Performance,” is to evaluate associations between the 5-HTTLPR, the DRD4 gene, psychological characteristics including metacognition and depression, and academic performance as reflected in SAT scores. We discovered that participants with 2-repeat or 7-repeat alleles of the DRD4 gene have significantly lower scores on the Metacognition tests (P = 0.022) and two subclades of metacognition, “Cognitive Self-Consciousness” (P = 0.021) and “Need to Control Thoughts” (P = 0.040), as compared to those without 2-repeat or 7-repeat alleles. 7-repeat allele DRD4 gene carriers have significantly higher scores for alcohol use disorders than those ...


Automated Mound Detection Using Lidar And Object-Based Image Analysis In Beaufort County, Sc, Carl P. Lipo, Matt Sanger, Dylan Davis Jun 2018

Automated Mound Detection Using Lidar And Object-Based Image Analysis In Beaufort County, Sc, Carl P. Lipo, Matt Sanger, Dylan Davis

Anthropology Datasets

The study of prehistoric anthropogenic mounded features– earthen mounds, shell heaps, and shell rings – in the American Southeast is stymied by the spotty distribution of systematic surveys across the region. Many extant, yet unidentified, archaeological mound features continue to evade detection due to the heavily forested canopies that occupy large areas of the region, making pedestrian surveys difficult and preventing aerial observation. The use of object-based image analysis (OBIA) as a tool for analysing light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data, however, offers an inexpensive opportunity to address this challenge. Using publicly available LiDAR data from Beaufort County, South Carolina and ...


The Moai Of Rapa Nui (Easter Island), Carl P. Lipo, Terry L. Hunt Jun 2018

The Moai Of Rapa Nui (Easter Island), Carl P. Lipo, Terry L. Hunt

Anthropology Faculty Scholarship

The current database for the moai of Rapa Nui (Easter Island, Chile).


Preliminary Results Of Magnetic Gradiometry And Photogrammetric Imagery From La Playa, Sonora, Mexico (Son F:10:3), Paula Hertfelder, Alejandra Abrego, Hunter M. Claypatch, Timothy Desmet, Christopher Lee Jan 2018

Preliminary Results Of Magnetic Gradiometry And Photogrammetric Imagery From La Playa, Sonora, Mexico (Son F:10:3), Paula Hertfelder, Alejandra Abrego, Hunter M. Claypatch, Timothy Desmet, Christopher Lee

GIS Day

Covering an area of nearly ten square kilometers, La Playa (SON F:10:3) is one of the most important archaeological sites in northwest Mexico. While La Playa has been best known for its Early Agricultural occupation, this research, funded through National Geographic, targets the poorly understood origins of the Trincheras Tradition. This poster presents initial results of magnetic gradiometry and photogrammetric imagery collected from the site in April 2017 as part of the ongoing binational project Proyecto La Playa. Along with magnetic gradiometry data collection, several unmanned aerial vehicle flights with a Trimble UX5 captured photogrammetric images of the ...


Unveiling The Past: Using Lidar To Discover Lost Archaeological Features In The American Southeast, Dylan S. Davis Jan 2018

Unveiling The Past: Using Lidar To Discover Lost Archaeological Features In The American Southeast, Dylan S. Davis

GIS Day

Artificial mounds and rings are morphologically heterogeneous. While they share many compositional traits, their outlines on landscapes widely vary across geographic regions. As such, automated identification of these deposits requires the use of algorithms that are capable of evaluating a range of criteria and assessing objects that fall within acceptable ranges for each analyzed attribute. Object-based image analysis (OBIA) is one solution to this problem. Here, I develop a combined OBIA method utilizing two different approaches – multiresolution segmentation and template matching – in order to locate these features semi-automatically. The results of this study indicate the success of this method for ...


