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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Using Charms For Sympathy: The Verbal Powwow Tradition In The American South, Jack G. Montgomery Jr. May 2019

Using Charms For Sympathy: The Verbal Powwow Tradition In The American South, Jack G. Montgomery Jr.

Jack G. Montgomery Jr.

No abstract provided.


A Comparison Of Automated Object Extraction Methods For Mound And Shell-Ring Identification In Coastal South Carolina, Dylan S. Davis, Carl P. Lipo, Matthew Sanger Apr 2019

A Comparison Of Automated Object Extraction Methods For Mound And Shell-Ring Identification In Coastal South Carolina, Dylan S. Davis, Carl P. Lipo, Matthew Sanger

Carl Lipo

One persistent archaeological challenge is the generation of systematic documentation for the extant archaeological record at the scale of landscapes. Often our information for landscapes is the result of haphazard and patchy surveys that stem from opportunistic and historic efforts. Consequently, overall knowledge of some regions is the product of ad hocsurvey area delineation, degree of accessibility, effective ground visibility, and the fraction of areas that have survived destruction from development. These factors subsequently contribute unknown biases to our understanding of chronology, settlements patterns, interaction, and exchange. Aerial remote sensing offers one potential solution for improving our knowledge of ...


Review Of Mycenaeans Up To Date: The Archaeology Of The North-Eastern Peloponnese – Current Concepts And New Directions Dec 2018

Review Of Mycenaeans Up To Date: The Archaeology Of The North-Eastern Peloponnese – Current Concepts And New Directions

Lynne A. Kvapil

No abstract provided.


Playing With Knives: The Socialization Of Self-Initiated Learners, David F. Lancy Jun 2016

Playing With Knives: The Socialization Of Self-Initiated Learners, David F. Lancy

David Lancy


Since Margaret Mead’s field studies in the South Pacific a century ago, there has been the tacit understanding that as culture varies, so too must the socialization of children to become competent culture users and bearers. More recently, the work of anthropologists has been mined to find broader patterns that may be common to childhood across a range of societies.  One improbable commonality has been the tolerance, even encouragement, of toddler behavior that is patently risky, such as playing with or attempting to use a sharp-edged tool.  This laissez faire approach to socialization follows from a reliance on children ...


Ethnographic Perspectives On Culture Acquisition, David F. Lancy May 2016

Ethnographic Perspectives On Culture Acquisition, David F. Lancy

David Lancy

No abstract provided.


Teaching: Natural Or Cultural?, David F. Lancy Feb 2016

Teaching: Natural Or Cultural?, David F. Lancy

David Lancy

In this chapter I argue that teaching, as we now understand the term, is historically and cross-culturally very rare.  It appears to be unnecessary to transmit culture or to socialize children. Children are, on the other hand, primed by evolution to be avid observers, imitators, players and helpers—roles that reveal the profoundly autonomous and self-directed nature of culture acquisition (Lancy in press a). And yet, teaching is ubiquitous throughout the modern world—at least among the middle to upper class segment of the population. This ubiquity has led numerous scholars to argue for the universality and uniqueness of teaching ...


Movement Path Tortuosity In Free Ambulation: Relationships To Age And Brain Disease, William Kearns, James Fozard, Vilis Nams Jan 2016

Movement Path Tortuosity In Free Ambulation: Relationships To Age And Brain Disease, William Kearns, James Fozard, Vilis Nams

William D. Kearns, PhD

Ambulation is defined by duration, distance traversed, number and size of directional changes and the interval separating successive movement episodes; more complex measures of ambulation can be created by aggregating these features. This review article of published findings defines random changes in direction during movement as “movement path tortuosity”, and relates tortuosity to the understanding of cognitive impairments of persons of all ages. Path tortuosity is quantified by subjecting tracking data to fractal analysis, specifically Fractal Dimension (Fractal D), which ranges from a value of 1 when the movement path is perfectly straight to a value of 2 when the ...


