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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Traditional Mechanisms Of Conflict Resolution In Modern Africa: The Bodior Ritual And The Enduring Kroumen Versus Lobi-Dagara Conflict In Southern Côte D’Ivoire, Alfred Babo Mar 2019

Traditional Mechanisms Of Conflict Resolution In Modern Africa: The Bodior Ritual And The Enduring Kroumen Versus Lobi-Dagara Conflict In Southern Côte D’Ivoire, Alfred Babo

Alfred Babo

The article examines the unexplored challenging role of youth in the traditional approaches of conflict resolution in Africa. Using Côte d’Ivoire as a case study, this article explores the relationship between intergenerational roles and conflict resolution. Traditionalist anthropologists tend to found the strength of the customary mechanisms on the dexterity and knowledge of elders, but serious doubt remains about the effectiveness of this traditional practice. In Côte d’Ivoire, as young Kroumen challenge their own traditions of peacemaking, they hinder the efficiency of customary approaches to resolve the 1999 conflict between the Kroumen and the Lobi-Dagara. In 2006 the ...


Paranormal Activity In West Virginia, Marty Laubach Mar 2018

Paranormal Activity In West Virginia, Marty Laubach

Marty Laubach

Follow the Mountain State Spirit Seekers Society as they hunt ghosts at Moundsville State Prison; bigfoot hunters in Dolly Sods with Virginia Sasquatch Watch; and Point Pleasant's mysterious Mothman.


Ole Hendricks, The Fiddler Of Elbow Lake, Amy M. Shaw Apr 2016

Ole Hendricks, The Fiddler Of Elbow Lake, Amy M. Shaw

Amy M. Shaw

Ole Hendricks was a gifted Norwegian immigrant fiddler who settled in western Minnesota in 1890 and who left behind a 97-page musical manuscript full of traditional dance tunes. I am currently engaged in transcribing the tunes into digital form and researching this music and Ole's life story.   I shared the preliminary results of my study during this one-hour presentation to an audience of approximately 75 people.


“These Young Chaps Think They Are Just Men, Too”: Redistributing Masculinity In Kgatleng Bars, David Suggs Jan 2016

“These Young Chaps Think They Are Just Men, Too”: Redistributing Masculinity In Kgatleng Bars, David Suggs

David Suggs

In the 19th century the BaKgatla polity was a chiefdom with a redistributional economy based on mixed agriculture. Sorghum beer was symbolic not only of the patrilineal core of their descent system and of the ideologies of reciprocity and redistribution, but also of masculinity and patriarchal control. With the establishment of a market economy, an industrial brewery and individual access to income, both beer and the act of drinking have been symbolically reconstructed. The ideology of redistribution was well suited to the support of the BaKgatla gerontocracy via alcohol production and consumption. The limits on production and consumption of beer ...


Chicle: The Chewing Gum Of The Americas, From The Ancient Maya To William Wrigley, Jennifer Mathews, Gillian Schultz Nov 2015

Chicle: The Chewing Gum Of The Americas, From The Ancient Maya To William Wrigley, Jennifer Mathews, Gillian Schultz

Jennifer P Mathews

Although Juicy Fruit® gum was introduced to North Americans in 1893, Native Americans in Mesoamerica were chewing gum thousands of years earlier. And although in the last decade “biographies” have been devoted to salt, spices, chocolate, coffee, and other staples of modern life, until now there has never been a full history of chewing gum. Chicle is a history in four acts, all of them focused on the sticky white substance that seeps from the sapodilla tree when its bark is cut. First, Jennifer Mathews recounts the story of chicle and its earliest-known adherents, the Maya and Aztecs. Second, with ...