Indigenous Pottery From Sonora, Mexico: Examining Typologies And Spatial Distribution, Hunter M. Claypatch Jan 2018

Indigenous Pottery From Sonora, Mexico: Examining Typologies And Spatial Distribution, Hunter M. Claypatch

Graduate Dissertations and Theses

A wealth of archaeological surveys and excavations has been conducted in Sonora, Mexico within the past century. Despite the establishment of Centro INAH Sonora, and numerous binational projects, little attempt has been made to synthesize the state’s growing literature. This thesis provides the first detailed study of indigenous ceramics from Sonora, Mexico. Archaeological projects within Sonora have been bifurcated by nation-state boundaries and divergent academic schooling—both possessing their own distinct research goals and methodologies. On a pragmatic level, a synthesis of prehistoric and protohistoric Sonoran pottery is necessary to establish a methodological consensus for classifications and typologies. On ...


The Globally Manufactured Mosquito: Creating A Public Health Technology In Key West, Florida, Priscilla A. Bennett Jan 2018

The Globally Manufactured Mosquito: Creating A Public Health Technology In Key West, Florida, Priscilla A. Bennett

Graduate Dissertations and Theses

The rapid emergence of profit-oriented, life altering technologies has raised a number of questions over how humans should intervene in our shared environments. Unfamiliar genetic techniques for the manipulation of biological life have stimulated both promise and despair over our ecological future. What these technologies can solve, what they may overlook, and how they disrupt current arrangements has been the focus of my dissertation research, which ethnographically engages in efforts to conduct experimental field trials of Oxitec's OX513A, a genetically engineered Aedes aegypti mosquito in Key West, Florida.

Promoted as a pest-turned-ally in vector control, a tool of public ...


The Art Of The Spearthrower: Understanding The Andean Estólica Through Iconography, Zachary R. Critchley Jan 2018

The Art Of The Spearthrower: Understanding The Andean Estólica Through Iconography, Zachary R. Critchley

Graduate Dissertations and Theses

Spearthrower devices held a role around the world as a primary weapon and tool before slowly falling out of favor in certain areas for other projectile weapons. While it is widely accepted that spearthrowers were used by the people of the ancient central Andes, comparatively little research has gone into the role that they had as weapons of war, hunting tools, and objects of ceremonial reverence. In addition, the Andes developed a unique style of spearthrower and have produced many examples of spearthrowers with exceptional craftsmanship, leading me to believe that these tools were given special reverence.

This thesis compiles ...


Utilitarian And Community Values In Mainstream And Alternative Health Care On Martha's Vineyard, Sandra D. Polleys-Bunch Jan 2018

Utilitarian And Community Values In Mainstream And Alternative Health Care On Martha's Vineyard, Sandra D. Polleys-Bunch

Graduate Dissertations and Theses

Problems endemic to Martha’s Vineyard’s health care system and community efforts to resolve them led to the this community study on Martha’s Vineyard, Massachusetts. Such problems included Martha’s Vineyard’s sole hospital and nursing home’s declarations of bankruptcy in 1996, the fluctuation of quality of Vineyard health care organization relations with the community overall, the rate of uninsured that was two times that of Massachusetts overall, the Island’s isolation from mainland medical services, and its health care service scarcities. This ethnography focuses on utilitarian values to explain difficulties that Vineyarders experienced during their efforts ...


The Shape Of Diversity: A Morphometric Analysis Of Late Archaic Bifaces From Lamoka Lake, Samuel M. Bourcy Jan 2018

The Shape Of Diversity: A Morphometric Analysis Of Late Archaic Bifaces From Lamoka Lake, Samuel M. Bourcy

Graduate Dissertations and Theses

The general assumption of Late Archaic peoples in the Northeast is that they were one homogeneous culture group, but through the study of Lamoka Lake bifaces found at the Lamoka Lake Site, as well as applying the concepts of community of practice, I have shown that tool shape variation could indicate distinct social groups. Using computer software to digitally outline bifaces I compared the shape of over 400 bifaces from Lamoka Lake and statistically analyzed their morphologies in order to provide material correlates of social diversity. Whether this morphological variation is representative of the conscious or unconscious design choices made ...