Children As A Reserve Labor Force, David F. Lancy Aug 2015

Children As A Reserve Labor Force, David F. Lancy

David Lancy


Human life history is unique in the great length of the juvenile or immature period. The lengthened period is often attributed to the time required for youth to master the culture, particularly subsistence and survival skills. But an increasing number of studies show that children become skilled well before they gain complete independence and the status of adults. It seems, as they learn through play and participation in the domestic economy, children are acquiring a “reserve capacity” of skills and knowledge, which they may not fully employ for many years.  The theory offered here to resolve this paradox poses that ...


Cultural Views Of Life Phases, M. Annette Grove, David F. Lancy May 2015

Cultural Views Of Life Phases, M. Annette Grove, David F. Lancy

David Lancy


The knowledge base in the study of human development is built primarily from work with children from the modern, global, post-industrial population. This population is unrepresentative in many respects, not least in that childhood and adolescence is dominated by the experience of formal schooling—an experience missing from the lives of most of the world’s children until very recently. This entry will examine child development from the perspective of pre-modern societies as described in the ethnographic, archaeological and historic records. Specifically, we will review material indicative of cultural or indigenous models of development, phases and phase transitions, in particular.


Babies Aren't Persons: A Survey Of Delayed Personhood, David F. Lancy Mar 2014

Babies Aren't Persons: A Survey Of Delayed Personhood, David F. Lancy

David Lancy


To better understand attachment from a cross-cultural and historical perspective, I have amassed over 200 cases from the ethnographic and archaeological records that reveal cultural models (D'Andrade and Strauss 1992) of infancy. The 200 cases represent all areas of the world, historical epochs from the Mesolithic to the present and all types of subsistence patterns (Appendix 1). The approach is inductive where cases with similar models of infancy are clustered into archetypes. My principal finding from this analysis is that, in the broadest overview, infants are, effectively, placed on probation and not immediately integrated into the society. Attachment failure ...


Challenges To Land Restitution In Colombia: A Conversation With Winifred Tate, Winifred L. Tate, Adam Isacson Oct 2013

Challenges To Land Restitution In Colombia: A Conversation With Winifred Tate, Winifred L. Tate, Adam Isacson

Winifred L. Tate

(Audio Podcast) The Colombian government's peace and land restitution efforts are meeting stiff resistance from elites in much of the country. Adam Isacson, Senior Associate for Regional Security Policy at WOLA (Washington Office on Latin America) talks to Winifred Tate, professor of anthropology at Colby College, about this dynamic.


Runx2 Tandem Repeats And The Evolution Of Facial Length In Placental Mammals, Marie Pointer, Jason Kamilar, Vera Warmuth, Stephen Chester, Frédéric Delsuc, Nicholas Mundy, Robert Asher, Brenda Bradley Dec 2011

Runx2 Tandem Repeats And The Evolution Of Facial Length In Placental Mammals, Marie Pointer, Jason Kamilar, Vera Warmuth, Stephen Chester, Frédéric Delsuc, Nicholas Mundy, Robert Asher, Brenda Bradley

Jason M. Kamilar

Background When simple sequence repeats are integrated into functional genes, they can potentially act as evolutionary ‘tuning knobs’, supplying abundant genetic variation with minimal risk of pleiotropic deleterious effects. The genetic basis of variation in facial shape and length represents a possible example of this phenomenon. Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), which is involved in osteoblast differentiation, contains a functionally-important tandem repeat of glutamine and alanine amino acids. The ratio of glutamines to alanines (the QA ratio) in this protein seemingly influences the regulation of bone development. Notably, in domestic breeds of dog, and in carnivorans in general, the ratio ...


Marbles-And-Machiavelli: The Role Of Game Play In Children’S Social Development, David F. Lancy, Annette Grove May 2011

Marbles-And-Machiavelli: The Role Of Game Play In Children’S Social Development, David F. Lancy, Annette Grove

David Lancy


The authors review several case studies of children engaged in rule-governed play and conclude that the process of learning rules—and of breaking them and making new ones—promotes what they call gamesmanship. They link the development of gamesmanship to the theory of Machiavellian intelligence, which considers social interaction primary in the evolution of human intelligence.  They also question the benefits of adult-managed child play and assess the impact it may have on the ability of children to develop gamesmanship. Key words:Machiavellian intelligence, evolution of human intelligence, free play, adult-managed child play, gamesmanship.