Jungle Rails: A Historic Narrow-Gauge Railway In Quintana Roo, Jennifer Mathews, Lilia Lizama-Rogers Nov 2015

Jungle Rails: A Historic Narrow-Gauge Railway In Quintana Roo, Jennifer Mathews, Lilia Lizama-Rogers

Jennifer P Mathews

Whereas much of this volume is focused on the ancient Maya, this chapter will highlight the historic chicle industry; the associated railway that traversed the northern corner of Quintana Roo, Mexico; and the recent documentation of the feature through archaeological fieldwork. We believe this to be an important slice of history in Quintana Roo because the lives of the modern Maya often lie in the shadow of their ancient ancestors. Since 1997, members of the Yalahau Regional Human Ecology Project have been studying the 40 km railway, which runs between the modern pueblos of Leona Vicario and Puerto Morelos (Mathews ...


Cosmopolitan Living? Examining The Sugar And Rum Industry Of The Costa Escondida, Quintana Roo Mexico, Jennifer Mathews, John Gust Nov 2015

Cosmopolitan Living? Examining The Sugar And Rum Industry Of The Costa Escondida, Quintana Roo Mexico, Jennifer Mathews, John Gust

Jennifer P Mathews

No abstract provided.


El Proyecto Regional De Ecología Humana Yalahau: Una Introducción A Las Investigaciones Y Los Resúmes De Estudios Llevados Acabo Desde 1993-2000, Scott Fedick, Jennifer Mathews, Bethany Morrison Nov 2015

El Proyecto Regional De Ecología Humana Yalahau: Una Introducción A Las Investigaciones Y Los Resúmes De Estudios Llevados Acabo Desde 1993-2000, Scott Fedick, Jennifer Mathews, Bethany Morrison

Jennifer P Mathews

No abstract provided.


The Value Of Things: Commodities In The Maya Region From Prehistoric To Contemporary, Jennifer Mathews, Thomas Guderjan Nov 2015

The Value Of Things: Commodities In The Maya Region From Prehistoric To Contemporary, Jennifer Mathews, Thomas Guderjan

Jennifer P Mathews

No abstract provided.


The Hidden World Of The Maritime Maya: Lost Landscapes Along The North Coast Of Quintana Roo, Mexico, Jeffrey Glover, Dominique Rissolo, Jennifer Mathews Nov 2015

The Hidden World Of The Maritime Maya: Lost Landscapes Along The North Coast Of Quintana Roo, Mexico, Jeffrey Glover, Dominique Rissolo, Jennifer Mathews

Jennifer P Mathews

At the northeast tip of the Yucatán Peninsula - where the Caribbean meets the Gulf of Mexico - lies a wild and largely unexplored coastline that bore witness to one of the greatest seafaring traditions of the ancient New World (Fig. 11.1). Maya traders once plied the waters of the Laguna Holbox in massive dugout canoes filled with goods from across Mesoamerica (Thompson 1949; Edwards 1973, p. 201; Romero 1991; Romero and Gurrola Briones 1991, 1995; Leshikar 1996). Each port was a link in a chain connecting people and ideas, and supporting the ambitions of city and state. Maritime trade and ...


Uaxactun, Jennifer Mathews Nov 2015

Uaxactun, Jennifer Mathews

Jennifer P Mathews

Sylvanus Morley of the Carnegie Institution of Washington discovered the ancient Maya site of Uaxactun (17.4° N, 89.6° W) in 1916 (see also Map 3). He soon encountered a stela (upright stone monument) with the Long Count date 8.14.10.13.15, April 11, AD 328 (see also Calendar). Since this was the first monument with a cycle 8 glyph ever found, he named the site "Uaxactun" from the Maya uaxac, meaning "eight," and tun, meaning "stone." In addition to Morley, a number of notable Carnegie Institution archaeologists worked at the site, including Frans Blom, Oliver Ricketson ...


Tenth To Thirteenth Centuries: Peak Of Post-Classical Maya Culture (Chichén Itzá), Jennifer Mathews Nov 2015

Tenth To Thirteenth Centuries: Peak Of Post-Classical Maya Culture (Chichén Itzá), Jennifer Mathews

Jennifer P Mathews

No abstract provided.