Diet Of The Prehistoric Population Of Rapa Nui (Easter Island, Chile) Shows Environmental Adaptation And Resilience, Catrine L. Jarmine, Thomas Larsen, Terry L. Hunt, Carl P. Lipo, Reidar Solsvik, Natalie Wallsgrove, Cassie Ka'apu-Lyons, Hilary G. Close, Brian N. Popp Jun 2017

Diet Of The Prehistoric Population Of Rapa Nui (Easter Island, Chile) Shows Environmental Adaptation And Resilience, Catrine L. Jarmine, Thomas Larsen, Terry L. Hunt, Carl P. Lipo, Reidar Solsvik, Natalie Wallsgrove, Cassie Ka'apu-Lyons, Hilary G. Close, Brian N. Popp

Anthropology Faculty Scholarship

Objectives: The Rapa Nui “ecocide” narrative questions whether the prehistoric population caused an avoidable ecological disaster through rapid deforestation and over-exploitation of natural resources. The objective of this study was to characterize prehistoric human diets to shed light on human adaptability and land use in an island environment with limited resources.

Materials and methods: Materials for this study included human, faunal, and botanical remains from the archaeological sites Anakena and Ahu Tepeu on Rapa Nui, dating from c. 1400 AD to the historic period, and modern reference material. We used bulk carbon and nitrogen isotope analy- ses and amino acid ...


The Benefits Of Swir Imagery For Archaeological Landscape Analysis: A Case Study From Easter Island (Rapa Nui), Chile, Dylan Davis, Carl Lipo Apr 2017

The Benefits Of Swir Imagery For Archaeological Landscape Analysis: A Case Study From Easter Island (Rapa Nui), Chile, Dylan Davis, Carl Lipo

Research Days Student Posters

"The use of multispectral imagery is particularly effective for mapping the archaeological record of Rapa Nui (Easter Island) due to the island’s lack of vegetation and exposed surficial lithic features. In 2010, Flaws demonstrated that near-infrared (NIR) imagery can be used to identify “lithic mulch” gardens, areas of cultivation that are enhanced through the prehistoric addition of broken bedrock. Here, we evaluate newly available, high-resolution short-wave infrared (SWIR) imagery for its potential to provide additional resolution and discrimination in mapping “lithic mulch” features."


Resource Scarcity And Monumental Architecture: Cost Signaling On Rapa Nui (Easter Island), Chile, Dylan Davis, Carl P. Lipo Apr 2017

Resource Scarcity And Monumental Architecture: Cost Signaling On Rapa Nui (Easter Island), Chile, Dylan Davis, Carl P. Lipo

Research Days Student Posters

Costly signaling theory (CST) explains a variety of elaborate behavioral displays as a consequence of competition over resources when the risk of direct conflict is high. Within an archaeological context, monumental architecture is potentially explained as a facet of costly signaling between individuals and groups. On Rapa Nui, CST offers an explanation for the construction of labor-intensive monuments including massive statues (moai) and ceremonial platforms (ahu). Using hypotheses derived from CST and spatial data about the distribution of archaeological features, the degree to which CST accounts for the investment in prehistoric monumental architecture on Rapu Nui is evaluated.


Book Review: Ghost Walls: The Story Of A 17th-Century Colonial Homestead, By Sally M. Walker, Garry Wheeler Stone Feb 2017

Book Review: Ghost Walls: The Story Of A 17th-Century Colonial Homestead, By Sally M. Walker, Garry Wheeler Stone

Northeast Historical Archaeology

Ghost Walls: The Story of a 17th-Century Colonial Homestead, by Sally M. Walker, 2014, Carolrhoda Books, Lerner Publishing, Minneapolis, MN, 136 pages, 105 photographs, 18 drawings, $20.95 (cloth).


Book Review: A History Of Boston In 50 Artifacts, By Joseph M. Bagley, Patricia Samford Feb 2017

Book Review: A History Of Boston In 50 Artifacts, By Joseph M. Bagley, Patricia Samford

Northeast Historical Archaeology

A History of Boston in 50 Artifacts, by Joseph M. Bagley, 2016, University Press of New England, Hanover, NH, 232 pages, 153 color illustrations, references, and index, $24.95 (cloth), $21.99 (eBook).


Book Review: Eating In The Side Room: Food, Archaeology, And African American Identity, By Mark S. Warner, Stéphane Noël Feb 2017

Book Review: Eating In The Side Room: Food, Archaeology, And African American Identity, By Mark S. Warner, Stéphane Noël

Northeast Historical Archaeology

Eating in the Side Room: Food, Archaeology, and African American Identity, by Mark S. Warner, 2015, University Press of Florida, Gainesville, 208 pages, black and white illustrations, references, index, $74.95 (cloth).


Book Review: Tobacco, Pipes, And Race In Colonial Virginia: Little Tubes Of Mighty Power, By Anna Agbe-Davies, Sara Rivers Cofield Feb 2017

Book Review: Tobacco, Pipes, And Race In Colonial Virginia: Little Tubes Of Mighty Power, By Anna Agbe-Davies, Sara Rivers Cofield

Northeast Historical Archaeology

Tobacco, Pipes, and Race in Colonial Virginia: Little Tubes of Mighty Power, by Anna Agbe-Davies, 2015, Left Coast Press, Walnut Creek, CA, 184 pages, $94.00 (cloth), $34.95 (paper and eBook).


Book Review: The Archaeology Of Race In The Northeast, Ed. By Christopher N. Matthews And Allison Manfra Mcgovern, Alexandra Chan Feb 2017

Book Review: The Archaeology Of Race In The Northeast, Ed. By Christopher N. Matthews And Allison Manfra Mcgovern, Alexandra Chan

Northeast Historical Archaeology

The Archaeology of Race in the Northeast, ed. by Christopher N. Matthews and Allison Manfra McGovern, 2015, University Press of Florida, Gainseville, 392 pages, $84.95 (cloth).


Book Review: Consumerism And The Emergence Of The Middle Class In Colonial America, By Christina J. Hodge, Stephen A. Brighton Feb 2017

Book Review: Consumerism And The Emergence Of The Middle Class In Colonial America, By Christina J. Hodge, Stephen A. Brighton

Northeast Historical Archaeology

Consumerism and the Emergence of the Middle Class in Colonial America, by Christina J. Hodge, 2014, Cambridge University Press, 247 pages, black and white figures, references, index, $95.00 (cloth), $88.00 (eBook).


Book Review: Everyday Religion: An Archaeology Of Protestant Belief And Practice In The Nineteenth Century, By Hadley Kruczek-Aaron, Christa M. Beranek Feb 2017

Book Review: Everyday Religion: An Archaeology Of Protestant Belief And Practice In The Nineteenth Century, By Hadley Kruczek-Aaron, Christa M. Beranek

Northeast Historical Archaeology

Everyday Religion: an Archaeology of Protestant Belief and Practice in the Nineteenth Century, by Hadley Kruczek-Aaron, 2015, University Press of Florida, Gainesville, 237 pages, black and white figures, references, index, $79.95 (cloth).


Book Review: The Archaeology Of American Cities, By Nan A. Rothschild And Diana Dizerega Wall, Joseph Bagley Feb 2017

Book Review: The Archaeology Of American Cities, By Nan A. Rothschild And Diana Dizerega Wall, Joseph Bagley

Northeast Historical Archaeology

The Archaeology of American Cities, by Nan A. Rothschild and Diana diZerega Wall, 2015, University Press of Florida, Gainesville, 250 pages, $69.95 (cloth), $21.95 (paper).