San Bartolo, Jennifer Mathews Nov 2015

San Bartolo, Jennifer Mathews

Jennifer P Mathews

The ancient Maya site of San Bartolo (17.5° N, 89.4° W) was a regional capital located approximately 30 km northeast of Uaxactun in the Department of the Petén, Guatemala (see also Map 3). It is located within the 430 km² San Bartolo-Xultun Territory, which is dominated by bajos (seasonally inundated swamps or wetlands), forming a natural boundary around the area. These bajos are filled with stunted vegetation, including the palo de tinte tree, which the Maya harvested and used as a natural dye. The territory also contains many aguadas (ponds that have been modified by humans) and chert ...


Privateering, Piracy And British Policy In Spanish America 1810-1830 [Review], Jennifer Mathews Nov 2015

Privateering, Piracy And British Policy In Spanish America 1810-1830 [Review], Jennifer Mathews

Jennifer P Mathews

No abstract provided.


Archaeologists Working With The Contemporary Yucatec Maya, Dominique Rissolo, Jennifer Mathews Nov 2015

Archaeologists Working With The Contemporary Yucatec Maya, Dominique Rissolo, Jennifer Mathews

Jennifer P Mathews

The nature of an archaeological project often requires that researchers establish a temporary residence in a local community. Concern for conditions that affect, and are affected by, their presence in this new place and space is often considered peripheral to the task of realizing research objectives. In fact, many archaeologists would admit to enjoying a certain sense of security in their perceived temporal, and therefore legitimized, dislocation from their object of study. In the most extreme cases, an archaeologist might resemble a geologist – extracting, observing, or examining symbolically inert physical material with little regard to contemporary cultural contexts.


Lifeways In The Northern Maya Lowlands: New Approaches To Archaeology In The Yucatán Peninsula, Jennifer Mathews, Bethany Morrison Nov 2015

Lifeways In The Northern Maya Lowlands: New Approaches To Archaeology In The Yucatán Peninsula, Jennifer Mathews, Bethany Morrison

Jennifer P Mathews

The flat, dry reaches of the northern Yucatan Peninsula have been largely ignored by archaeologists drawn to the more illustrious sites of the south. This book is the first volume to focus entirely on the northern Maya lowlands, presenting a broad cross-section of current research projects in the region by both established and up-and-coming scholars. To address the heretofore unrecognized importance of the northern lowlands in Maya prehistory, the contributors cover key topics relevant to Maya studies: the environmental and historical significance of the region, the archaeology of both large and small sites, the development of agriculture, resource management, ancient ...


The Yalahau Regional Human Ecology Project: An Introduction And Summary Of Recent Research, Scott Fedick, Jennifer Mathews Nov 2015

The Yalahau Regional Human Ecology Project: An Introduction And Summary Of Recent Research, Scott Fedick, Jennifer Mathews

Jennifer P Mathews

The Yalahau Regional Human Ecology Project was initiated in 1993 to investigate ancient Maya settlement patterns, land use, and political organization within a unique wetland-dominated environmental region of northern Quintana Roo, Mexico (see fig. 2.1). Although the Yucatán Peninsula has seen a great deal of archaeological research over the last several decades, the northeastern corner has been one of the least examined areas of the northern Maya lowlands. Prior to the initiation of the Yalahau project, little archaeological investigation had been conducted in the region beyond brief visits and preliminary investigations by Alberto Escalona Ramos in 1937 (1946), William ...


Artículos De Costa: Las Industrias Extractivas De Fines Del Siglo Xix Y Principios Del Siglo Xx En El Norte De Quintana Roo, México, Jennifer Mathews, Stephanie Croatt, John Gust Nov 2015

Artículos De Costa: Las Industrias Extractivas De Fines Del Siglo Xix Y Principios Del Siglo Xx En El Norte De Quintana Roo, México, Jennifer Mathews, Stephanie Croatt, John Gust

Jennifer P Mathews

No abstract provided.