Archaeological Evidence For Trade In Harz Roller Canaries, Scott D. Stull Feb 2017

Archaeological Evidence For Trade In Harz Roller Canaries, Scott D. Stull

Northeast Historical Archaeology

A previously unidentified redware vessel has been determined to be a watering pot for a canary cage. This artifact represents an archaeologically recoverable element of the international trade in songbirds, with the birds shipped from Germany to the United States and elsewhere around the world.


Last Gap: The Construction, Operation, And Dissolution Of The Adirondack Iron And Steel Company’S “New Furnace”, David P. Staley Feb 2017

Last Gap: The Construction, Operation, And Dissolution Of The Adirondack Iron And Steel Company’S “New Furnace”, David P. Staley

Northeast Historical Archaeology

Isolation and historical circumstances have largely preserved the “New Furnace” at the Adirondack Iron & Steel Company’s Upper Works. An historical account suggested that the operational process at the facility would be clearly represented by an array of tools and debris. Daily activities at a blast furnace tend to obliterate much of the archaeologically observable behavioral evidence, and decades of visitors and vandalism have removed any tools abandoned after the last casting. Through the interpretation of sediments, stratigraphy, features, and under-utilized material culture, such as building materials, smelting raw materials, and slag, it is possible to reveal aspects of construction ...


Four Historical Landscapes Of The Merchant’S House Museum Backlot, Manhattan Island, New York, Identified Through Pollen Analysis, Gerald K. Kelso, Diana Dizerega Wall Feb 2017

Four Historical Landscapes Of The Merchant’S House Museum Backlot, Manhattan Island, New York, Identified Through Pollen Analysis, Gerald K. Kelso, Diana Dizerega Wall

Northeast Historical Archaeology

The Merchant’s House Museum is on Manhattan Island in New York City, at 29 East Fourth Street, between Lafayette Street and the Bowery. It is the sole, remaining, intact 19th-century family home in the city with original, period furnishings. An archaeological study of the Merchant’s House backyard was undertaken in 1991–1995 in conjunction with an historical-structure study of the house. This pollen analysis of a soil profile from a central parterre was part of the backlot study.


Sourcing A Stone Paver From The Colonial St. Inigoes Manor, Maryland, Marcus M. Key, Leslie P. Milliman, Michael A. Smolek, Silas D. Hurry Feb 2017

Sourcing A Stone Paver From The Colonial St. Inigoes Manor, Maryland, Marcus M. Key, Leslie P. Milliman, Michael A. Smolek, Silas D. Hurry

Northeast Historical Archaeology

The objective of this study is to determine the source of a limestone paver recovered from the colonial era Old Chapel Field archaeological site (18ST329-183) in St. Inigoes, Maryland. The site is in the Coastal Plain physiographic province, where there are no viable local sources of rock. As the site was a Jesuit manor, the primary hypothesis is that the stone came from England, the emigration origin point for the Maryland colonists. The secondary objective is to determine whether the stone paver was from the Jesuit Brick Chapel at St. Mary’s City (18ST1-103), reused after the chapel was torn ...


“The Science And Misteire Of Glazing”: Thoughts On The Use Of Marked Window Leads In Archaeological Analysis, Timothy B. Riordan Feb 2017

“The Science And Misteire Of Glazing”: Thoughts On The Use Of Marked Window Leads In Archaeological Analysis, Timothy B. Riordan

Northeast Historical Archaeology

Marked window leads have the potential to add significant insights to the understanding of archaeological sites. One of the few artifacts that commonly bears a date, window leads can provide a terminus post quem (TPQ) for the feature or level in which they are found. There have been attempts to go beyond their use as a TPQ, and, based on these artifacts, describe architectural sequences, structural changes, and do feature comparisons. While all of these have produced interesting results, their validity remains uncertain because of a lack of basic data on glaziers and vise makers. This study looks at the ...