Archaeology Meccas Of Tourism: Exploration, Protection, And Exploitation, Quetzil Castañeda, Jennifer Mathews Nov 2015

Archaeology Meccas Of Tourism: Exploration, Protection, And Exploitation, Quetzil Castañeda, Jennifer Mathews

Jennifer P Mathews

This chapter is divided into two distinct sections that are positioned in a point-counterpoint structure of dialogue. These two position statements invoke the etymological meanings of the word essay: to attempt, put to the test, trial, to act out, to explore, travel, or to travail. The first is an historical analysis written in the third person by an anthropologist whose expertise includes the ethnography of archaeology and the anthropology of tourism. The second is a counterpoint commentary written by an anthropologist whose specializations include Pre-Columbian and historical archaeology. Both of us have significant research experience in the same area of ...


Late Formative And Early Classic Interaction Spheres Reflected In The Megalithic Styles, Jennifer Mathews, Rubén Cárdenas Nov 2015

Late Formative And Early Classic Interaction Spheres Reflected In The Megalithic Styles, Jennifer Mathews, Rubén Cárdenas

Jennifer P Mathews

Interpreting the politics of the Late Formative and Early Classic periods has special challenges. This chapter examines the topic in the Yucatán Peninsula through the concept of the interaction sphere, as reflected in shared architectural styles.


Yalahau Region, Jennifer Mathews Nov 2015

Yalahau Region, Jennifer Mathews

Jennifer P Mathews

This 3,000-km² region is located in northern Quintana Roo, Mexico, in the northeastern corner of the Yucatan Peninsula. The boundary of this region runs from the north coast 75 km southward, is 40 km wide, and is defined primarily by its unique water resources. It is characterized by a karstic limestone platform that contains only a few small lakes and no surface rivers. Despite this, it has the most abundant water sources of the entire peninsula. First, it receives the greatest annual rainfall of the northern Maya lowlands (up to 2,000 mm), which recharges an underground aquifer and ...


A Tale Of Two Projects: Comparative Findings Of The Cras And Yalahau Projects, Jennifer Mathews Nov 2015

A Tale Of Two Projects: Comparative Findings Of The Cras And Yalahau Projects, Jennifer Mathews

Jennifer P Mathews

I have worked with Justine M. Shaw in the Yucatán peninsula for more than 20 years, and it is a real pleasure to see the summation of her project's work thus far in this edited volume. As codirector of the Yalahau Regional Human Ecology Project (with Scott Fedick), I have worked to the north of the CRAS project in the Yalahau region of Quintana Roo. The CRAS and Yalahau projects have shared a similar trajectory for many years. Although both projects have focused several seasons on individual sites (for example, El Naranjal, T'isil, Vista Alegre, and Xuxub in ...


Quintana Roo Archaeology, Justine Shaw, Jennifer Mathews Nov 2015

Quintana Roo Archaeology, Justine Shaw, Jennifer Mathews

Jennifer P Mathews

Mexico’s southern state of Quintana Roo is often perceived by archaeologists as a blank spot on the map of the Maya world, a region generally assumed to hold little of interest thanks to its relative isolation from the rest of Mexico. But salvage archaeology required by recent development along the “Maya Riviera,” along with a suite of other ongoing and recent research projects, have shown that the region was critical in connecting coastal and inland zones, and it is now viewed as an important area in its own right from Preclassic through post-contact times. The first volume devoted to ...


Chichén Itzá, Jennifer Mathews Nov 2015

Chichén Itzá, Jennifer Mathews

Jennifer P Mathews

No abstract provided.


Ways Of War In The Americas: Mayas And Aztecs (Ad 700-1500), Jennifer Mathews Nov 2015

Ways Of War In The Americas: Mayas And Aztecs (Ad 700-1500), Jennifer Mathews

Jennifer P Mathews

No abstract provided.


Chicle, Jennifer Mathews Nov 2015

Chicle, Jennifer Mathews

Jennifer P Mathews

No abstract provided.


Umaine's Incredible Cultural Legacy: Strategies And Models For Promoting Collections, Gretchen Faulker, Patricia Henner, Desiree Butterfield-Nagy, Katrina Winn Oct 2015

Umaine's Incredible Cultural Legacy: Strategies And Models For Promoting Collections, Gretchen Faulker, Patricia Henner, Desiree Butterfield-Nagy, Katrina Winn

Desiree Butterfield-Nagy

Four UMaine museums and archives discussed projects that serve as case studies for promoting collections and casemaking at other institutions. Topics included the Hudson Museum's loan of a Northwest Coast mask -- the one that inspired the Seahawks logo -- to the University of Washington; the campaign to save the campus barn which is now home to the Page Farm and Home Museum; the digitization of the holdings of the Maine Folklife Center for the Library of Congress; and the digitization of holdings in Special Collections celebrating UMaine's 150th.


How To Argue With A Computer: Hiv/Aids, Numbers, And The Form Of The Future In Contemporary Vietnam, Alfred Montoya Oct 2015

How To Argue With A Computer: Hiv/Aids, Numbers, And The Form Of The Future In Contemporary Vietnam, Alfred Montoya

Alfred Montoya

This article explores the collection, compilation and circulation of contested quantitative data within an emerging HIV/AIDS apparatus in Vietnam, a United States–led apparatus that prioritizes indicators of performance, fiscal efficiency, and quantitative measures of program effectiveness. In Vietnam, as in many places, biological and behavioral surveillance data are virtually always incomplete and contestable, even as such data has become an essential driver of funding and programming. Experts in Vietnam have developed tentative systems by which such data are “negotiated” into usable forms. Such data are then deployed in computer models to determine funding allocations and select target populations ...


From “The People” To “The Human”: Hiv/Aids, Neoliberalism, And The Economy Of Virtue In Contemporary Vietnam, Alfred Montoya Oct 2015

From “The People” To “The Human”: Hiv/Aids, Neoliberalism, And The Economy Of Virtue In Contemporary Vietnam, Alfred Montoya

Alfred Montoya

Drawing on archival research and fieldwork conducted in Ho Chi Minh City and its environs in 2007–2008, this article examines a shift from a moral-economic model of protection/patronage turning on the long-standing figure of “the People,” to a biopolitical mechanism of power deploying neoliberal practices and technologies centered on a new figure, here instantiated as “the Human.” In Vietnam in the early 2000s, an older social-evils-based HIV/AIDS apparatus was destabilized by new epidemiological conditions, a reproblematization of epidemic disease after SARS, and the arrival of PEPFAR. Building on literature concerning global humanitarian intervention, I argue that in ...


Sea Snake Harvest In The Gulf Of Thailand, Nguyen Cao, Nguyen Tao, Amelia Moore, Alfred Montoya, Arnie Rasmussen, Kenneth Broad, Harold Voris, Zoltan Takacs Oct 2015

Sea Snake Harvest In The Gulf Of Thailand, Nguyen Cao, Nguyen Tao, Amelia Moore, Alfred Montoya, Arnie Rasmussen, Kenneth Broad, Harold Voris, Zoltan Takacs

Alfred Montoya

Conservation of sea snakes is virtually nonexistent in Asia, and its role in human–snake interactions in terms of catch, trade, and snakebites as an occupational hazard is mostly unexplored. We collected data on sea snake landings from the Gulf of Thailand, a hotspot for sea snake harvest by squid fishers operating out of the ports of Song Doc and Khanh Hoi, Ca Mau Province, Vietnam. The data were collected during documentation of the steps of the trading process and through interviewers with participants in the trade. Squid vessels return to ports once per lunar synodic cycle and fishers sell ...